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All (24) (24 of 24 results)

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022828
    Description:

    Men constitute a small minority of registered nurses (RNs) in Canada, but their numbers have risen sharply in the last decade. In 1995, almost 4% of RNs were men, up from just over 2% in 1985. The proportion of male nurses is particularly high in Quebec, where the 1995 figure was 8%. Some areas of nursing are more likely than others to employ male nurses: psychiatry, critical care, emergency care, and administration. By contrast, relatively few male RNs have jobs in maternal/newborn care, pediatrics, or community care. Rising male enrollement in college and university nursing programs suggests that men's representation in nursing will continue to rise. The older age profile of male nurses may indicate that some men are choosing nursing as a second career. As well, a shift in the age distribution of male nurses would seem to suggest that those who enter the profession tend to stay. This analysis of the demographic and employment characteristics of male nurses is based on information compiled annually in the Registered Nurses Database maintained by Statistics Canada. Figures on enrolment and graduation in nursing are collected by Statistics Canada as part of annual surveys.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022829
    Description:

    Breast cancer is the leading form of cancer diagnosed in Canadian women (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), accounting for about 30% of all new cases. After age 30, incidence rates begin to rise, and the highest rates are among women aged 60 and over. Canadian incidence rates have increased slowly and steadily since 1969, rising most rapidly among women aged 50 and over. Canada's rates are among the highest of any country in the world, ranking second only to those in the United States. After decades of little change, breast cancer mortality rates for all ages combined have declined slightly since 1990. While not dramatic, this decline is statistically significant and is consistent with similar decreases in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia. Breast cancer survival rates are relatively more favourable than those of other forms of cancer. Survival rates are better for younger women and for women whose cancer was detected at an early stage. This article presents breast cancer data from the Canadian Cancer Registry, the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System, and vital statistics mortality data, all of which are maintained by the Health Statistics Division of Statistics Canada. These data are provided to Statistics Canada by the provincial and territorial cancer and vital statistics registrars.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022826
    Description:

    The prevalence of dementia increases sharply in old age and is higher among women than men. Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of dementia, affects a greater proportion of women. On average, the number of years lived with dementia is longer for women, and women with dementia are more likely to be living in institutions than men with the condition. This article examines age-standardized rates of dementia among men and women aged 65 and over. The data are from the 1991 Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), a joint effort of the Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine at the University of Ottawa and the federal government's Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. Life expectancy estimates from Statistics Canada were combined with CSHA data to estimate the average proportions of life that are lived with and without dementia, in the community and in institutions.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022827
    Description:

    Between 1977 and 1994, smoking rates declined among men and women, but the decline was steeper for men. While smoking rates fell among people at all levels of education, the smallest drop was among those with high school graduation or less, particularly women. For those who had stopped smoking, health concerns had been the overriding factor. Smokers with lower education reported encountering fewer smoking restrictions in their daily activities than did those with higher education. All smokers cited the mass media as their major source of information about smoking, but those with lower education reported the mass media less often than did smokers with higher levels of attainment, and were less likely to obtain information from books, pamphlets or magazines. In addition, smaller percentages of smokers with lower education recalled printed warnings about heart disease on cigarette packages. Variations in the decline of smoking suggest that health promotion and smoking cessation programs should consider sex and educational differences when targeting the smoking population. Differences in rates of smoking among people aged 20 and over were examined by educational attainment using selected health surveys conducted between 1977 and 1994. A Health Canada-sponsored supplement to Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey was used for data on other aspects of smoking such as cutting back or attempting to quit, sources of health information, and awareness of smoking restrictions and cigarette package warnings.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022830
    Description:

    In 1994, a total of 159,959 marriages were performed in Canada, up only slightly from 159,316 the year before. This small increase had no effect on the crude marriage rate, which remained at 5.5 marriages per 1,000 population. Aside from a brief upturn in the late 1980s, Canada's marriage rate has fallen quite steadily since the early 1970s. The overall decline is also evident when rates are disaggregated by the prior marital status of the bride and groom (single, divorced or widowed). Since 1974, the average ages of brides and grooms have risen about five years to 30.1 and 32.6, respectively. Nonetheless, the peak ages for marriage are the twenties. In this age range, women's marriage rates exceed those of men, but at older ages, men's rates are higher. And at progressively older ages, a growing proportion of grooms have brides at least 10 years their junior. The marriage patterns of Quebec residents differ from those of other Canadians. Quebec residents are much more likely to remain single or live common-law, and if they do marry, they are slightly more likely to divorce. Once divorced or widowed, people in Quebec are less likely than those in the rest of Canada to remarry. This article is based on data compiled by Statistics Canada from marriage registration forms provided by the central Vital Statistics Registry in each province and territory.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960032896
    Description:

    An update to Work Absence Rates, 1977 to 1994, this section presents 1995 absence rates of full-time paid workers by industry, occupation, province, age and sex. The annual incidence of absence, the inactivity rate and the number of days lost per worker for illness or disability and for personal or family responsibilities are provided.

    Release date: 1996-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012824
    Description:

    In 1994, a total of 2,074 people in Canada were diagnosed with tuberculosis, a rate of 7.1 cases per 100,000 population. The same year, tuberculosis and its late effects caused 150 deaths - just over one in every 1,400 deaths.

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012823
    Description:

    Statistics Canada's 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) was used to examine the prevalence and severity of disability and the degree of dependence in the Aboriginal population. Where possible, these results are compared with data for the total Canadian household population from the 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS).

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012821
    Description:

    Live births, induced abortions, and miscarriages/ stillbirths are usually examined seperately. This article comines the three outcomes to focus on pregnancy in Canada from 1974 to 1992.

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012822
    Description:

    This article traves trends in cesarean section and VBAC rates in Canada and the provinces from 1979 to 1993. The data are based on individual patient admission/separation records of general and allied hospitals, that are submitted to Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012825
    Description:

    In 1991, the National Task Force on Health Information recommended that in order to assess the health of Canadians, the health information system should include an aggregate index of population health. This article presents such an index - Health-Ajusted Life Expectancy (HALE) - as one possibility in a range of indicators.

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960022889
    Description:

    This paper looks at causes, counts and rates of work-related deaths by selected demographic and job characteristics. It also touches briefly on the financial cost of such fatalities.

    Release date: 1996-06-05

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042820
    Description:

    Since the early 1980s, in relation to the size of the population,g eneral and psychiatric hospitals have seen a drop in separations for mental disorders. This trend relects a tendency throughout the 1980s and early 1990s to hospitalize only patients with more serious mental disorders. As a result, the average length of stay in both types of institutions has risen, as has the total number of days of care for mental disorders.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042816
    Description:

    According to the 1994-95 National Population Health Survey, close to 6% of Canadians aged 18 and over had experienced a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Univariate analysis shows that the prevalence of depression was higher among women than among men, but tended to decline at older ages for both sexes. The prevalence of depression was also related to a number of socioeconomic characteristics such as marital status, education, and household income, and to several measures of stress, psychological resources and social support. However, multivariate analysis shows that not all of these variables were significantly associated with the odds of experiencing depression. In some instances, factors that increased the risk differed for men and women. For both sexes, chronic strain, recent negative events, lack of closeness, and low self-esteem increased the odds of depression. Traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood and a low sense of mastery were associated with a higher risk of depression for women, but not men. For men, being single and having moderate self-esteem heightened the risk of depression. A substantial proportion of both men and women who had suffered depression reported using drugs. As well, a notable share of people who had been depressed sought professional health care for emotional or mental problems.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042817
    Description:

    The sense of coherence a healthy outlook can be thought of as a mesure of positive health, that is, a factor promoting resilience which enables and individual to remain healthy. Based on National Population Health Survey (NPHS) data, three health measures were analyzed in relation to sense of coherence. The sense of coherence accounted for a substancial proportion of the total variance for two of the three measures. Theoretically, people with a healthy outlook are more able to cope successfully with trauma and stress. According to NPHS data, on average, those who reported at least one traumatic event had a lower sense of coherence than those who did not. For people who experienced trauma during childhood and young adulthood, yet had strong sense of coherence, the impact of that trauma on their health was diminished.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042819
    Description:

    This article examines the prevalence and severity of chronic pain and its impact on individual health status and health care utilization, based on data from 16,889 respondents aged 15 and over from the 1994-95 National Population Health Survey (NPHS).

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042818
    Description:

    The healthy immigrant effect observed in other countries also prevails in Canada. Immigrants, especially recent immigrants, are less likely than the Canadian-born population to have chronic conditions or disabilities. The effect is most evident among those from non-European countries, who constitute the majority of recent immigrants to Canada. This article compares the health status, health care utilization, and health-related behaviour of immigrants with the Canadian-born population, and is based on self-reported data from the 1994-95 National Population Health Survey. Health status is examined in terms of chronic conditions, disability and health-related dependency. The indicators of health care utilization are hospitalization, contact with physicians and dentists, unmet needs for health services. The health- related and behaviours analysed are smoking and leisure time physical activity.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996091
    Description:

    Introduction: In the current economic context, all partners in health care delivery systems, be they public or private, are obliged to identify the factors that influence the utilization of health care services. To improve our understanding of the phenomena that underlie these relationships, Statistics Canada and the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy and Evaluation have just set up a new database. For a representative sample of the population of the province of Manitoba, cross-sectional microdata on individuals' health and socio-economic characteristics were linked with detailed longitudinal data on utilization of health care services.

    Data and methods: The 1986-87 Health and Activity Limitation Survey, the 1986 Census and the files of Manitoba Health were matched (without using names or addresses) by means of the CANLINK software. In the pilot project, 20,000 units were selected from the Census according to modern sampling techniques. Before the files were matched, consultations were held and an agreement was signed by all parties in order to establish a framework for protecting privacy and preserving the confidentiality of the data.

    Results: A matching rate of 74% was obtained for private households. A quality evaluation based on the comparisons of names and addresses over a small subsample established that the overall concordance rate among matched pairs was 95.5%. The match rates and concordance rates varied according to age and household composition. Estimates produced from the sample accurately reflected the socio-demographic profile, mortality, hospitalization rate, health care costs and consumption of health care by Manitoba residents.

    Discussion: The matching rate of 74% was satisfactory in comparison with the response rates reported in most population surveys. Because of the excellent concordance rate and the accuracy of the estimates obtained from the sample, this database will provide an adequate basis for studying the association between socio-demographic characteristics, health and health care utilization in province of Manitoba.

    Release date: 1996-03-30

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960033017
    Description:

    From 1974 to 1994, the number of children Canadian women are likely to have during their lifetime decreased. This downturn in fertility meant that the annual number of live births rose only slightly during this period, even though it marked the prime childbearing years for the baby-boom generation. As they pursued higher education and employment in the paid workforce, women have postponed childbearing. Consequently, the average age of women giving birth has risen. More than a quarter of women over age 30 who have a baby are first-time mothers. And by starting families later in life, women tend to have fewer children. In addition, largely because of the growing number of common-law relationships, over a quarter of all births are to unmarried women. Using data provided by the provincial and territorial Vital Statistics Registries, this article examines national and provincial/territorial trends in births and fertility from 1974 to 1994.

    Release date: 1996-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960033016
    Description:

    Analyses based on census data, vital statistics, and data from the Health and Activity Limitation Surveys show that immigrants, especially those from non-European countries, had a longer life expectancy and more years of life free of disability and dependency than did the Canadian-born. But while immigrants were less likely than the Canadian-born to be disabled, they were only slightly less likely to be dependent on others for help with activities of daily living. The reasons for immigrants' longevity and good health are likely related to the "health immigrant effect"

    Release date: 1996-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960033014
    Description:

    The majority (75%) of people aged 55 and over who live in the community, as opposed to living in long-term health care institutions, report having at least one chronic condition. However, only about one in six has some physical limitation. As well, one in six men and one in four women who live in the community need help with everyday activities such as housework or meal preparation. With advancing age, the prevalence of most chronic conditions increases, as does the prevalence of physical problems and dependency. The contribution of particular conditions to physical limitations and dependency varies. According to Statistics Canada's 1994-95 National Population Health Survey, the conditions most strongly related to physical limitations and to the need for help with activities of daily living were epilepsy and the effects of stroke, neither of which affected a large percentage of the household population aged 55 and over. By contrast, arthritis/rheumatism, non-arthritic back problems and cataracts, which were also associated with physical limitations and dependency, affected a relatively large percentage of community-dwelling seniors. This article shows the prevalence of specific chronic conditions, physical limitations and dependency among people aged 55 and over living in the community, by sex and age. Logistic regression is used to examine relationships between each chronic condition and the existence of physical limitations and dependency.

    Release date: 1996-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960033015
    Description:

    From 1981 to 1994, the annual number of mammograms performed in Canada increased from less than 200,000 to more than 1.4 million. By 1994, about three in five women aged 40 and over reported having had a mammogram at some time in their lives. Most of the increase that occurred between 1985 and 1991 was because of greater use of mammography for breast screening. In the early 1990s, the annual numbers and rates stabilized as the number of mammograms performed on a fee-for-service basis declined slightly, while those conducted by provincial/territorial breast screening programs rose. Mammography is increasingly targeted to women aged 50-69 for whom screening is considered to be most effective. About 30% of Canadian women aged 50-69 have had a mammogram within the past year, although just one-fifth of these mammograms were obtained through provincial/territorial breast screening programs. Most mammography in Canada is provided through the fee-for-service system, although about 80% of fee-for-service mammograms are done for screening purposes, and the remaining 20% for diagnostic assessment. This article is based on administrative data provided by provincial/territorial departments of health and by breast screening programs, as well as on data from the National Population Health Survey. Some implications of mammography utilization for breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are assessed, but because of the long lead time between detection and death, it may be too early to reach definitive conclusions.

    Release date: 1996-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950032449
    Description:

    The increase in life expectancy that would result from the elimination of certain diseases and the resulting change in hospital utilization vary, depending on the disease. In some cases, life expectancy would rise and total days spent in hospital would decline, while in others, the gain in life expectancy would be accompanied by a increase in hospital days. For instance, if mental health disorders were eliminated, the increase in life expectancy at age 45 would be minimal: from 34.9 to 35.3 years, but time spent in hospital would decline from 168 to 151 days. By contrast, if diseases of the circulatory system were eliminated, life expectancy at age 45 would rise from 34.9 to 41.6 years, but time spent in hospital would also rise: from 168 to 290 days. Elimination of not only mental illnesses but also injuries and poisoning and diseases of the nervous system has the potential of both increasing life expectancy and reducing hospital use.

    Release date: 1996-02-09

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950032451
    Description:

    The official 1990-92 detailed life tables show a continuation of the trend toward longer life expenctancy for Canadians. Life expectancy at birth has reached an all-time high: 80.89 years for females and 74.55 years for males. Recent improvements in life expectancy are attributable to many factors, including declines in infant mortality, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease, and mortality from accidents and poisoning.

    Release date: 1996-02-09

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  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022828
    Description:

    Men constitute a small minority of registered nurses (RNs) in Canada, but their numbers have risen sharply in the last decade. In 1995, almost 4% of RNs were men, up from just over 2% in 1985. The proportion of male nurses is particularly high in Quebec, where the 1995 figure was 8%. Some areas of nursing are more likely than others to employ male nurses: psychiatry, critical care, emergency care, and administration. By contrast, relatively few male RNs have jobs in maternal/newborn care, pediatrics, or community care. Rising male enrollement in college and university nursing programs suggests that men's representation in nursing will continue to rise. The older age profile of male nurses may indicate that some men are choosing nursing as a second career. As well, a shift in the age distribution of male nurses would seem to suggest that those who enter the profession tend to stay. This analysis of the demographic and employment characteristics of male nurses is based on information compiled annually in the Registered Nurses Database maintained by Statistics Canada. Figures on enrolment and graduation in nursing are collected by Statistics Canada as part of annual surveys.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022829
    Description:

    Breast cancer is the leading form of cancer diagnosed in Canadian women (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), accounting for about 30% of all new cases. After age 30, incidence rates begin to rise, and the highest rates are among women aged 60 and over. Canadian incidence rates have increased slowly and steadily since 1969, rising most rapidly among women aged 50 and over. Canada's rates are among the highest of any country in the world, ranking second only to those in the United States. After decades of little change, breast cancer mortality rates for all ages combined have declined slightly since 1990. While not dramatic, this decline is statistically significant and is consistent with similar decreases in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia. Breast cancer survival rates are relatively more favourable than those of other forms of cancer. Survival rates are better for younger women and for women whose cancer was detected at an early stage. This article presents breast cancer data from the Canadian Cancer Registry, the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System, and vital statistics mortality data, all of which are maintained by the Health Statistics Division of Statistics Canada. These data are provided to Statistics Canada by the provincial and territorial cancer and vital statistics registrars.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022826
    Description:

    The prevalence of dementia increases sharply in old age and is higher among women than men. Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of dementia, affects a greater proportion of women. On average, the number of years lived with dementia is longer for women, and women with dementia are more likely to be living in institutions than men with the condition. This article examines age-standardized rates of dementia among men and women aged 65 and over. The data are from the 1991 Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), a joint effort of the Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine at the University of Ottawa and the federal government's Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. Life expectancy estimates from Statistics Canada were combined with CSHA data to estimate the average proportions of life that are lived with and without dementia, in the community and in institutions.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022827
    Description:

    Between 1977 and 1994, smoking rates declined among men and women, but the decline was steeper for men. While smoking rates fell among people at all levels of education, the smallest drop was among those with high school graduation or less, particularly women. For those who had stopped smoking, health concerns had been the overriding factor. Smokers with lower education reported encountering fewer smoking restrictions in their daily activities than did those with higher education. All smokers cited the mass media as their major source of information about smoking, but those with lower education reported the mass media less often than did smokers with higher levels of attainment, and were less likely to obtain information from books, pamphlets or magazines. In addition, smaller percentages of smokers with lower education recalled printed warnings about heart disease on cigarette packages. Variations in the decline of smoking suggest that health promotion and smoking cessation programs should consider sex and educational differences when targeting the smoking population. Differences in rates of smoking among people aged 20 and over were examined by educational attainment using selected health surveys conducted between 1977 and 1994. A Health Canada-sponsored supplement to Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey was used for data on other aspects of smoking such as cutting back or attempting to quit, sources of health information, and awareness of smoking restrictions and cigarette package warnings.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960022830
    Description:

    In 1994, a total of 159,959 marriages were performed in Canada, up only slightly from 159,316 the year before. This small increase had no effect on the crude marriage rate, which remained at 5.5 marriages per 1,000 population. Aside from a brief upturn in the late 1980s, Canada's marriage rate has fallen quite steadily since the early 1970s. The overall decline is also evident when rates are disaggregated by the prior marital status of the bride and groom (single, divorced or widowed). Since 1974, the average ages of brides and grooms have risen about five years to 30.1 and 32.6, respectively. Nonetheless, the peak ages for marriage are the twenties. In this age range, women's marriage rates exceed those of men, but at older ages, men's rates are higher. And at progressively older ages, a growing proportion of grooms have brides at least 10 years their junior. The marriage patterns of Quebec residents differ from those of other Canadians. Quebec residents are much more likely to remain single or live common-law, and if they do marry, they are slightly more likely to divorce. Once divorced or widowed, people in Quebec are less likely than those in the rest of Canada to remarry. This article is based on data compiled by Statistics Canada from marriage registration forms provided by the central Vital Statistics Registry in each province and territory.

    Release date: 1996-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960032896
    Description:

    An update to Work Absence Rates, 1977 to 1994, this section presents 1995 absence rates of full-time paid workers by industry, occupation, province, age and sex. The annual incidence of absence, the inactivity rate and the number of days lost per worker for illness or disability and for personal or family responsibilities are provided.

    Release date: 1996-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012824
    Description:

    In 1994, a total of 2,074 people in Canada were diagnosed with tuberculosis, a rate of 7.1 cases per 100,000 population. The same year, tuberculosis and its late effects caused 150 deaths - just over one in every 1,400 deaths.

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012823
    Description:

    Statistics Canada's 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) was used to examine the prevalence and severity of disability and the degree of dependence in the Aboriginal population. Where possible, these results are compared with data for the total Canadian household population from the 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS).

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012821
    Description:

    Live births, induced abortions, and miscarriages/ stillbirths are usually examined seperately. This article comines the three outcomes to focus on pregnancy in Canada from 1974 to 1992.

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012822
    Description:

    This article traves trends in cesarean section and VBAC rates in Canada and the provinces from 1979 to 1993. The data are based on individual patient admission/separation records of general and allied hospitals, that are submitted to Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960012825
    Description:

    In 1991, the National Task Force on Health Information recommended that in order to assess the health of Canadians, the health information system should include an aggregate index of population health. This article presents such an index - Health-Ajusted Life Expectancy (HALE) - as one possibility in a range of indicators.

    Release date: 1996-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960022889
    Description:

    This paper looks at causes, counts and rates of work-related deaths by selected demographic and job characteristics. It also touches briefly on the financial cost of such fatalities.

    Release date: 1996-06-05

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042820
    Description:

    Since the early 1980s, in relation to the size of the population,g eneral and psychiatric hospitals have seen a drop in separations for mental disorders. This trend relects a tendency throughout the 1980s and early 1990s to hospitalize only patients with more serious mental disorders. As a result, the average length of stay in both types of institutions has risen, as has the total number of days of care for mental disorders.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042816
    Description:

    According to the 1994-95 National Population Health Survey, close to 6% of Canadians aged 18 and over had experienced a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Univariate analysis shows that the prevalence of depression was higher among women than among men, but tended to decline at older ages for both sexes. The prevalence of depression was also related to a number of socioeconomic characteristics such as marital status, education, and household income, and to several measures of stress, psychological resources and social support. However, multivariate analysis shows that not all of these variables were significantly associated with the odds of experiencing depression. In some instances, factors that increased the risk differed for men and women. For both sexes, chronic strain, recent negative events, lack of closeness, and low self-esteem increased the odds of depression. Traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood and a low sense of mastery were associated with a higher risk of depression for women, but not men. For men, being single and having moderate self-esteem heightened the risk of depression. A substantial proportion of both men and women who had suffered depression reported using drugs. As well, a notable share of people who had been depressed sought professional health care for emotional or mental problems.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042817
    Description:

    The sense of coherence a healthy outlook can be thought of as a mesure of positive health, that is, a factor promoting resilience which enables and individual to remain healthy. Based on National Population Health Survey (NPHS) data, three health measures were analyzed in relation to sense of coherence. The sense of coherence accounted for a substancial proportion of the total variance for two of the three measures. Theoretically, people with a healthy outlook are more able to cope successfully with trauma and stress. According to NPHS data, on average, those who reported at least one traumatic event had a lower sense of coherence than those who did not. For people who experienced trauma during childhood and young adulthood, yet had strong sense of coherence, the impact of that trauma on their health was diminished.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042819
    Description:

    This article examines the prevalence and severity of chronic pain and its impact on individual health status and health care utilization, based on data from 16,889 respondents aged 15 and over from the 1994-95 National Population Health Survey (NPHS).

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042818
    Description:

    The healthy immigrant effect observed in other countries also prevails in Canada. Immigrants, especially recent immigrants, are less likely than the Canadian-born population to have chronic conditions or disabilities. The effect is most evident among those from non-European countries, who constitute the majority of recent immigrants to Canada. This article compares the health status, health care utilization, and health-related behaviour of immigrants with the Canadian-born population, and is based on self-reported data from the 1994-95 National Population Health Survey. Health status is examined in terms of chronic conditions, disability and health-related dependency. The indicators of health care utilization are hospitalization, contact with physicians and dentists, unmet needs for health services. The health- related and behaviours analysed are smoking and leisure time physical activity.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996091
    Description:

    Introduction: In the current economic context, all partners in health care delivery systems, be they public or private, are obliged to identify the factors that influence the utilization of health care services. To improve our understanding of the phenomena that underlie these relationships, Statistics Canada and the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy and Evaluation have just set up a new database. For a representative sample of the population of the province of Manitoba, cross-sectional microdata on individuals' health and socio-economic characteristics were linked with detailed longitudinal data on utilization of health care services.

    Data and methods: The 1986-87 Health and Activity Limitation Survey, the 1986 Census and the files of Manitoba Health were matched (without using names or addresses) by means of the CANLINK software. In the pilot project, 20,000 units were selected from the Census according to modern sampling techniques. Before the files were matched, consultations were held and an agreement was signed by all parties in order to establish a framework for protecting privacy and preserving the confidentiality of the data.

    Results: A matching rate of 74% was obtained for private households. A quality evaluation based on the comparisons of names and addresses over a small subsample established that the overall concordance rate among matched pairs was 95.5%. The match rates and concordance rates varied according to age and household composition. Estimates produced from the sample accurately reflected the socio-demographic profile, mortality, hospitalization rate, health care costs and consumption of health care by Manitoba residents.

    Discussion: The matching rate of 74% was satisfactory in comparison with the response rates reported in most population surveys. Because of the excellent concordance rate and the accuracy of the estimates obtained from the sample, this database will provide an adequate basis for studying the association between socio-demographic characteristics, health and health care utilization in province of Manitoba.

    Release date: 1996-03-30

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960033017
    Description:

    From 1974 to 1994, the number of children Canadian women are likely to have during their lifetime decreased. This downturn in fertility meant that the annual number of live births rose only slightly during this period, even though it marked the prime childbearing years for the baby-boom generation. As they pursued higher education and employment in the paid workforce, women have postponed childbearing. Consequently, the average age of women giving birth has risen. More than a quarter of women over age 30 who have a baby are first-time mothers. And by starting families later in life, women tend to have fewer children. In addition, largely because of the growing number of common-law relationships, over a quarter of all births are to unmarried women. Using data provided by the provincial and territorial Vital Statistics Registries, this article examines national and provincial/territorial trends in births and fertility from 1974 to 1994.

    Release date: 1996-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960033016
    Description:

    Analyses based on census data, vital statistics, and data from the Health and Activity Limitation Surveys show that immigrants, especially those from non-European countries, had a longer life expectancy and more years of life free of disability and dependency than did the Canadian-born. But while immigrants were less likely than the Canadian-born to be disabled, they were only slightly less likely to be dependent on others for help with activities of daily living. The reasons for immigrants' longevity and good health are likely related to the "health immigrant effect"

    Release date: 1996-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960033014
    Description:

    The majority (75%) of people aged 55 and over who live in the community, as opposed to living in long-term health care institutions, report having at least one chronic condition. However, only about one in six has some physical limitation. As well, one in six men and one in four women who live in the community need help with everyday activities such as housework or meal preparation. With advancing age, the prevalence of most chronic conditions increases, as does the prevalence of physical problems and dependency. The contribution of particular conditions to physical limitations and dependency varies. According to Statistics Canada's 1994-95 National Population Health Survey, the conditions most strongly related to physical limitations and to the need for help with activities of daily living were epilepsy and the effects of stroke, neither of which affected a large percentage of the household population aged 55 and over. By contrast, arthritis/rheumatism, non-arthritic back problems and cataracts, which were also associated with physical limitations and dependency, affected a relatively large percentage of community-dwelling seniors. This article shows the prevalence of specific chronic conditions, physical limitations and dependency among people aged 55 and over living in the community, by sex and age. Logistic regression is used to examine relationships between each chronic condition and the existence of physical limitations and dependency.

    Release date: 1996-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960033015
    Description:

    From 1981 to 1994, the annual number of mammograms performed in Canada increased from less than 200,000 to more than 1.4 million. By 1994, about three in five women aged 40 and over reported having had a mammogram at some time in their lives. Most of the increase that occurred between 1985 and 1991 was because of greater use of mammography for breast screening. In the early 1990s, the annual numbers and rates stabilized as the number of mammograms performed on a fee-for-service basis declined slightly, while those conducted by provincial/territorial breast screening programs rose. Mammography is increasingly targeted to women aged 50-69 for whom screening is considered to be most effective. About 30% of Canadian women aged 50-69 have had a mammogram within the past year, although just one-fifth of these mammograms were obtained through provincial/territorial breast screening programs. Most mammography in Canada is provided through the fee-for-service system, although about 80% of fee-for-service mammograms are done for screening purposes, and the remaining 20% for diagnostic assessment. This article is based on administrative data provided by provincial/territorial departments of health and by breast screening programs, as well as on data from the National Population Health Survey. Some implications of mammography utilization for breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are assessed, but because of the long lead time between detection and death, it may be too early to reach definitive conclusions.

    Release date: 1996-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950032449
    Description:

    The increase in life expectancy that would result from the elimination of certain diseases and the resulting change in hospital utilization vary, depending on the disease. In some cases, life expectancy would rise and total days spent in hospital would decline, while in others, the gain in life expectancy would be accompanied by a increase in hospital days. For instance, if mental health disorders were eliminated, the increase in life expectancy at age 45 would be minimal: from 34.9 to 35.3 years, but time spent in hospital would decline from 168 to 151 days. By contrast, if diseases of the circulatory system were eliminated, life expectancy at age 45 would rise from 34.9 to 41.6 years, but time spent in hospital would also rise: from 168 to 290 days. Elimination of not only mental illnesses but also injuries and poisoning and diseases of the nervous system has the potential of both increasing life expectancy and reducing hospital use.

    Release date: 1996-02-09

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950032451
    Description:

    The official 1990-92 detailed life tables show a continuation of the trend toward longer life expenctancy for Canadians. Life expectancy at birth has reached an all-time high: 80.89 years for females and 74.55 years for males. Recent improvements in life expectancy are attributable to many factors, including declines in infant mortality, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease, and mortality from accidents and poisoning.

    Release date: 1996-02-09

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