- Administration of the Privacy Act
- Organization and Mandate of Statistics Canada
- Delegation instrument
- Statistical report
- Implementation: Privacy
- Privacy requests
- Disposition of completed requests
- Completion time and extensions
- Exemptions invoked
- Training initiatives for privacy
- Policies, guidelines and procedures
- Complaints and investigations
- Privacy Impact Assessments
- Longitudinal Immigration Database
- Household Survey Frame Service
- Client Relationship Management System
- Record linkage
- Types of disclosure under Subsection 8(2) of the Privacy Act
- Appendix A: Delegation instrument
- Appendix B: Statistical report
- Appendix C: Record linkages
The Privacy Act gives Canadian citizens and people living in Canada the right to access their personal information being held by federal government institutions. The Act also protects against unauthorized disclosure of that personal information and it strictly controls how the government collects, uses, stores, discloses, and disposes of any personal information.
The Annual Report on the Administration of the Privacy Act is prepared and submitted, in accordance with Section 72 of the Act, and it covers the period from April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2013. The report is tabled in Parliament.
Administration of the Privacy Act
The Privacy Act, which concerns itself with personal information, stipulates that government institutions can collect personal information only if it relates to the operation of programs or activities of these institutions. In the case of Statistics Canada, the Statistics Act provides the authority to collect personal information for statistical purposes. The privacy legislation demands that those from whom information is collected be informed of the purpose of the collection, and protects collected information from disclosure.
The administration of the privacy legislation within Statistics Canada is the responsibility of the Office of the Chief Statistician Office of Canada. The Chief of Staff is the Access to Information and Privacy Coordinator for the Agency.
Organization and Mandate of Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada's mandate derives primarily from the Statistics Act. The Act requires that the Agency collect, compile, analyze and publish statistical information on the economic, social, and general conditions of the country and its citizens. The Act also requires that Statistics Canada coordinate the national statistical system, in particular, to avoid duplication in the information collected by government. To this end, the Chief Statistician may enter into joint data-collection or -sharing agreements with provincial and territorial statistical agencies, as well as with federal, provincial and territorial government departments, pursuant to provisions of the Act.
The Statistics Act specifically requires Statistics Canada to conduct a census of population and a census of agriculture every five years. The Act also gives the Agency substantial powers to request information for statistical purposes through surveys of Canadian businesses and households. By default, response to Statistics Canada's surveys is mandatory under the Act; refusal to participate is subject to legal penalties. The Act includes provisions to make participation in data collection voluntary: Statistics Canada has generally done so with household data collection other than the Census of Population and the Labour Force Survey; the latter produces key economic data. The Census of Agriculture and all key surveys of businesses are mandatory.
Statistics Canada can also, by law, access administrative records, including personal and business tax data, customs declarations, as well as birth and death records. Such records are critical sources of statistical information: they enable the Agency to reduce the reporting burden on businesses and individual respondents. Statistics Canada is considered a leader among the world's statistical agencies in reducing reporting burden by using administrative data.
These mechanisms for accessing information help Statistics Canada achieve its long-standing strategic outcome to ensure Canadians have access to objective, high-quality, non-partisan statistics, statistical products, services and analyses on Canada's economy and society that fulfill legal requirements, are relevant to policy formulation and decision makers, and are responsive to emerging issues.
The Delegation Instrument exercises the powers and functions of the Minister as the head of a government institution, pursuant to Section 72 of the Privacy Act. The current detailed list of authorities, under the Privacy Act, has been formally delegated by the Minister Responsible for Statistics Canada (Appendix A) as of June 2012, and provides full delegated authority to the Chief Statistician of Canada, Chief of Staff of the Office of the Chief Statistician of Canada, and the Director, Information Management Division.
The ATIP Office continues to operate within an allocation of 2.56 persons per year. The Assistant Director, Departmental Secretariat, along with the Director of Information Management Division, have been delegated most of the responsibilities of the Access to Information Act and the Privacy Act. Two employees work full-time in the division, a Senior Advisor (PM-05) and an Advisor (PM-04).
The statistical report provides aggregate data on the application of the Privacy Act. This information is made public annually in an Info Source Bulletin, which is included with the annual report. The following includes the statistical report on privacy for the current reporting period (Appendix B).
The Privacy Act has a substantial impact on the Agency, but the impact cannot be measured only by the number of requests processed. Although society seeks a broader range of detailed information, it also demands more accountability on the part of government about the collection of personal information and the purposes served by the information. The Agency has taken a number of initiatives to address the privacy challenges this dichotomy raises.
Statistics Canada has had, for several years, internal policies in place that reflect the basic principles found in the Privacy Act. The Agency's Policy on Informing Survey Respondents requires that all respondents be informed of the expected use of the statistics produced from the survey results, the authority under which the survey is taken, their obligation to respond, the confidentiality protection given to all information collected under the Statistics Act, and any data-sharing arrangements pursuant to provisions of the Statistics Act.
Statistics Canada also developed the Policy on Record Linkage to respond to concerns of both respondents and privacy advocates on the potential of computing technology to match an individual's information gathered from a variety of sources.
These two policies not only support compliance with the letter and the spirit of the Privacy Act, but also demonstrate the Agency's commitment to the protection and appropriate use of the personal information under its control, while still meeting its mandate.
In the current reporting period, the Agency received 47 requests; there were also seven requests outstanding from the previous reporting period, for a total of 54 requests. All requests were completed, which means that no requests were carried forward to the next reporting period.
|Disposition of requests completed||Total|
|Disclosed in part||14|
|Nothing disclosed (exempt)||1|
|Does not exist||14|
For 33 requests, information was completely disclosed or disclosed in part. Six requests were abandoned by the requestors, and 14 requests could not be processed because the requested information did not exist.
Besides requests from the general public, the Agency also receives requests from current and former federal public servants for information related to personal or staff relations issues. Statistics Canada also responds to a number of requests for personal information through its pension searches program. This program provides members of the public with information from their own census records, and from the 1940 National Registration records, to support their applications for pensions, citizenship, passports and other services when other administrative records—such as birth certificates—are required, but no longer exist or were never issued.
In responding to the privacy requests, 6,535 pages were reviewed with more than 3,739 pages released. Twelve requestors received information on paper; 21 on CD-ROM.
During this period, Statistics Canada responded to one Privacy Act consultation request from another department.
Disposition of completed requests
In 2012/2013, 54 requests were completed:
- 19 were all disclosed (35%)
- 14 were partly disclosed (26%)
- 1 was all exempted (1%)
- 14 no information existed (26%)
- 6 were abandoned by applicant (12%).
This was in line with the past three years where the average number of requests completed per year was 55 and the average percentage of requests disclosed fully or in part was 63% per year.
Completion time and extensions
The 54 requests completed in 2012/2013 were processed in the following time frames:
- 33 within 1 to 15 days (61%)
- 17 within 16 to 30 days (31%)
- 4 within 31 to 60 days (8%)
For 2012/2013, there were more requests completed within 30 days (92%) compared to the average percentage for the past three years (84%).
All 54 requests completed in 2012/2013 were processed as prescribed by the Act, and in due time. Several factors contributed to Statistics Canada's on-time response rate over the past year. These include information sessions with both officials and sector contacts.
The only exemption used was Section 26 of the Privacy Act, concerning personal information about individuals other than the requestor.
During 2012/2013, the ATIP Office incurred an estimated $207,989 in salary costs and $78 in costs to administer the Privacy Act.
Training initiatives for privacy
During 2012/2013, the ATIP Office provided formal instruction to agency staff on the Privacy Act. About 350 people attended 12 training sessions.
At the sessions, participants learned about the Act and gained a better understanding of their obligations. These sessions were given to divisional and management teams in Human Resources Infrastructure Division, Operations and Development Division, Census Program Division, and in various program areas.
Statistics Canada also requires employees to complete computer-based courses on confidentiality. A mandatory course for new employees provides them with a brief overview of confidentiality, and emphasizes its importance at Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada employees must also complete a second course, with similar content, to qualify for renewal of their identification card. For most employees, this occurs every three years. In the current reporting period, 1,293 employees completed these courses.
Policies, guidelines and procedures
During the reporting period, Statistics Canada developed and implemented the new Directive on Data Sharing under Sections 11 and 12, as well as the Information and Privacy Breach Protocol, which supplements the Treasury Board Guidelines for Privacy Breaches. The Agency also revised a number of directives (Directive on the Security of Sensitive Statistical Information, Directive on Obtaining Access to Records Maintained by Other Organizations, Directive on Discretionary Disclosure, and Directive on the Prescription for Data Collection). All documents were published on Statistics Canada's Internal Communications Network.
Complaints and investigations
Six complaints filed in prior years with the Privacy Commissioner of Canada were carried over from the previous fiscal year. Additionally, there were fifteen complaints lodged against Statistics Canada with the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada during the current reporting period. All complaints received in this current reporting period alleged that Statistics Canada had not provided all the information requested. These complaints are presently being processed.
As for the complaints from previous fiscal years, two complaints were about the delay in receiving information, and were processed in this current reporting period. The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada ruled that the complaints were not founded and, accordingly, no additional action was required.
Four complaints were about not providing all the information requested and, for one of them, the client also questioned the exemptions applied. The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada ruled that the complaints were well-founded. All the clients were given access to additional information and the complaints were considered resolved.
Privacy Impact Assessments
The Statistics Canada Directive on Conducting Privacy Impact Assessments (PIAs) specifies the roles and responsibilities of its senior managers and privacy specialists in Information Management Division with regard to the collection, use and dissemination of personal information. This directive applies to all statistical and non-statistical programs that involve the collection, use or dissemination of personal information.
In 2006, Statistics Canada developed the Generic Privacy Impact Assessment for Statistics Canada Surveys (updated in 2009), which covers the majority of the Agency's household and business surveys conducted under the authority of the Statistics Act. The generic PIA addresses the ten privacy principles, and includes a threat and risk assessment that focuses on the Agency's major data collection methodologies such as computer-assisted interviewing, self-enumeration, and electronic data reporting. This document is posted on the Statistics Canada website.
A specific privacy impact assessment is produced for all new and significantly redesigned collections, as well as uses or disclosures of personal information that raise unique or additional privacy, confidentiality or security risks.
In the current reporting period, such PIAs were approved for the Longitudinal Immigration Database and the Household Survey Frame Service. Copies of these PIAs were sent to the Office of the Privacy Commissioner and to Treasury Board Secretariat. They are described below.
Longitudinal Immigration Database
The Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB) traces the economic outcomes of immigrants to Canada. The IMDB combines landing information from Citizenship and Immigration Canada's administrative files with taxation records from Canada Revenue Agency. The target population consists of immigrants who have landed since 1980 and who are taxfilers. Since its first official data release in 1997, the IMDB has generated findings on the impact of selection criteria and other key policy levers on the economic outcomes of immigrants, their social integration, and their settlement patterns.
A PIA was initiated because of significant changes to the IMDB that were approved by Statistics Canada's Policy Committee. This assessment was conducted to determine if there were any privacy, confidentiality, and security issues associated with these changes and, if so, to make recommendations for their resolution or mitigation.
Household Survey Frame Service
Statistics Canada has used a variety of sources, such as address files and other databases, to create survey frames from which to draw a survey sample. To reduce costs and improve methodological efficiencies, Statistics Canada is expanding the scope of information available within its Household Survey Frame Service to facilitate the design, collection and processing of survey results of most of its household-based sample surveys.
A PIA for the expansion of Statistics Canada's Household Survey Frame Service was conducted to find any privacy, confidentiality or security issues associated with expanding the frame service, and to make recommendations to resolve or mitigate them.
Privacy impact assessments are also conducted for new or redesigned administrative programs and services that involve the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information. In 2012/2013, Statistics Canada completed a PIA for an update to the Client Relationship Management System.
Client Relationship Management System
The Client Relationship Management System (CRMS) is Statistics Canada's central repository of strategic business intelligence, and has enabled Statistics Canada to increase its level of service, standardize communication methods with clients and stakeholders across the Agency, and improve the level of protection for all client information. In 2011, two new modules were introduced to manage business survey respondent relations and information about outside researchers who are granted access to microdata in the Research Data Centres.
A PIA for the CRMS update was conducted to find any privacy, confidentiality, or security issues associated with the new modules, and if so, to make recommendations to resolve or mitigate them.
As outlined in Statistics Canada's Directive on Record Linkage, linkages of different records pertaining to the same individual are carried out for statistical purposes only, and only in cases where their influence on the public good is clearly evident, and outweighs the invasion of an individual's privacy. One of the primary objectives of these linkages is to produce statistical information that fosters understanding of Canadian society, the economy, and the environment.
All record linkage proposals must satisfy a prescribed review process, as outlined in the directive. In addition to demonstrating the public benefit, each submission must provide details of the output, frequency, and retention of files and identifiers. Any retention of personal identifiers requires that the file be registered with Treasury Board as a Personal Information Bank (PIB), and that a description be published in Info Source. The public dissemination of any information resulting from record linkages, like all other statistical information, is only at an aggregate level, which protects the confidentiality of the information of individuals.
In 2012/2013, there were 21 approved record linkages that involved personal information. A summary of these record linkages is attached (Appendix C).
Types of disclosure under Subsection 8(2) of the Privacy Act
Subsection 8(2) of the Act describes the circumstances under which personal information may be disclosed without the consent of the individual to whom the information pertains. Although this disclosure of personal information is discretionary, it is subject to any other Act of Parliament. In the case of Statistics Canada, the Statistics Act provides a statutory prohibition against disclosure of identifiable information, without the knowledge and consent of the individual concerned. Therefore, personal information collected under the Statistics Act cannot be disclosed pursuant to Subsection 8(2).
In the case of personal information, in records held by Statistics Canada, and subject only to the Privacy Act (i.e., those of employees and contractors), disclosures under Subsection 8(2) can occur in certain circumstances: for the purpose for which information is obtained or compiled by the institution, for a use consistent with the purpose described in personal information banks registered to Statistics Canada, or for the purpose of complying with subpoenas, warrants, court orders and rules of court.
Paragraph 8(2)(m) of the Act allows for disclosures of personal information in the public interest, and Paragraph 8(2)(e) allows for disclosures of personal information “to an investigative body…for the purpose of enforcing any law.” During the reporting period, Statistics Canada did not disclose any personal information under Subsections 8(2)(m) or/and 8(2)(e) of the Privacy Act.
Access to Information and Privacy Acts Delegation Order
The Minister Responsible for Statistics Canada, pursuant to section 73 of the Access to Information Act and the Privacy Act, hereby designates the persons holding the positions set out in the schedule hereto, or the persons occupying on an acting basis those positions, to exercise the powers and functions of the Minister as the head of a government institution, under the section of the Acts set out in the schedule opposite each position. This Designation Order supersedes all previous Designation Orders.
|Position||Access to Information Act and Regulations||Privacy Act and Regulations|
|Chief Statistician of Canada||Full authority||Full authority|
|Chief of Staff, Office of the Chief Statistician||Full authority||Full authority|
|Director, Information Management Division||Full authority||Full authority|
|Assistant Director, Departmental Secretariat||Sections: 7(a), 7(b), 8(1), 9, 11(2), 11(3), 11(4), 11(5), 11(6), 12(2)(b), 12(3)(b), 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 22.1, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27(1), 27(4), 28(1)(b), 28(2), 28(4), 33, 35(2)(b), 71(1)
Sections: 6(1), 7(2), 7(3), 8, 8.1
|Sections: 8(2)(j), 8(2)(m), 8(4), 8(5), 9(1), 9(4), 10, 14, 15, 17(2)(b), 17(3)(b),18(2), 19(1), 19(2), 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,25, 26, 27, 28
Sections: 9, 11(2), 11(4), 13(1), 14
|Senior Access to Information and Privacy Project Manager||Sections: 7(a), 8(1), 9, 11(2), 11(3), 11(4), 11(5), 11(6), 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27(1), 27(4), 28(1)(b), 28(2), 28(4), 71(1)
Sections: 6(1), 7(2), 7(3), 8, 8.1
|Sections: 8(2)(j), 8(2)(m), 10, 14, 15, 18(2), 19(1), 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28
Sections: 9, 11(2)
|Access to Information and Privacy Project Officer||Sections 8(1) and 9 for all records||Section 15 for all records|
Dated, at the City of Ottawa
this 15 day of 06, 2012
The Honourable Christian Paradis
Minister responsible for Statistics Canada
Statistical Report on the Privacy Act
Name of institution: Statistics Canada
Reporting period: 01/04/2012 to 31/03/2013
Part 1 - Requests under the Privacy Act
Requests under the Privacy Act
|Requests||Number of Requests|
|Received during reporting period||47|
|Outstanding from previous reporting period||7|
|Closed during reporting period||54|
|Carried over to next reporting period||0|
Part 2 - Requests closed during the reporting period
2.1 Disposition and completion time
|Disposition of requests||Completion Time|
|1 to 15
|16 to 30
|31 to 60
|61 to 120
|121 to 180
|181 to 365
|More than 365
|Disclosed in part||3||8||3||0||0||0||0||14|
|No records exist||13||1||0||0||0||0||0||14|
|Section||Number of requests|
|Section||Number of requests|
2.4 Format of information released
|Disclosed in part||8||6||0|
2.5.1 Relevant pages processed and disclosed
|Disposition of requests||Number of pages processed||Number of pages disclosed||Number of requests|
|Disclosed in part||6418||3623||14|
2.5.2 Relevant pages processed and disclosed by size of requests
|Disposition||Less than 100
|More than 5000
|Pages disclosed||Number of
|Pages disclosed||Number of
|Pages disclosed||Number of
|Pages disclosed||Number of
|Disclosed in part||9||221||3||445||1||726||1||2231||0||0|
2.5.3 Other complexities
|Disposition||Consultation required||Legal Advice Sought||Interwoven Information||Other||Total|
|Disclosed in part||0||0||0||0||0|
2.6 Deemed refusals
2.6.1 Reasons for not meeting statutory deadline
|Number of requests closed past the statutory deadline||Principal Reason|
|Workload||External consultation||Internal consultation||Other|
2.6.2 Number of days past deadline
|Number of days past deadline||Number of requests past deadline where no extension was taken||Number of requests past deadline where an extension was taken||Total|
|1 to 15 days||0||0||0|
|16 to 30 days||0||0||0|
|31 to 60 days||0||0||0|
|61 to 120 days||0||0||0|
|121 to 180 days||0||0||0|
|181 to 365 days||0||0||0|
|More than 365 days||0||0||0|
2.7 Requests for translation
|English to French||0||0||0|
|French to English||0||0||0|
Part 3 - Disclosures under subsection 8(2)
Disclosures under subsection 8(2)
|Paragraph 8(2)(e)||Paragraph 8(2)(m)||Total|
Part 4 - Requests for correction of personal information and notations
Requests for correction of personal information and notations
|Requests||Number of Requests|
|Requests for correction received||0|
|Requests for correction accepted||0|
|Requests for correction refused||0|
Part 5 - Extensions
5.1 Reasons for extensions and disposition of requests
|Disposition of requests where an extension was taken||15(a)(i)
|Disclosed in part||3||0||0||0|
|No records exist||0||0||0||0|
5.2 Length of extensions
|Length of extensions||15(a)(i)
|1 to 15 days||0||0||0||0|
|16 to 30 days||4||0||0||0|
Part 6 - Consultations received from other institutions and organizations
6.1 Consultations received from other government institutions and organizations
|Consultations||Other government institutions||Number of pages to review||Other organizations||Number of pages to review|
|Received during the reporting period||1||8||0||0|
|Outstanding from the previous reporting period||0||0||0||0|
|Closed during the reporting period||1||8||0||0|
|Pending at the end of the reporting period||0||0||0||0|
6.2 Recommendations and completion time for consultations received from other government institutions
|Recommendation||Number of days required to complete consultation requests|
|1 to 15
|16 to 30
|31 to 60
|61 to 120
|121 to 180
|181 to 365
|More than 365
|Disclose in part||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Consult other institution||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
6.3 Recommendations and completion time for consultations received from other organizations
|Recommendation||Number of days required to complete consultation requests|
|1 to 15
|16 to 30
|31 to 60
|61 to 120
|121 to 180
|181 to 365
|More than 365
|Disclose in part||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Consult other institution||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
Part 7 – Completion time of consultations on Cabinet confidences
Completion time of consultations on Cabinet confidences
|Number of days||Number of responses received||Number of responses received past deadline|
|1 to 15 days||0||0|
|16 to 30 days||0||0|
|31 to 60 days||0||0|
|61 to 120 days||0||0|
|121 to 180 days||0||0|
|181 to 365 days||0||0|
|More than 365 days||0||0|
Part 8 – Resources related to the Privacy Act
|Goods and Services||Contracts for privacy impact assessments||0|
|Professional services contracts||0|
8.2 Human Resources
|Resources||Dedicated full-time||Dedicated part-time||Total|
|Part-time and casual employees||0.00||0.00||0.00|
|Consultants and agency personnel||0.00||0.00||0.00|
Approved record linkages containing personal information
Inter-provincial Workers: Linkage of Administrative Data to Examine the Number and Characteristics of Individuals Who Reside in One Province But Work in Another
Purpose: Through the 2000s, high world oil prices and the expansion of Canada's resource sector have made certain regions—such as northern Alberta—an attractive destination for job seekers. For some, employment in Alberta is accompanied by a permanent move to the province (i.e., inter-provincial migration). For others, employment in Alberta is undertaken on an ongoing basis, while a permanent residence is maintained elsewhere in Canada. For the latter, their province of employment and province of residence are not one and the same.
In spite of much anecdotal evidence regarding "inter-provincial workforces," comprehensive and reliable information remains scarce. In part, this is because of the many challenges faced when trying to enumerate a mobile population that often resides in remote areas and in temporary accommodations.
The size and characteristics of the inter-provincial workforce have many implications for public programs and policies. For example, the in-flow of workers into a province such as Alberta has implications for demands placed on local infrastructure (e.g., roads, recreation, police and emergency services), for the demand and price of goods and services (e.g., housing), for the inter-provincial allocation of income taxes, and for federal equalization payments.
This linkage project combines information on individuals' province of employment, obtained from T4 Statements of Remuneration with information on individuals' province of residence obtained from T1 personal tax returns to identify "inter-provincial workers". Among the key policy questions that can be addressed with the linked database are: How large is the inter-provincial workforce in specific provinces? Are inter-provincial workers primarily young, non-married men, or do many have families in their province of residence? To what extent is inter-provincial employment ongoing over many consecutive years?
Description: The database for this analysis contains information from: the T4 Statement of Remuneration file, which contains information on the province of employment, on earnings received, and premiums/contributions paid; the Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program (LEAP), which contains firm-level information on industry and firm size of employment; the T1 Family File, which contain information on individual-level demographic and income characteristics (e.g., sex, age, total earnings, province of residence on December 31st) as well as family-level demographic and income characteristics (e.g., family size, number of co-resident children, total family earnings); and information from the T1 Historical file, which contains information from T1 personal tax returns, including individuals who filed their T1 return late. This allows estimates of inter-provincial employment to take into account the possibility that inter-provincial workers, given the mobile nature of their employment, may be more likely than the general population to file their tax returns late. The linkage will contain data for the 2003 to 2010 tax years.
Random study identification numbers will be attached to each record in the pension coverage analysis file to replace Social Insurance Numbers and Business Numbers. The algorithm for generating these identification numbers will be kept separately from the analysis file and kept confidential.
Output: The data file will be used to estimate the number of inter-provincial workers in Canada and to examine their socio-economic characteristics. Only aggregate statistics and analysis conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. The linked file and linking key file will be retained by Statistics Canada until March 31, 2015, at which time they will be destroyed. Access to these files will be restricted to Statistics Canada employees whose assigned work activities require access.
Evaluation of Blood Transfusion on Mortality Outcomes of Cardiovascular Patients Following Hip Fracture Repair: Linkage to Canadian Mortality Database, 2004 to 2009
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of different red blood cell transfusion strategies on long-term mortality. It will show whether a liberal transfusion strategy is associated with a decreased rate of long-term mortality compared to a restrictive transfusion strategy, and will provide much needed clinical trial evidence to help guide transfusion practice.
Description: The study is a multi-site randomized clinical trial which enrolled anaemic patients following surgical repair of a fractured hip from 2004 through 2009. Patients with cardiovascular disease, or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, were randomized to receive either a liberal (100 g/L) or a restrictive (symptoms of anaemia or at physician discretion if the haemoglobin level was less than 80 g/L) transfusion strategy. The complete cohort consists of 2,016 patients who underwent surgery in either the United States or Canada. The Canadian component of the cohort consists of 794 patients who underwent surgery in one of twelve participating hospitals in Canada.
A file consisting of records of those patients who underwent surgery in Canada will be linked by Statistics Canada to the 2004 to 2009 Canadian Mortality Database. The principal investigator received consent for linkage of patient records to mortality information for those enrolled in the study.
Output: No analysis or publication of the results of this linkage will be conducted by Statistics Canada. A mortality output file will be produced, containing the clinical trial study number, complete date of death (month, day and year), province/territory of death, and cause(s) of death.
The mortality output file will be split by province or territory of death, and the records will be sent to the appropriate vital statistics registrars who, at their discretion, will release the information to the principal investigator at the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Jersey, United States.
The principal investigator has undertaken to publish the study findings in the form of aggregate statistical outputs that will not result in the identification of individual patients. Results of the analysis of the data will be presented at medical meetings and papers will be submitted to peer-reviewed medical journals for publication.
Access at Statistics Canada to the identifiers, linking keys and mortality output files will be restricted to employees whose assigned work requires such access. The linkage key file and mortality output file will be retained until December 31, 2018, or until no longer required, at which time these files will be destroyed.
Linkage of the Census of Population 2006 to the Discharge Abstract Database and the Canadian Mortality Database for Purposes of the Longitudinal Health and Administrative Data Initiative
Purpose: To meet the requirements of the Longitudinal Health and Administrative Data Initiative Research Agenda, the sample portion (2B) of the Census of Population 2006 will be linked to the Discharge Abstract Database and to the Canadian Mortality Database to investigate the hospitalization patterns among: 1) Aboriginal groups; 2) immigrant groups; and 3) older adults. As well, there will be an assessment of the validity of the linked file for use in health services research.
As hospitals comprise the single largest share of all health care expenditures and costs continue to rise, understanding their patterns of use is critical. In particular, better understanding of the patterns of use among key sub-groups such as Aboriginal peoples and immigrants, who otherwise cannot be identified in administrative data, could assist policy makers in identifying groups at high risk for hospitalizations including those risks that are potentially modifiable via adaptive health services, public promotion, and prevention strategies.
Furthermore, given the richness of the Census data, the data will provide a first ever look at the potential differences in use among Aboriginal groups living on and not on reserve. This is critical information for health care planners, including those at the federal level, responsible for the delivery of services to these communities.
Similarly, the linked data will provide a unique opportunity to investigate the critical differences of health services use patterns by country and region of birth, time since immigration as well as generational status. Policy makers require information on the utilization patterns of immigrants by all dimensions to inform their decision making.
Finally, better understanding the socio-demographic characteristics of older adults being hospitalized in acute care facilities, over and above the clinical factors related to their hospitalization, could inform policy makers on the need for more adaptive services outside of hospitals and inform healthcare planners on the potential resource load based on the demographic characteristics of the population they serve.
Description: The sample portion (2B) of the Census of Population 2006 will be linked to the Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), 2004-2005 to 2009-2010 and to the Canadian Mortality Database (CMDB), 2006 to 2010.
The linked Census/DAD/CMDB file will contain only those data items required to conduct the studies. All direct personal identifiers and addresses are removed from the analysis file. Personal identifiers used for linkage purposes, such as name, death registration number and health insurance number, are stored in separate files.
Output: The linked Census/DAD/CMDB file will remain within Statistics Canada. All access to the linked microdata file will be restricted to Statistics Canada staff whose work activities require access. Only aggregate data that conform to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Research papers based on analyses of the linked data will be submitted for publication in the Statistics Canada peer-reviewed quarterly, Health Reports, as well as in medical or epidemiological journals or released as a working paper in the Health Research Working Paper Series.
The linked analysis file will be retained until December 31, 2018, or until no longer required by Statistics Canada, at which point the continued retention of the file will be reviewed.
Linkage of the Canadian Cancer Registry to the Discharge Abstract Database and the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System for Purposes of the Longitudinal Health and Administrative Data Initiative
Purpose: The Longitudinal Health and Administrative Data Initiative (LHAD) Steering Committee, comprised of representatives of provincial/territorial ministries of health, Statistics Canada, the Canadian Institute for Health Information, the Canadian Council of Cancer Registries and the Vital Statistics Council for Canada, is interested in looking at improving the capacity to analyse surgical practice patterns for cancer patients. Such analyses would add to the evidence required to develop ever more effective strategies for the management and treatment of cancer.
Description: The Canadian Cancer Registry (CCR) will be linked to the Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) and the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) within the Longitudinal Health and Administrative Data environment at Statistics Canada. The CCR contains cancer diagnosis, mortality and cancer staging information but does not contain information on treatment. The DAD contains information on procedures performed in hospitals but does not contain tumour information. NACRS contains information on procedures performed in the Emergency Department and outpatient procedures. The linked file would allow analysis of cancer treatment procedures in hospitals while controlling for certain characteristics of the cancer such as multiple primary tumours, tumour size, metastases or nodal involvement.
Output: The linked CCR/DAD/NACRS file will remain within Statistics Canada. All access to the linked microdata file will be restricted to Statistics Canada staff whose work activities require access. Only aggregate statistics and analytical output conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Research papers based on analyses of the linked data will be submitted for publication in the Statistics Canada peer-reviewed quarterly, Health Reports, as well as in medical or epidemiological journals or released as a working paper in the Health Research Working Paper Series.
The linked analysis file will be retained until December 2018, or until it is no longer required, at which point the continued retention of the file will be reviewed.
Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System: Linkage of Birth and Death Records for Infant Mortality Surveillance, Births 2006 to 2010
Purpose: The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System (CPSS) is an ongoing surveillance program. Its mandate is to contribute to improved health for pregnant women, mothers and infants in Canada through ongoing monitoring and reporting on perinatal health determinants and outcomes. The birth-death linked file is a core file for the CPSS. It is used for ongoing reporting on some key perinatal health indicators such as gestational age, birth weight and maternal age specific mortality rates.
The purpose of the linkage is to associate mortality information for infants less than one year of age, such as age at death and cause, with single and multiple birth information such as birth weight and gestational age. This linkage is an update to earlier linkages. It will enable epidemiologists, public health specialists, scientists and researchers to identify trends or changes over time.
Description: Five annual linkages are included in this application, commencing with linkage of the 2006 Canadian Birth Database (CBDB) with the 2006-2007 Canadian Mortality Database (CMDB), and continuing for each consecutive year up to linkage of the 2010 CBDB with the 2010-2011 CMDB. The linked birth-death file will contain composite birth/death records, stillbirth records, and birth records which did not link to a death. Each record will be assigned a random Statistics Canada number.
Output: Birth-death linked analysis files without names or personal identifiers will be disclosed to the CPSS at the Public Health Agency of Canada with the consent of the provincial and territorial Vital Statistics Registrars and at the discretion of the Chief Statistician.
Results of the surveillance analysis will be communicated for action through the Canadian Perinatal Health Reports, fact sheets, web site, public health practice guidelines and published in peer-reviewed journals. Results may also be disseminated in Statistics Canada Health Reports.
Statistics Canada will retain the data produced during these linkages until at least 31 December 2020, prior to which a decision will be made about their continued retention, based on the program requirements of Statistics Canada and the CPSS at that time.
Longitudinal Perspectives on Employment, Income and Health: Linkage of the Longitudinal Worker File, 1991 Census, Canadian Mortality Database and Canadian Cancer Database
Purpose: The objective of this project is to create a new database that will support longitudinal analysis and outcome measures pertaining to employment, income and health. The database will be used to examine various issues pertaining to returns to education and training, the labour market outcomes of immigrants, retirement transitions, and changes in individual- and family-level earnings in the wake of layoffs or a cancer diagnosis. In addition, the file will be used to strengthen inputs into Statistics Canada's Population Health Model cancer modules and the Lifepaths micro-simulation model.
Description: This project builds on previous initiatives undertaken by Statistics Canada. First, in 2003, Statistics Canada's Policy Committee approved an initiative that drew a 15% sample of Canadians aged 25 or older from the 1991 Census 2B and 2D long forms and linked them to their 1991 and/or 1992 T1 tax returns, and subsequently to the Canadian Mortality Database. In 2009, this database was extended to cover a longer reference period and expanded to include information from the Canadian Cancer Database as well as postal code information on an annual basis.
Second, in 1999, Statistics Canada's Policy Committee approved the creation and annual update of the Longitudinal Worker File for 1983 onwards. An amendment was approved in 2007 to add additional variables from the T1 personal tax file. The Longitudinal Worker File (LWF) is comprised of a 10% sample of employed Canadians, and contains information drawn from the T1 Personal Tax file, T4 Statement of Remuneration, the Record of Employment, and the Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program. The LWF provide longitudinal information on employment and earning outcomes from 1983 to 2010.
These two initiatives have yielded large and complementary data bases – the first containing rich socio-demographic information (but little information on economic outcomes) and the second containing rich information on economic outcomes (but little socio-demographic information). Because of the large size of both data bases, the overlap between them yields a subsample comprised of 1.5% of Canadians who were aged 25 or older in 1991.
Four separate analytical files will be created and linkable with a randomly-generated Statistics Canada respondent number.
Longitudinal Worker File output file: This file contains the demographic and economic variables from the 1983-2010 LWF, individual-and family-level variables appended from the T1 Family File, and a randomly-generated Statistics Canada respondent number.
Census of Population output file: This file contains the socio-demographic variables from the 1991 Census of Population 2B and 2D (long forms) available in the original 1991 Census mortality cohort, as well as a randomly-generated Statistics Canada respondent number.
Mortality Output file: This file will contain the randomly-generated Statistics Canada number for each individual in the cohort, and the following mortality information: age, province/country of birth, underlying cause of death, nature of injury, province/ country of death, sex, postal code and standard geographic codes of residence (e.g., census subdivision), year, month, and day of death, derived person-years at risk, and mortality linkage weight.
Cancer Output file: This file will contain the randomly-assigned Statistics Canada number for each individual in the cohort, and the following information from the cancer database: sex, province and year, month and day of diagnosis, year of birth, age, province or country of birth, diagnostic information (diagnostic codes, morphology and topography, morphology code indicator, source of registration, method of diagnosis, laterality, primary site number), patient vital status, province of residence, postal code of residence at diagnosis, year and province of death (if applicable), postal code of death (if applicable), cause of death (if applicable), and the cancer incidence linkage weight.
Output: Only aggregate statistics and analysis conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Methodological and analytical findings resulting from these linked data will be used to prepare research papers for publication in analytical reports, peer-reviewed scientific journals (including Statistics Canada's Health Reports), CANSIM, for presentation at conferences, workshops and meetings.
The output files will be retained by Statistics Canada until December 31, 2022, at which time the continued retention of the file will be reviewed. All linkage keys and identifiers will be removed from the output files are retained separately, with access limited to Statistics Canada employees whose assigned work requires access to the file.
Estimating Distributions that Characterize the Natural History of Influenza Infections
Purpose: This project will estimate statistical distributions that are critical for development of infectious disease models, and which have never been estimated reliably. More specifically, the research will:
- Use the hospital inpatient records in the DAD database to estimate the distribution of time intervals from hospital admission to influenza-related death in hospital.
- Use the OHIP fee-for-service database linked to the DAD database to estimate the distribution of time intervals from diagnosis to hospital admission, and to hospital discharge or death.
Mathematical and statistical models are used to project the future time course of infectious disease epidemics and the expected future burden on the health care system and the economy. More accurate parameterization of these models will lead to better forecasting, which will be of direct benefit to health and economic planners and indirect benefit to the public since resources will be better managed. For example, we will be in a much better position to predict hospital bed demands in the face of an influenza pandemic.
Description: Several administrative databases will be used in this study:
- Medical Service Files based on Ontario Health Insurance Program (OHIP) claims; data years: 1994/1995, 1995/1996, 1996/1997, 1997/1998, 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004, 2004/2005, 2005/2006, 2006/2007, 2007/2008, 2008/2009, 2009/2010
- Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) In-patient Files; data years: 1994/1995, 1995/1996, 1996/1997, 1997/1998, 1998/1999,1999/2000, 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004, 2004/2005, 2005/2006, 2006/2007, 2007/2008, 2008/2009, 2009/2010
- Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) Day Procedures files; data years: 1994/1995,1995/1996, 1996/1997, 1997/1998, 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003
- National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) Day Procedures files; data years: 2003/2004, 2004/2005, 2005/2006, 2006/2007, 2007/2008, 2008/2009, 2009/2010.
- The data will be linked using deterministic matching on an encrypted health number that has been generated by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) on all the files.
- The study is part of a pilot project between Statistics Canada, the MOHLTC and McMaster University, aimed at enhancing access to Ontario health information by the research community. The creation of analytical files, as well as aggregation and analysis of the data, will be carried out in the Statistics Canada Research Data Centre (RDC) at McMaster University. The researchers accessing the data in the RDC will do so as deemed employees of Statistics Canada.
Output: Only aggregate statistical outputs conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Research findings will be disseminated through research papers, peer-reviewed journal articles or through presentations at national or international conferences.
Statistics Canada will retain the linked files for a period of five years, that is, until December 31, 2017, at which time they will be destroyed.
Study of the incomes of the affluent: The role of private corporations
Purpose: The proposed research will provide significantly improved estimates of the trends and patterns of income inequality in Canada, most notably at the top of the income distribution. The key improvement is taking explicit account of private corporation income. In Canada, tax planning incentives are such that owners of small businesses and other private corporations are more likely to retain earnings within their corporations. As a result, levels of income inequality as measured using personal income tax returns alone could well be understated, though it is not clear in which direction trends in measured income inequality will be affected.
Description: The project involves matching selected corporate income tax return (T2) data (only for Canadian Controlled Private Corporations or CCPCs), T5 tax forms (for Investment Income) and T4 (employment income) for the years 2000 to 2011 to Statistics Canada Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD). The LAD, T2, T5 and T4 datasets will be linked deterministically using the Social Insurance Number (SIN) and corporation business number of individuals who have submitted a tax return. Following completion of the linkage, the SIN and business number identifiers will then be removed from the linked file. No names or addresses will be on the final linked analysis data file. The linkage will be performed by Statistics Canada personnel.
Output: Only aggregate data and analysis conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Findings will be disseminated in academic research papers as well as presented to Canadian academic conferences, such as the Canadian Economics Association. Depending on requests, there may be wider dissemination of the research results. The linked file will be retained at Statistics Canada until 30 June, 2018 when the research project is scheduled to be completed and the information will no longer be needed, after which time it will be destroyed.
Re-contact with the Justice system
Purpose: To determine the types of unique information required to create and support high quality indicators of re-contact within three criminal justice sectors. Whereas contact is defined as a documented official intervention (e.g. charge) against a person by a criminal justice agency/organization, a re-contact is defined as a subsequent contact signifying a new, official intervention by the agency/organization during a specified follow-up period.
The project will attempt to establish baseline metrics on re-contact with the justice system which can serve as a comparison group for assessing the impact of policies and programs which may be implemented in a particular jurisdiction. It will also provide the potential to be able to track emerging patterns of re-contact which may appear to be unique within a jurisdiction at a local level yet are more systematic in nature when evaluated at a higher level (e.g. national) of analysis.
Description: The proposed project consists of three separate record linkage activities which will be used to support the development of re-contact indicators within the policing, courts and corrections sectors of justice.
The first linkage will use records collected under the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2), in addition to supplemental personal identifiers provided by the Toronto Police Service for the years January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010.
The second will link records collected from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey (ICCS) and additional personal identifiers provided by the Nova Scotia Department of Justice Policy, Planning and Research for the for the fiscal years 2006/2007 to 2010/2011.
The third will link records collected by the Integrated Correctional Services Survey (ICSS) in addition to other personal identifiers provided by the Saskatchewan Ministry of Corrections 1999/2000 to 2010/2011 and the Correctional Service of Canada for the years 2001/2002 to 2010/2011.
Output: Only aggregate statistics and analyses conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Access to linking keys and linked analysis file will be restricted to Statistics Canada employees whose assigned work activities require such access.
High-level findings may be reported in the form of presentations to various National Justice Statistics Initiative partners.
Statistics Canada will retain the linked analysis files until March 31, 2017 or sooner if no longer required, at which time the linked analysis files will be destroyed.
Expansion of Household Survey Frame Service
Purpose: Statistics Canada has periodically expanded its Household Survey Frame Service to accommodate the needs of internal survey design and data collection since 1989. The Frame first developed as a list of likely valid dwellings in larger urban centers, but has been progressively expanded to a national register of dwellings, with contact information when possible. The expansion of Statistics Canada's Dwelling Frame Service will enable all of the Agency's household surveys and the Census to be supported.
Description: The expansion of the Household Survey Frame Service will further improve the cost-effectiveness of Statistics Canada's survey design and collection processes. Specifically:
- Increased ability to do telephone contact for sampled dwellings will reduce collection costs;
- The inclusion of more current indicators of socio-economic status at the dwelling level will be used to improve sample selection, weighting, and bias adjustment;
- Consolidating the management of key administrative files used as input to the Service into one functional area will reduce costs, facilitate access and improve compliance to information management directives;
- Finally, the expansion sets the stage for future improvement in the capacity to limit overlap between surveys and to build more comprehensive data-sets for analysis drawing on samples selected across several surveys and time periods.
Output: The Household Survey Frame Service is comprised of three components:
- A national list of likely valid dwellings and their descriptors;
- Contact information (currently telephone numbers) for dwellings where these can be found on publically accessible administrative files and internal Statistics Canada data;
- A range of socio-economic indicators at the person, household, and small-area geography levels facilitating survey design, sampling, and bias control. The indicators are derived from internal Statistics Canada data and Canada Revenue Agency data obtained under standing Agreements.
Each component of the Frame is produced quarterly, but may contain up-dated information ranging from quarterly to annually depending on type.
The output components are only available for internal Statistics Canada use in survey design, sample selection, and data collection. The data are stored and maintained in compliance with all federal security and data management policies.
Benefits adequacy and labour-market earnings of workers' compensation claimants in Ontario and British Columbia
Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate the adequacy of workers' compensation benefits and the economic consequences of work injuries and illness. The project has two components. Part 1 will focus on individuals sustaining permanent impairments arising from work accidents and receiving benefits from different workers' compensation programs. Part 2 will focus on individuals experiencing a temporary work disability arising from a work accident and will investigate the long-term labour-market earnings of these individuals. Because workers' compensation programs for injured workers share similarities across provinces, the results of the study will be relevant nation-wide.
Description: Administrative data on short- and long-term disability claimants from the Ontario Workplace Safety & Insurance Board (WSIB) will be linked to Statistics Canada's 20% Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD). Specifically, Ontario data on claims from long-term beneficiaries who had a work accident between 1998 and 2006, and from short-term disability beneficiaries who had a work accident in 1998-2000 and 2004-2006, will be linked to the LAD from 1982 to 2011. These will be added to a previously approved linked data file (No. 016-06) consisting of LAD data (1982-2004) and administrative data on short and long-term disability beneficiaries from the Ontario Workplace Safety & Insurance Board and the British Columbia Workers' Compensation Board, for selected injury years between 1986 and 2002. Three additional variables on type of worker injury will also be added to the existing linked data file.
Output: Only aggregate data that conform to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. The availability of the analysis files will be announced in The Daily. Findings will be disseminated in Statistics Canada publications, to the Ontario, Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, and in peer-reviewed international scientific journals. The linked analysis file, stripped of identifiers, and the separate linking keys file, will be retained until May 2019, after which they will be destroyed.
Understanding Risk Factors Associated with Hospital Utilization and Mortality: Canadian Community Health Survey to Hospitalization and Mortality Data Linkage
Purpose: The purpose of this linkage project is to better understand and quantify the association between risk factors (behavioural, socio-economic, and environmental), hospital utilization, and health outcomes at the individual and population level. Behavioural risk factors such as smoking, stress and obesity and socioeconomic factors such as low income and education and long-term exposure to air pollution have been shown to be associated with poorer health outcomes. However, there is currently less information regarding the direct impact of these risk factors on the use of hospital services and related outcomes as well as associated costs.
Specifically, the linked data will be used to address the following research objectives: to understand the association between behavioural risk factors and the use of hospital services and related outcomes; to understand the interaction between socio-economic and behavioural risk factors and their effect on the use of hospital services and related outcomes; to understand the extent to which differences in the prevalence of risk factors in Canada explains the variation in the use of hospital services and to examine the interaction between risk factors, ambient air pollution exposures, mortality, and the use of hospital services.
Description: Our ability to understand these relationships is currently limited due to data gaps. Administrative health data provide comprehensive information regarding the use of hospital services but provide limited information on the characteristics of individual patients. Conversely, health survey data provide comprehensive risk factor information but contain limited information regarding the use of healthcare services and mortality outcomes. This data linkage project will bring together hospital administrative data, vital statistics, and health survey data to fill this data gap.
This project will link the records of respondents to four cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) (2000-2001 to 2011-2012) to the following databases: Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), 1996-1997 to 2015-2016; Canadian Mortality Database (CMDB), 2000 to 2015; and Historical Tax Summary File (HTSF), 1990 to 2015. Linkages would occur only for those CCHS respondents who have given consent to link information to their survey data. The CCHS provides comprehensive information regarding the behavioural risk (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and diet) and socio-economic status (e.g., income, education) of respondents. The DAD provides comprehensive information regarding the use hospital services including diagnosis, treatment, and use of resources which can be used to derive costs. The CMBD will provide information regarding mortality outcomes, primary cause of death, and allow calculation of loss to follow-up. The HTSF will be used to assist in record linkage and no tax data will be retained on the linked file. This study will also make use of the air pollution exposure data assembled for the previously-approved Air Pollution, Mortality and Cancer Study. The final analysis file will not contain direct personal identifiers such as names, health information numbers or death registration numbers or tax information.
Output: The linked files will at all times remain on Statistics Canada premises. Linked data files will be made available through the Research Data Centres (RDCs) as per the secondary use provision in the Directive on Record Linkage. Requests for access to the linked data will be conducted in accordance with established RDC application processes and guidelines. Only aggregate data that conform to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Existence of the linked file will be announced in Statistics Canada's The Daily. Major findings will be used to prepare research papers for publication in peer-reviewed journals (including Statistics Canada's Health Reports) and presentation at workshops and conferences.
The linked analysis files, stripped of direct personal identifiers, will be retained until December 31, 2020, or, at which time their continued retention will be reviewed. The corresponding linkage key files housed in the Statistics Canada Privacy Office will also be retained until December 31, 2020, at which time their continued retention will be reviewed.
Tax Free Savings Accounts at a Glance: Linkage of Tax Free Savings Accounts to Personal Income Tax Files
Purpose: With an aging population and recent developments in financial markets, the Canadian retirement income system continues to be under intense scrutiny. Pension coverage and contributions to RRSPs are indicators of Canadians preparedness for retirement. Only recently has the topic of Tax Free Savings Accounts (TFSA) entered the retirement picture. Are TFSAs being utilized and ultimately maximized by Canadians? The state of health of the Canadian retirement system has implications not only for the economic security of individuals and families as the population ages, but also for the overall stability of the Canadian financial system.
Statistics Canada has significant information on pensions and RRSP contributions; however, information on Tax Free Savings Accounts is more scarce. Information on TFSAs is a key component of the current retirement income system and data users and public policy analysts are requesting this information. Primary external users of retirement statistics include the federal and provincial pension supervisory authorities, federal government departments such as Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and Canada Revenue Agency, the Office of the Chief Actuary, the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Services as well as private consulting firms, insurance companies and the research community. Requests for statistics on this topic have increased across the board.
In order to fill the information gaps identified, information from the TFSA files will be linked to personal income tax dataT1 Family Files on an annual, ongoing basis.
In addition to addressing this and other key research questions, the linkage will improve the quality of the Canadian retirement income system and enhance coherence between data sources.
Description: The TFSA account files and the T1 Family File (T1FF) will be linked on an on-going annual basis (provided funding is available for future years), starting with the tax year 2009. The TFSA files contain information on the TFSA accounts, age of individual holder, contributions and withdrawals etc. while the T1FF contains characteristics (e.g., income, age, sex, etc.) of individual tax-filers and their families. Both files contain Social Insurance Numbers (SIN), which are essential to carry out the linkage.
Output: Only aggregate statistics and analysis conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. The linked TFSA analysis file and linking key file will be retained indefinitely by Statistics Canada, or until no longer required, at which time they will be destroyed. Access to these files will be restricted to Statistics Canada employees whose assigned work activities require access.
Health Outcomes of Adolescents and Young Adults in Relation to Childhood Exposures and Experiences
Purpose: The purpose of this linkage project is to examine whether common adversities in childhood are associated with adverse health outcomes later in life. The specific outcomes targeted by this project are among the leading causes of disease burden in Canada: depression, substance misuse and mental distress (including anxiety). These issues have a substantial impact on quality of life and functioning for a large proportion of the general public.
Description: There was an integrated sample of children who were part of Cycle 1 of both the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). However, the information collected by both surveys on the overlapping sample is stored in separate data files. Linking the two surveys (Cycle 1 of the NLSCY and cycles one to nine of the NPHS) will allow for content collected as part of the NLSCY to be used as predictive variables in models of health outcomes.
Output: The linked data file will be made available to the researchers at the Prairie Research Data Centre at the University of Calgary and the COOL Research Data Centre at the University of Ottawa/Carleton University. Only aggregate statistical outputs conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released. Research findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed academic publications. In addition, the findings will be disseminated to decision makers within government and to health professionals.
Air Pollution Study: Linkage of 1991 Census of Population, Canadian Mortality Database and Canadian Cancer Database Follow-Up Study
Purpose: To assess the impact of long-term exposure to air pollution on human health, with the objective to inform the development of Canada-wide standards for key criteria pollutants. Linkage of separate sources of information is an important way in which Statistics Canada can meet identified data gaps on environmental data related to human exposure to air pollution. For example, Canada-wide standards for annual averages of either fine particulate matter or ozone have not been developed, largely due to lack of evidence from the Canadian population and uncertainties about the applicability of risk estimates generated in other countries to Canada.
The specific objectives of this study are: to determine whether deaths from all causes, from ischaemic heart disease, from cardiopulmonary disease, from respiratory cancer, and from all cancers combined are associated with long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants; to determine the air pollution risks for cancer incidence and the risks for specific cancer types; and, to examine the relationship of cancer incidence and causes of death to socio-demographic and neighbourhood characteristics over a 22-year period.
Description: For a previous approved record linkage (reference number 012-2001), a sample of 2.7 million Canadians was selected from respondents to the 1991 Census of Population long-form questionnaires and their Census information was linked to the 1991 Health and Activity Limitations Survey, the 1990 and 1991 Tax Summary Files and the 1991 to 2001 Canadian Mortality Database, for the development of indicators on health.
The current project will extend and expand the linked information on this 1991 Census sample, as follows:
- linkage to an additional 27 years of the Tax Summary Files, that is, from 1984 to 2012;
- linkage to an additional 10 years of the Canadian Mortality Database, up to 2011; and
- a new linkage to the 1969 to 2011 Canadian Cancer Database, for the period 1969 to 2011.
The linked files will contain only those data items required to conduct the study. Personal identifiers, such as name and social insurance number, will be used only for linkage purposes, then removed from the linked microdata file. Only a sample of individuals who completed the 1991 Census of Population long-form questionnaires are included on the file.
Output: All access to the linked microdata file will be restricted to Statistics Canada staff whose work activities require access. Only aggregate data that conform to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Availability of the linked file will be announced in The Daily. Major findings will be used to create research papers for publication in peer-reviewed journals (including Statistics Canada's Health Reports) and presentation at workshops and conferences.
The linked file, stripped of personal identifiers, will be retained until no longer required, at which time the file will be destroyed.
Expanding the Longitudinal Administrative Databank to Include Tax Free Savings Account Information
Purpose: The debut of the Tax Free Savings Account (TFSA) in 2009 introduced a new program that is separate from, and is not captured by, the T1 tax file, upon which the Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD) is based. The TFSA program may have an effect on the measurement of income, particularly when focusing on the retired population, as well as more generally on the tax and transfer system. The proposed addition of TFSA information to the LAD will permit Statistics Canada to improve its data reporting on income, and thereby assist our clients with their research in this area.
Description: The project involves linking on a continuing basis Statistics Canada's LAD file to the TFSA file from the Canada Revenue Agency. The LAD and TFSA will be linked deterministically using the Social Insurance Number (SIN) of individuals. Following completion of the linkage, the SIN and other identifiers will then be removed and kept securely separate from the final linked file. No names or addresses will be used at any point in the linkage process or be on any of the files used. The linkage will be performed by Statistics Canada personnel.
Output: The output will be a linked database file combining LAD and TFSA information. Only aggregate data and analysis conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. The linked file will be retained at Statistics Canada.
Amendment to: Long-Term Income and Employment among Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Linkage of the British Columbia Cancer Registry and the T1 Family File.
Purpose: To assess the long-term income and employment experience of survivors of cancer diagnosed during childhood, adolescence or young adulthood. This information will be linked to the existing approved analysis file.
Description: This is a request from the British Columbia Cancer Agency for an amendment to an existing linkage agreement of the T1 Family File (T1FF) with a subset of the BC Cancer Registry. This amendment seeks first to update the number of years of T1FF data originally requested (1982 to 2007), so as to include more recent years of data, specifically the years 2008 to 2010. Secondly, this amendment requests permission to obtain the industrial sector where an individual worked – BusinessRootNumber and NAICS/SIC – for the period 1982 to 1997, by linking Business Register and T4 information to the T1FF.
Output: All access to the linked microdata file will be restricted to Statistics Canada staff whose work activities require access. Only aggregate data conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada will retain the linked file, stripped of identifiers, until it is determined that there is no further need for it.
Update: Gross Flows of Workers Into and Out of Industries in Newfoundland and Labrador, 2000 to 2010.
Purpose: To estimate the supply of workers in the Newfoundland and Labrador labour market, particularly the replacement demand, that is, the workers needed to replace those who are no longer employed in the province. The focus will be on three groups: stayers (workers employed in the same industry for one or more years), leavers (workers who leave the labour market or industry) and entrants (workers entering the labour market, including those returning to the workforce).
Description: The annual T1 Family File (T1FF) records of tax-filers who lived in Newfoundland and Labrador for at least one year from 2000 to 2010 will be selected for this research study. The T1FF records will be linked over this period using Social Insurance Numbers (SIN) to produce a longitudinal analysis file. All direct identifiers, including the SINs, will be removed from the analysis file following completion of the linkage.
The linkage and analysis will be conducted by Statistics Canada staff on the agency's premises.
Output: Only aggregate statistics and analysis conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Research findings will be used by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador to enhance their labour market policies. To support on-going analysis, the linked analysis file will be retained at Statistics Canada until April 30, 2015, or sooner if no longer required, at which time it will be destroyed. Access to the linked analysis file will be restricted to Statistics Canada employees whose assigned work activities require such access.
Long Term Income and Employment Among Breast Cancer Survivors: Linkage of British Columbia Breast Cancer Data and the Longitudinal Administrative Databank
Purpose: The goal of this study is to provide information on income and employment of breast cancer survivors that will inform the development of strategies and supports to facilitate return to work, reduce financial hardship, and improve the long-term financial circumstances of breast cancer survivors, from diagnosis to end of life.
Description: The client proposes to use a linked database consisting of cancer registry clinical databases from the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Database (LAD) 1982 to 2010, to directly measure long-term burden and change in income and employment, and determinants of income, employment, and change over time and stage in the cancer trajectory, among those with breast cancer in British Columbia. Only indeterminate authorized Statistics Canada personnel will perform the linkage. Following completion of the linkage, all personal identifiers will then be removed from the linked file. No names or addresses will be on the final linked analysis data file. Detailed data analysis of this final linked file will be undertaken by Statistics Canada personnel and/or deemed Statistics Canada employees under the strict provisions of the Statistics Act.
Output: Only aggregate data and analysis conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Findings will be disseminated in a variety of professional and academic venues including research papers as well as presentations to Canadian academic conferences. Depending on requests, there may be wider dissemination of the research results. The linked file and identifiers will be retained separately at Statistics Canada only until 31 March, 2018, or sooner, after which time they will be destroyed.
Canadian Employer-Employee Dynamics Database
Purpose: The activities and economic outcomes of workers are shaped in many ways by the firms or organizations in which they are employed, and conversely, worker characteristics have implications for firm performance. Together, individual-level and firm-level data that are integrated to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of labour market processes and economic outcomes than is possible using either type of data in isolation.
The CEEDD will be a multi-purpose file capable of supporting research on many issues. In addition, a number of priority projects are proposed for 2013-14 and 2014-2015. These include projects on business start-ups and job creation, with particular emphasis on the role of immigrant entrepreneurs; the distribution of immigrants across business enterprises and how this differs from the distribution of Canadian-born workers; how workforce aging is playing out within business enterprises, including its effect on labour productivity; local labour market information, including hiring rates, separation rates, layoff rates, and aggregate turnover rates within sub-provincial regions and the impacts of organizational changes, such as mergers and acquisitions, on individual-level outcomes.
Description: Information at the level of the business-enterprise will be drawn from the National Accounts Longitudinal Micro data File (NALMF) while individual- and job-level data will be drawn from T1 files, the T4 Statement of Remuneration Paid file, the Record of Employment (ROE) file, the Longitudinal Immigration Data Base (IMDB), and the Temporary Foreign Work file, for the years 1999 onward. All linkages will be done on a deterministic basis using Business Numbers (BNs) and/or Social Insurance Numbers (SINs).
Business Numbers and SINs will be transformed into unique personal identifiers that will remain on the business-level and individual-level files in a scrambled form. The use of scrambled identifiers will allow users to differentiate units in the cross-sectional data, and to follow them longitudinally over time. Postal code information will be used to create aggregated geography variables and then removed from the files.
All BNs, SINS and postal codes will be removed from the analytical files and stored in a separate location accessible only to indeterminate Statistics Canada employees who job duties require them to access this information.
Output: The outputs of the proposed database will include two components. One is labour market indicators (e.g. hiring, separations, job creation/destruction) at national, provincial and sub-provincial levels of geography. This information will conform to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act. The other is the longitudinal files that will serve the internal and external researchers. Only aggregate statistics and analysis conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. The linked file and linking key file will be retained by Statistics Canada until no longer required, up to, March 31, 2023, at which time they will be destroyed.
The linked files will be hosted by the Center of Data Development and Economic Research (CDER) of Economic Analysis Division. External researchers will be able to access the linked data on Statistics Canada premises, under the Policy on the Use of Deemed Employees and current MOUs with the CDER. Synthetic files will be created for external researchers for direct access, while the original files will only be accessed via batch mode with no viewing function. Research studies will be published in Statistics Canada's Research Paper Series as well as in academic journals. Research studies will also be presented at professional conferences.
Amendment to Canada Student Loans Program Linkage to the Longitudinal Administrative Database (CSLP-LAD)
Purpose: On August 1, 2000, a direct loan regime was adopted for Canada Student Loans in which the Government of Canada issues loans directly to students and receives the repayments of those loans. The purpose of the original linkage (011-05) was to assess the effectiveness of this new regime in reducing loan repayment difficulties. This request is for an extension to the date of retention of the linkage, between Canada Student Loan Program (CSLP) data and the Longitudinal Administrative Database (LAD), from February 2013 to March 31, 2016.
Description: LAD data files for the years 1985 to 2003 are linked to administrative records from the Canada Student Loan Program (CSLP) for the years 1991 to 2000. The LAD data prior to 1991 (the beginning of the CSLP data) are to be included because it provides information about the socio-economic and demographic situation of students prior to, and during their PSE years, through variables such as parental income, parental urban/rural residency, parental provincial residency and student's employment during PSE study. All direct identifiers, including the SINs, will be removed from the analysis file following completion of the linkage.
The linkage and specific data requirements will be produced by Statistics Canada staff on the agency's premises.
Output: Only aggregate statistics and analysis conforming to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act will be released outside of Statistics Canada. Research findings will be used by Student Loans Program, Human Resources and Skills Development to enhance student loan policies. To support on-going analysis, the linked analysis file will be retained at Statistics Canada until March 31, 2016, or sooner if no longer required, at which time it will be destroyed. Access to the linked analysis file will be restricted to Statistics Canada employees whose assigned work activities require such access.