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All (26)

All (26) (25 of 26 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960042924
    Description:

    While average job tenure has changed little since 1981, there has been an increased polarization between short- and long-term jobs throughout the economy. This study estimates the average length of a new job between 1981 and 1994, as well as the probability that new jobs of a certain length will continue. Analysis is by sex, age, region, educational attainment and industry. (Adapted from an article in Canadian Economic Observer, January 1996.)

    Release date: 1996-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960042923
    Description:

    Do all managers command high salaries and work long hours? According to Statistics Canada's Standard Occupational Classifications of 1980 and 1991, which this article describes, wide variations exist within "managerial" occupations.

    Release date: 1996-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960042907
    Description:

    The employment/population ratio is a good barometer of the state of the economy and an important though little-used labour market indicator. This article takes a look at the ratio's strengths and limitations, as well as its variation since 1946. Provincial and international comparisons are included.

    Release date: 1996-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996095
    Description:

    Using monthly data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey the author investigates changes in the complete lengths of new job spells from 1981 through 1994. While the average complete length of new jobs did not increase or decrease over the period, changes in the distribution of complete job lengths suggest that there is an increase in the proportion of short-term jobs and a decrease in the proportion of medium term jobs created over the period. The proportion of long-term jobs remained unchanged. This pattern of change was found among all virtually all demographic subgroups examined suggesting that an economy wide (rather than a sectoral or demographic) explanation must be sought.

    Release date: 1996-11-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997097
    Description:

    A framework for the dynamic analysis of unemployment is presented, and applied to Canadian and U.S. data. The focus of the analysis is upon the distinctionbetween being unemployed and becoming unemployed, that is, between the stock and the flow of unemployment. The share of a particular group in the stock ofunemployed will differ from its share in the flow into unemployment to the extent that the average duration of unemployment for the group differs from the economywide average. An analysis of Canadian and U.S. data leads to a series of stylized facts that permit a deeper understanding of unemployment in the two countries, andof the differences between them. Significant differences in the average duration of unemployment imply that stock shares are not good indicators of flow shares,changes in the stock share of some groups are due to changes in the flow share, while for others they are due to changes in the length of unemployment spells.Explanations of the Canada - U.S. unemployment rate gap should try to accommodate at least three facts uncovered by the analysis: (1) that employer initiatedpermanent separations are the primary means of entry into unemployment in Canada, while labour force entry plays a more important role in the US; (2)unemployment spells are significantly longer in Canada than in the U.S. because of longer spells for most groups regardless of reason for unemployment, not becauseof a compositional difference in the make up of the unemployed; and (3) that longer spell duration and a higher incidence of unemployment contribute about equallyto the trend increase in the Canada - U.S. unemployment differential during the 1980s.

    Release date: 1996-09-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996088
    Description:

    Small firms are often seen to be the engines of growth. There are two main sources of empirical evidence that are adduced to support this conclusion. The first is that job creation has been coming mainly from small firms. The second is that the share of employment accounted for by small firms has increased in the past two decades. Both of these sources rely on a simple metric--employment. This paper asks whether changes in this metric affect the view of the role that small firms play in the growth process.

    The first section of the paper maintains employment as the measure that is used to evaluate the importance of small firms but modifies the raw measure of employment to correct for the fact that small firms pay lower wages than large firms. The paper examines the evidence indicating that smaller producers in the manufacturing sector pay lower wages and that this differential has grown over time. It then uses relative wage rates to create a measure of employment that is adjusted for wage differentials. When this is done, small producers no longer outperform large producers in terms of job creation over the 1970s and 1980s in the Canadian manufacturing sector.

    The second section of the paper changes the metric used to evaluate relative performance by moving from employment to output and labour productivity. The paper demonstrates that while small producers have increased their employment share dramatically, they have barely changed their output share. Small firms have been falling behind large firms both with respect to wages paid and labour productivity. Large producers have been decreasing their relative employment while maintaining their relative output share, thereby making dramatic strides in increasing their relative labour productivity.

    Release date: 1996-09-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960032893
    Description:

    A look at the labour market and other economic indicators during the first six months of 1996.

    Release date: 1996-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960032896
    Description:

    An update to Work Absence Rates, 1977 to 1994, this section presents 1995 absence rates of full-time paid workers by industry, occupation, province, age and sex. The annual incidence of absence, the inactivity rate and the number of days lost per worker for illness or disability and for personal or family responsibilities are provided.

    Release date: 1996-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960032894
    Description:

    Prolonged absences from work can have major financial consequences for both employees and employers. This article explores trends in absences of two weeks or more due to illness or accident. Sources of compensation received by employees are examined by industry sector.

    Release date: 1996-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996094
    Description:

    In this paper we ask the three following questions : 1) even after controlling for cyclical effects, do new spells of low earnings now last longer than they used to? 2) once a male worker starts a new spell of low earnings, does he receive lower real annual wages now than his counterparts did in the mid-seventies? 3) has long-term inequality in earnings risen in the eighties? The answers to these questions are the following. First, even after taking account of the relatively high unemployment rates observed since the mid-eighties, it was harder for Canadian male workers, especially those aged 18-24, to move out of the bottom of the earnings distribution during the 1985-93 period than during the 1975-84 period. In other terms, new spells of low earnings now last longer for these workers. Second, real annual wages received by young males who went through a new spell of low earnings were significantly lower in 1985-93 than in 1975-84. Third, during the eighties, inequality in earnings cumulated over either six or ten years rose at the same pace as inequality in annual earnings.

    Release date: 1996-08-30

  • Public use microdata: 71M0013X
    Description:

    The objectives of this survey were to obtain information on the main and second jobs of paid workers related to:

    - work schedule (days of week, hours of work);

    - amount of control over schedule ("on call", flexible schedules);

    - number of home-based workers and reasons for home-based work;

    - number of "moonlighters" and reasons for having another job;

    - pay, overtime, unionization.

    Release date: 1996-08-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996096
    Description:

    Canadians are increasingly concerned about rising job instability. Job instability can take various forms and can be measured in numerous ways. As part of a comprehensive research effort to examine job instability, this paper uses the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF) on the separations of Canadian workers from 1978 to 1993 to assess one dimension of job instability - permanent layoffs. The key question addressed in the paper is "have permanent layoffs in Canada increased in the 1980s and early 1990s as compared to the late 1970s?". We examine the time trend of permanent layoffs first by looking at the permanent layoff rate, and then by logistic regressions to predict the probability of permanent layoffs. The analysis is undertaken for all workers as well as for particular sub-groups.

    Created by many complex processes, permanent layoffs are an on-going feature of our economy and not as cyclically sensitive as quits and other means of workforce adjustments used by firms (i.e., temporary layoffs and hirings). Every year, over a million workers are permanently displaced from their jobs, no matter whether in recessions, recovery or expansionary periods. This is as true in the 1980s and early 1990s as in the late 1970s.

    Permanent layoffs to 1993 have shown no overall sign of an upward trend when compared to earlier years which are comparable in the business cycle. This holds true whether using the raw data or after controlling for changes in the composition of the workforce by gender, age, province, industry and firm size. However, an increase in the probability of permanent layoffs is observed among some particular groups of workers, notably older or higher paid workers, those in the primary sector or in health, education and welfare services. We will have to wait for more recent data to evaluate trends beyond 1993.

    The data further show that the Canadian labour market adjusts to structural changes more through depressed hirings than increased layoffs. While the risk of permanently losing one's job, to 1993 at leasts, is no higher than in earlier comparable periods, the chance of finding a new job is considerably lower, at least in the aggregate. Furthermore, most job creation in the 1990s has been self-employment, where earning may be more unstable than among paid jobs.

    Release date: 1996-08-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960022887
    Description:

    This article, also based on the IALS, compares the literacy levels of workers aged 16 to 65 in Canada, the United States and Germany. Of particular interest are the low scores achieved by a significant minority of Canadian workers. As expected, a relationship exists between literacy skills, occupation and industry.

    Release date: 1996-06-05

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960022889
    Description:

    This paper looks at causes, counts and rates of work-related deaths by selected demographic and job characteristics. It also touches briefly on the financial cost of such fatalities.

    Release date: 1996-06-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1995087
    Description:

    Firm turnover occurs as firms gain and lose market share as part of the competitive struggle. The reallocation of market share from one group to another is associated with productivity gain as the less productive lose share and the more productive gain market share. This paper examines the extent to which productivity has been enhanced by firm turnover over the last twenty years. It focuses on the extent to which this process changed during the 1980s and thereby contributed to the slowdown in productivity growth that was experienced by the manufacturing sector.

    Release date: 1996-05-06

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042817
    Description:

    The sense of coherence a healthy outlook can be thought of as a mesure of positive health, that is, a factor promoting resilience which enables and individual to remain healthy. Based on National Population Health Survey (NPHS) data, three health measures were analyzed in relation to sense of coherence. The sense of coherence accounted for a substancial proportion of the total variance for two of the three measures. Theoretically, people with a healthy outlook are more able to cope successfully with trauma and stress. According to NPHS data, on average, those who reported at least one traumatic event had a lower sense of coherence than those who did not. For people who experienced trauma during childhood and young adulthood, yet had strong sense of coherence, the impact of that trauma on their health was diminished.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Table: 10F0008X
    Description:

    Two sets of profiles are available; the first (2A) presents the basic data collected from all Canadian households; the second (2B) presents the detailed socio-economic data collected from a 20% sample of households.

    Release date: 1996-04-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012526
    Description:

    Many people believe that service jobs are synonymous with low wages. This article compares average weekly earnings, excluding overtime, of paid workers across more than 100 different service industries. It also assesses the disparity in the earnings of service and goods sector workers.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012528
    Description:

    A look at trends in unionization rates by industry over the last two decades. Also examined are the changing demographic and labour market characteristics of unionized workers over the period 1984 to 1990.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012525
    Description:

    Who are they? Where do they work? And how do their earnings compare with those of men in similar circumstances? This article looks at the growth in entrepreneurship among women, and compares their characteristics with those of their male counterparts.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012524
    Description:

    What does the distribution of unemployment look like in the 1990s? A focus on unemployment rates by census metropolitan area from 1987 to 1995.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012527
    Description:

    The official unemployment rate released each month is based on individuals. Also released, but less recognized, are family-based rates. Unemployment rates for individuals and families are compared using data from two different sources over the period 1980 to 1993.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012523
    Description:

    Why did the economy slow down in 1995 and what was the effect on the labour market? This year-end review examines changes and trends in the labour market over the past year.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996090
    Description:

    This paper outlines the structure of payroll taxes and documents evidence on the level, growth and role of each component over the last three decades for Canada and for each province. Levied by both the federal and provincial governments, payroll taxes in Canada include four major components: i) unemployment insurance (UI) premiums; ii) Canada/Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP) contributions; iii) workers compensation (WC) premiums; and iv) the provincial health/post-secondary education (H/E) tax levied by Quebec, Manitoba, Ontario and Newfoundland. While the UI and C/QPP components are levied on both employers and employees, the WC and H/E components are levied on employers only. Our main findings are 1) payroll taxes have increased substantially over the last three decades in Canada as a whole and in every province; 2) the structure, level, growth and role of each component of payroll taxes vary remarkably from one province to another; 3) the expansion of the UI component in recent years has been the largest contributor to the rise in payroll taxes across every province in the country; and 4) despite significant growth in recent years, payroll taxes are still much lower in Canada than in most other western industrialized countries.

    Release date: 1996-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996089
    Description:

    In this paper we use administrative data associated with the tax system to: (1) document the extent of intergenerational income mobility among Canadian men; and (2) estimate the income disadvantage (in adulthood) of being raised in a low income household. We find that there is considerable intergenerational income mobility in Canada among middle income earners, but that the inheritance of economic status is significant at both the very top and very bottom of the income distribution. About one-third of those in the bottom quartile were raised by fathers who occupied the same position in the income distribution. In fact, the income advantage of someone who had a father in the top decile over someone who had a father in the bottom decile is in the order of 40%. We also discuss some of the policy implications of these findings, as well as some of their limitations and the directions implied for future research.

    Release date: 1996-01-24

Data (2)

Data (2) (2 results)

  • Public use microdata: 71M0013X
    Description:

    The objectives of this survey were to obtain information on the main and second jobs of paid workers related to:

    - work schedule (days of week, hours of work);

    - amount of control over schedule ("on call", flexible schedules);

    - number of home-based workers and reasons for home-based work;

    - number of "moonlighters" and reasons for having another job;

    - pay, overtime, unionization.

    Release date: 1996-08-29

  • Table: 10F0008X
    Description:

    Two sets of profiles are available; the first (2A) presents the basic data collected from all Canadian households; the second (2B) presents the detailed socio-economic data collected from a 20% sample of households.

    Release date: 1996-04-01

Analysis (24)

Analysis (24) (24 of 24 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960042924
    Description:

    While average job tenure has changed little since 1981, there has been an increased polarization between short- and long-term jobs throughout the economy. This study estimates the average length of a new job between 1981 and 1994, as well as the probability that new jobs of a certain length will continue. Analysis is by sex, age, region, educational attainment and industry. (Adapted from an article in Canadian Economic Observer, January 1996.)

    Release date: 1996-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960042923
    Description:

    Do all managers command high salaries and work long hours? According to Statistics Canada's Standard Occupational Classifications of 1980 and 1991, which this article describes, wide variations exist within "managerial" occupations.

    Release date: 1996-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960042907
    Description:

    The employment/population ratio is a good barometer of the state of the economy and an important though little-used labour market indicator. This article takes a look at the ratio's strengths and limitations, as well as its variation since 1946. Provincial and international comparisons are included.

    Release date: 1996-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996095
    Description:

    Using monthly data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey the author investigates changes in the complete lengths of new job spells from 1981 through 1994. While the average complete length of new jobs did not increase or decrease over the period, changes in the distribution of complete job lengths suggest that there is an increase in the proportion of short-term jobs and a decrease in the proportion of medium term jobs created over the period. The proportion of long-term jobs remained unchanged. This pattern of change was found among all virtually all demographic subgroups examined suggesting that an economy wide (rather than a sectoral or demographic) explanation must be sought.

    Release date: 1996-11-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997097
    Description:

    A framework for the dynamic analysis of unemployment is presented, and applied to Canadian and U.S. data. The focus of the analysis is upon the distinctionbetween being unemployed and becoming unemployed, that is, between the stock and the flow of unemployment. The share of a particular group in the stock ofunemployed will differ from its share in the flow into unemployment to the extent that the average duration of unemployment for the group differs from the economywide average. An analysis of Canadian and U.S. data leads to a series of stylized facts that permit a deeper understanding of unemployment in the two countries, andof the differences between them. Significant differences in the average duration of unemployment imply that stock shares are not good indicators of flow shares,changes in the stock share of some groups are due to changes in the flow share, while for others they are due to changes in the length of unemployment spells.Explanations of the Canada - U.S. unemployment rate gap should try to accommodate at least three facts uncovered by the analysis: (1) that employer initiatedpermanent separations are the primary means of entry into unemployment in Canada, while labour force entry plays a more important role in the US; (2)unemployment spells are significantly longer in Canada than in the U.S. because of longer spells for most groups regardless of reason for unemployment, not becauseof a compositional difference in the make up of the unemployed; and (3) that longer spell duration and a higher incidence of unemployment contribute about equallyto the trend increase in the Canada - U.S. unemployment differential during the 1980s.

    Release date: 1996-09-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996088
    Description:

    Small firms are often seen to be the engines of growth. There are two main sources of empirical evidence that are adduced to support this conclusion. The first is that job creation has been coming mainly from small firms. The second is that the share of employment accounted for by small firms has increased in the past two decades. Both of these sources rely on a simple metric--employment. This paper asks whether changes in this metric affect the view of the role that small firms play in the growth process.

    The first section of the paper maintains employment as the measure that is used to evaluate the importance of small firms but modifies the raw measure of employment to correct for the fact that small firms pay lower wages than large firms. The paper examines the evidence indicating that smaller producers in the manufacturing sector pay lower wages and that this differential has grown over time. It then uses relative wage rates to create a measure of employment that is adjusted for wage differentials. When this is done, small producers no longer outperform large producers in terms of job creation over the 1970s and 1980s in the Canadian manufacturing sector.

    The second section of the paper changes the metric used to evaluate relative performance by moving from employment to output and labour productivity. The paper demonstrates that while small producers have increased their employment share dramatically, they have barely changed their output share. Small firms have been falling behind large firms both with respect to wages paid and labour productivity. Large producers have been decreasing their relative employment while maintaining their relative output share, thereby making dramatic strides in increasing their relative labour productivity.

    Release date: 1996-09-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960032893
    Description:

    A look at the labour market and other economic indicators during the first six months of 1996.

    Release date: 1996-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960032896
    Description:

    An update to Work Absence Rates, 1977 to 1994, this section presents 1995 absence rates of full-time paid workers by industry, occupation, province, age and sex. The annual incidence of absence, the inactivity rate and the number of days lost per worker for illness or disability and for personal or family responsibilities are provided.

    Release date: 1996-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960032894
    Description:

    Prolonged absences from work can have major financial consequences for both employees and employers. This article explores trends in absences of two weeks or more due to illness or accident. Sources of compensation received by employees are examined by industry sector.

    Release date: 1996-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996094
    Description:

    In this paper we ask the three following questions : 1) even after controlling for cyclical effects, do new spells of low earnings now last longer than they used to? 2) once a male worker starts a new spell of low earnings, does he receive lower real annual wages now than his counterparts did in the mid-seventies? 3) has long-term inequality in earnings risen in the eighties? The answers to these questions are the following. First, even after taking account of the relatively high unemployment rates observed since the mid-eighties, it was harder for Canadian male workers, especially those aged 18-24, to move out of the bottom of the earnings distribution during the 1985-93 period than during the 1975-84 period. In other terms, new spells of low earnings now last longer for these workers. Second, real annual wages received by young males who went through a new spell of low earnings were significantly lower in 1985-93 than in 1975-84. Third, during the eighties, inequality in earnings cumulated over either six or ten years rose at the same pace as inequality in annual earnings.

    Release date: 1996-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996096
    Description:

    Canadians are increasingly concerned about rising job instability. Job instability can take various forms and can be measured in numerous ways. As part of a comprehensive research effort to examine job instability, this paper uses the Longitudinal Worker File (LWF) on the separations of Canadian workers from 1978 to 1993 to assess one dimension of job instability - permanent layoffs. The key question addressed in the paper is "have permanent layoffs in Canada increased in the 1980s and early 1990s as compared to the late 1970s?". We examine the time trend of permanent layoffs first by looking at the permanent layoff rate, and then by logistic regressions to predict the probability of permanent layoffs. The analysis is undertaken for all workers as well as for particular sub-groups.

    Created by many complex processes, permanent layoffs are an on-going feature of our economy and not as cyclically sensitive as quits and other means of workforce adjustments used by firms (i.e., temporary layoffs and hirings). Every year, over a million workers are permanently displaced from their jobs, no matter whether in recessions, recovery or expansionary periods. This is as true in the 1980s and early 1990s as in the late 1970s.

    Permanent layoffs to 1993 have shown no overall sign of an upward trend when compared to earlier years which are comparable in the business cycle. This holds true whether using the raw data or after controlling for changes in the composition of the workforce by gender, age, province, industry and firm size. However, an increase in the probability of permanent layoffs is observed among some particular groups of workers, notably older or higher paid workers, those in the primary sector or in health, education and welfare services. We will have to wait for more recent data to evaluate trends beyond 1993.

    The data further show that the Canadian labour market adjusts to structural changes more through depressed hirings than increased layoffs. While the risk of permanently losing one's job, to 1993 at leasts, is no higher than in earlier comparable periods, the chance of finding a new job is considerably lower, at least in the aggregate. Furthermore, most job creation in the 1990s has been self-employment, where earning may be more unstable than among paid jobs.

    Release date: 1996-08-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960022887
    Description:

    This article, also based on the IALS, compares the literacy levels of workers aged 16 to 65 in Canada, the United States and Germany. Of particular interest are the low scores achieved by a significant minority of Canadian workers. As expected, a relationship exists between literacy skills, occupation and industry.

    Release date: 1996-06-05

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960022889
    Description:

    This paper looks at causes, counts and rates of work-related deaths by selected demographic and job characteristics. It also touches briefly on the financial cost of such fatalities.

    Release date: 1996-06-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1995087
    Description:

    Firm turnover occurs as firms gain and lose market share as part of the competitive struggle. The reallocation of market share from one group to another is associated with productivity gain as the less productive lose share and the more productive gain market share. This paper examines the extent to which productivity has been enhanced by firm turnover over the last twenty years. It focuses on the extent to which this process changed during the 1980s and thereby contributed to the slowdown in productivity growth that was experienced by the manufacturing sector.

    Release date: 1996-05-06

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950042817
    Description:

    The sense of coherence a healthy outlook can be thought of as a mesure of positive health, that is, a factor promoting resilience which enables and individual to remain healthy. Based on National Population Health Survey (NPHS) data, three health measures were analyzed in relation to sense of coherence. The sense of coherence accounted for a substancial proportion of the total variance for two of the three measures. Theoretically, people with a healthy outlook are more able to cope successfully with trauma and stress. According to NPHS data, on average, those who reported at least one traumatic event had a lower sense of coherence than those who did not. For people who experienced trauma during childhood and young adulthood, yet had strong sense of coherence, the impact of that trauma on their health was diminished.

    Release date: 1996-04-02

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012526
    Description:

    Many people believe that service jobs are synonymous with low wages. This article compares average weekly earnings, excluding overtime, of paid workers across more than 100 different service industries. It also assesses the disparity in the earnings of service and goods sector workers.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012528
    Description:

    A look at trends in unionization rates by industry over the last two decades. Also examined are the changing demographic and labour market characteristics of unionized workers over the period 1984 to 1990.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012525
    Description:

    Who are they? Where do they work? And how do their earnings compare with those of men in similar circumstances? This article looks at the growth in entrepreneurship among women, and compares their characteristics with those of their male counterparts.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012524
    Description:

    What does the distribution of unemployment look like in the 1990s? A focus on unemployment rates by census metropolitan area from 1987 to 1995.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012527
    Description:

    The official unemployment rate released each month is based on individuals. Also released, but less recognized, are family-based rates. Unemployment rates for individuals and families are compared using data from two different sources over the period 1980 to 1993.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960012523
    Description:

    Why did the economy slow down in 1995 and what was the effect on the labour market? This year-end review examines changes and trends in the labour market over the past year.

    Release date: 1996-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996090
    Description:

    This paper outlines the structure of payroll taxes and documents evidence on the level, growth and role of each component over the last three decades for Canada and for each province. Levied by both the federal and provincial governments, payroll taxes in Canada include four major components: i) unemployment insurance (UI) premiums; ii) Canada/Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP) contributions; iii) workers compensation (WC) premiums; and iv) the provincial health/post-secondary education (H/E) tax levied by Quebec, Manitoba, Ontario and Newfoundland. While the UI and C/QPP components are levied on both employers and employees, the WC and H/E components are levied on employers only. Our main findings are 1) payroll taxes have increased substantially over the last three decades in Canada as a whole and in every province; 2) the structure, level, growth and role of each component of payroll taxes vary remarkably from one province to another; 3) the expansion of the UI component in recent years has been the largest contributor to the rise in payroll taxes across every province in the country; and 4) despite significant growth in recent years, payroll taxes are still much lower in Canada than in most other western industrialized countries.

    Release date: 1996-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996089
    Description:

    In this paper we use administrative data associated with the tax system to: (1) document the extent of intergenerational income mobility among Canadian men; and (2) estimate the income disadvantage (in adulthood) of being raised in a low income household. We find that there is considerable intergenerational income mobility in Canada among middle income earners, but that the inheritance of economic status is significant at both the very top and very bottom of the income distribution. About one-third of those in the bottom quartile were raised by fathers who occupied the same position in the income distribution. In fact, the income advantage of someone who had a father in the top decile over someone who had a father in the bottom decile is in the order of 40%. We also discuss some of the policy implications of these findings, as well as some of their limitations and the directions implied for future research.

    Release date: 1996-01-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996092
    Description:

    This study is one of a series that examines how technology adoption affects the skills of workers. Previous papers in the series have approached this issue in differentways with data from a variety of sources. Using data on the strategies and activities of small and medium-sized firms in both manufacturing and services industries,Baldwin and Johnson (1995), Baldwin, Johnson and Pedersen (1996) examine the connection between the different strategies that are pursued by growing firms.Firms that stress technological competencies are found to also place a greater emphasis on skill enhancement and training activities. Using survey data on the type oftechnology used in manufacturing plants and plant managers' perceptions of the skill requirements and training costs associated with the adoption of newtechnologies, Baldwin, Gray and Johnson (1995) find that technology use leads to greater skill requirements, more training, and higher training costs.This paper uses survey data on the incidence of advanced technology adoption and matched panel data on plant characteristics such as wages, capital intensity, andsize to examine the connection between technology use and the wage rates received by workers. Since higher wages are associated with higher skill levels,establishing a connection between technology use and wages reinforces the earlier findings.

    Release date: 1996-01-09

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