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All (33) (25 of 33 results)

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1996003
    Description:

    This paper outlines the structure of the January 1996 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) labour interview. It also discusses changes made to the labour interview between 1995 and 1996.

    Release date: 1997-12-31

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1996008
    Description:

    This paper studies the growth in inequality in weekly earnings in Canada and the factors that contribute to it.

    Release date: 1997-12-31

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1996009
    Description:

    In this paper, we examine the predictors of an individual's ability to access occupations offering autonomy and authority in the workplace. This paper uses results from analysis of data from the 1993 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics and the 1994 General Social Survey.

    Release date: 1997-12-31

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1996010
    Description:

    This study examines whether the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) could provide the same data as the Absence from Work Survey (AWS), and if so, how the estimates compare between the two surveys.

    Release date: 1997-12-31

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1997001
    Description:

    This paper presents the questions, responses and interview flow for the Contact and Demographic portions of the 1997 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) interviews.

    Release date: 1997-12-31

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M1997002
    Description:

    This paper examines full-time paid workers between the ages of 25 and 60 in Canada, the United States, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Poland, Germany and Sweden.

    Release date: 1997-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043386
    Description:

    This article traces union membership over the last 30 years. Itlooks at current demographic and labour market characteristics of union members, as well as wages, benefits and work arrangements of both union and non-union members. Also examined are wage increases vis-à-vis inflation rates, and the state of labour unrest over the past two decades. An international look at union rates is also provided. (This is an updated version of an article released shortly before Labour Day this year.)

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043383
    Description:

    Would redistributing work hours solve the unemployment problem? This study converts regular paid overtime hours into hypothetical full-time jobs, then distributes them by province, occupation and level of education. It attempts to match these full-time jobs with the unemployed by province and occupation.

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043382
    Description:

    Using the most recent data available, this article sheds light onthe characteristics of people who work either paid or unpaid overtime. The number of extra hours they put in and the types of job they perform are also examined.

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043385
    Description:

    The proportion of non-permanent jobs is relatively high in eastern Canada, a finding only partly explained by the prevalence of seasonal work. This article provides a regional analysis of seasonal, temporary and occasional jobs. It also asks whether non-permanent jobs include fewer benefits than permanent ones.Where possible, the study examines subprovincial data.

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043384
    Description:

    Although two-thirds of workers are satisfied with their hours, many of the remainder would prefer to work more hours for more pay. This article analyzes work hour preferences by sex, province, job characteristics and family situation. (Adapted froman Analytical Studies Branch research paper published in May1997.)

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997110
    Description:

    The objectives of this paper are to determine the empirical relationships between economic performance, transfers and low income among Canadian families, and to explore whether these relationships have changed over time. Similar recent studies in the US find a weakening in the relationship between economic growth and low income reduction over the past 25 years. Using data from the Survey of Consumer Finances of Statistics Canada, we find that there is a statistically significant negative relationship between economic performance and the incidence of low income among families in Canada for the period from 1973 to 1995. Government transfers are also found to lift families above the low income threshold. These results are robust across different family types and for three different measures of low income.

    We also find a weakening in the relationship between improved economic performance and low income reduction for most family types between 1973 and 1995, and for all family types after 1980. This weakening is associated with rising pre-transfer income inequality among families. Increasing inequality has also reduced the negative impact of transfers on low income rates.

    Release date: 1997-11-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997106
    Description:

    This paper documents job turnover and labour market adjustment activities in the Ontario economy from 1978 to 1993. The following highlights the major findings. Both the permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate vary substantially from one industry to another. In 1992, the permanent layoff and total permanent separation rates ranged from 27.3% and 34.2% in construction to only 1.4% and 9.3% in public services, respectively. The permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate also differ noticeably by gender, age and firm size - in most industries, the rates are higher among male workers than among females, higher among younger workers, and higher among smaller employers.

    While the permanent layoff rate increases during business cycle downturns and decreases during business cycle upswings, the reverse trend is observed with the total permanent separation rate. This is because the quit rate and the other permanent separation rate both decline during downturns and rise during upswings, more than offsetting the opposite trend associated with the permanent layoff rate.

    These univariate-tabulation findings are confirmed in the multi-variate logistic regression results on the statistical determinants of permanent layoffs and total permanent separations. In most industries, after controlling for gender, age, firm size and time periods, the estimated likelihood of permanent layoffs is lower among female workers, decreases significantly with age and firm size, increases during recessions and decreases during recovery and expansion in most industries. The patterns of estimated incidence of total permanent separations are very similar to those of permanent layoffs except that total permanent separations decline during business cycle downturns and climb during business cycle upswings.

    Permanently separated workers have had a much more difficult time in finding employment during the most recent recession than any other time in the past 15 years. Almost 40% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 did not have a job in 1993. This is in marked contrast with the experience of the early 1980s, when 29% of permanently separated workers were jobless 3 years after the separation. A very similar trend is found when the analysis is applied to labour market transitions among permanently laid-off workers.

    There is a great deal of out-of-province migration among permanently separated workers who did find a job. Nearly 45% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 and found a job in 1993 were employed outside of Ontario. An identical proportion of permanently laid-off workers is found to be employed in other provinces.

    Release date: 1997-10-31

  • Table: 93F0022X
    Description:

    The Nation is the first series to release basic data from the 1996 Census, providing national coverage. This series covers characteristics of the population, including demographic, social, cultural, labour force and income variables as well as details on dwellings, households and families. Generally the data are represented for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses.

    Release date: 1997-10-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997103
    Description:

    Canadians are increasingly concerned about permanent layoffs, as many feel job instability and the possibility of job loss has increased in the 1990s. Governments, confronted with a large number of permanent layoffs each year, need to know how to respond to improve labour adjustment and the possibility of quickly finding a new job for displaced workers. Within this context, this paper uses a new longitudinal data source on the separations of workers to address three issues. First, has there in fact been an increase in the permanent layoff rate in Canada in the 1990s, as one might anticipate given concerns about rising job instability? Second, what are the underlying causes of most permanent layoffs? The paper explicitly examines the role played by cyclical variation in aggregate demand, variation in industrial demand which is often associated with structural change, and differences in layoff rates by firm size which is in turn associated with the birth and death process of firms.

    Third, with this as background, the core of the paper asks a question of concern to policy analysts: are most permanent layoffs rare events for workers, or are they a continuation of a pattern of repeat layoffs? This is important because a worker who is confronted with a layoff which is a rare event will require very different post-displacement adjustment assistance from someone whose history of employment has been marked with frequent layoffs, suggesting an inability to hold a job or demand-side instability in the firm or industry in which the person has worked. The workers' employment history over 10 years is used to explore the relationship between permanent layoff history and the probability of being laid off. Displaced workers are classified "low-risk", "medium-risk" and "high-risk" based on their layoff history, and multinomial logistic analysis is used to distinguish worker and firm characteristics associated with repeat layoffs or layoffs as rare events.

    Release date: 1997-09-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970033205
    Description:

    Around the beginning of the year, analysts were predicting that1997 would be a good year for the Canadian economy and labourmarket. Is it living up to expectations? This review examinestrends and developments in the labour market during the firsthalf of 1997. (This article appeared as an advance release inJuly 1997.)

    Release date: 1997-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970033206
    Description:

    This article compares permanent and non-permanent jobs. It looks at wages, hours, benefits and work schedules, among other aspects. The definition of non-permanent work arrangements, the diversity of these jobs, and the characteristics of the workers are also considered.

    Release date: 1997-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970033208
    Description:

    On February 20 and 21, 1997, Statistics Canada hosted the conference, "Intergenerational Equity in Canada." This report presents a brief overview of the concepts and issues associatedwith "equity" between and within generations, summarizing selected conference presentations.

    Release date: 1997-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970033209
    Description:

    Many Canadians believe that job instability and job loss have increased in the 1990s. Using a new longitudinal data source, this article explores the role of the business cycle, changes in industrial demand, and firm size in the growth in permanent layoffs. An overview of the work displacement process is also included. (Adapted from an article in Canadian Economic Observer, February 1997.)

    Release date: 1997-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997066
    Description:

    Widely used summary measures of inequality or the "disappearing middle class" are potentially misleading. Divergences between evidence cited and conclusions drawn include failing to distinguish the concepts of inequality and polarization, and using scalar ôinequalityö measures which are not consistent with rankings based on Lorenz curves. In addition, inappropriate claims about trends in inequality can arise from focusing on only a sub-population such as full-time male workers, and failing to account for sampling variability. These divergences are illustrated using Canadian data on labour incomes over the 1967 to 1994 period.

    Release date: 1997-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996093
    Description:

    The statistical observation that small firms have created the majority of new jobs during the 1980s has had a tremendous influence on public policy. Governmentshave looked to the small firm sector for employment growth, and have promoted policies to augment this expansion. However, recent research in the US suggeststhat net job creation in the small firm sector may have been overestimated, relative to that in large firms. The first part of this paper addresses various measurement issues raised in the recent research, and uses a very unique Canadian longitudinal data set thatencompasses all companies in the Canadian economy to reassess the issue of job creation by firm size. We conclude that over the 1978-92 period, for both theentire Canadian economy and the manufacturing sector, the growth rate of net and gross employment decreases monotonically as the size of firm increases, no matterwhich method of sizing firms is used. Measurement does matter, however, as the magnitude of the difference in the growth rates of small and large firms is verysensitive to the measurement approaches used. Part one of the paper also produces results for various industrial sectors, and examines employment growth inexisting small and large firms (i.e., excluding births). It is found that employment growth in the population of existing small and large firms is very similar. Finallyattempts are made to introduce a job quality aspect to the numbers by using payroll distributions rather than employment. The net and gross rates of increase anddecrease in payrolls by firm size are found to be only marginally different than those of employment. The second part of the paper looks at concentration of employment creation and destruction within size classes. This is relevant because if growth is highlyconcentrated, knowing that a firm is small will provide little information about its prospects for growth. Most small firms would grow relatively little, or decline, whilea few expanded a lot. It is found that both job creation and destruction is highly concentrated among relatively few firms in all size groups, but it is greater amongsmall and mid-sized companies than large. Finally attempts are made to correlate the performance of businesses over two three-year periods. It is found thatknowing that a firm is a high performer (in terms of jobs created) over one period is of only limited value in determining growth in the second period. This isparticularly true among small firms. These results suggest that firms which expand rapidly during one period are replaced to some considerable degree by others inthe subsequent period.

    Release date: 1997-07-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970023069
    Description:

    Job sharing occurs when two people voluntarily share the responsibilities of one full-time job. This arrangement provides flexibility for employees and allows employers to retain valued workers who do not want a full-time schedule. Do shared jobs differ from regular part-time jobs? First-time national data on job sharing offer some answers to this question.

    Release date: 1997-06-11

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19970013090
    Description:

    People with jobs involving supervision, management and decision-making have the opportunity to develop skills that are transferable to other organizations: leadership, communication, organization and management skills, for example. In addition, as supervisors and managers, they may have increased occasion to network with others, which may enhance their opportunity to further their career progression. As a result, in today's increasingly competitive labour market, those whose role in their organization includes supervision, management and decision-making responsibilities may be better able to advance their careers and to recover from a job loss. Results from analysis of data from the 1993 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and the 1994 General Social Survey (GSS), indicate that, with few exceptions, education is one of the strongest predictors of an individual's ability to access occupations offering autonomy and authority in the workplace. This remains true, even after the effects of factors that also influence access to these types of positions, such as gender, age, firm size, years of work experience and industry, are taken into consideration.

    Release date: 1997-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19970013089
    Description:

    This article focuses on the incidence of job-related education and training among the population and among workers, differentiating whether or not the training activities were employer-supported. It also explores the likelihood of receiving job-related education and training in 1993 using two complementary statistical approaches: first, a direct reading of the distribution of participants in education and training compared with the distribution of the population, divided by major characteristics; and, second, the use of a statistical technique (logistic regression) that considers each characteristic while taking others into account. In the analysis, several characteristics were retained: four demographic characteristics (sex, age, educational attainment and province of residence) and seven labour market variables (labour market status, occupation, industry, job tenure, company size, total income and union status). (For the logistic regression analysis, all these variables were decomposed into a series of dichotomous variables).

    Release date: 1997-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997100
    Description:

    Fundamental changes have taken place in the labour market and among firms in the 1980s and 1990s. In some cases we understand what has occurred, but notwhy. In other cases the data do not exist to shed light on exactly what is happening, let alone why. Changes in the labour market are often related to changes in theway in which firms are engaging and paying labour, the adoption of new technologies, changes in the types of markets in which firms compete, and other eventsoccurring in firms; i.e. changes on the demand side of the labour market. But data have never existed that allowed events occurring in firms to be related to theoutcomes for the workers. This paper outlines why such data are necessary. The example of rising inequality is used to demonstrate the need for such a survey. Alsopresented is an outline of how the new data can be provided using a new approach to surveying. The proposed survey first surveys establishments, and then surveysworkers within that establishment. In this way a direct link is made between the activities in the establishment and the outcomes for the workers. Conversely, a directlink is established between the events in the firm and the characteristics of the workers, another area of research that has suffered from a lack of data at themicro-level. This paper outlines why such a survey is needed, the possible content, and research topics that could be addressed with such data.

    Release date: 1997-05-15

Data (1)

Data (1) (1 result)

  • Table: 93F0022X
    Description:

    The Nation is the first series to release basic data from the 1996 Census, providing national coverage. This series covers characteristics of the population, including demographic, social, cultural, labour force and income variables as well as details on dwellings, households and families. Generally the data are represented for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses.

    Release date: 1997-10-14

Analysis (27)

Analysis (27) (25 of 27 results)

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M1997002
    Description:

    This paper examines full-time paid workers between the ages of 25 and 60 in Canada, the United States, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Poland, Germany and Sweden.

    Release date: 1997-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043386
    Description:

    This article traces union membership over the last 30 years. Itlooks at current demographic and labour market characteristics of union members, as well as wages, benefits and work arrangements of both union and non-union members. Also examined are wage increases vis-à-vis inflation rates, and the state of labour unrest over the past two decades. An international look at union rates is also provided. (This is an updated version of an article released shortly before Labour Day this year.)

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043383
    Description:

    Would redistributing work hours solve the unemployment problem? This study converts regular paid overtime hours into hypothetical full-time jobs, then distributes them by province, occupation and level of education. It attempts to match these full-time jobs with the unemployed by province and occupation.

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043382
    Description:

    Using the most recent data available, this article sheds light onthe characteristics of people who work either paid or unpaid overtime. The number of extra hours they put in and the types of job they perform are also examined.

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043385
    Description:

    The proportion of non-permanent jobs is relatively high in eastern Canada, a finding only partly explained by the prevalence of seasonal work. This article provides a regional analysis of seasonal, temporary and occasional jobs. It also asks whether non-permanent jobs include fewer benefits than permanent ones.Where possible, the study examines subprovincial data.

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970043384
    Description:

    Although two-thirds of workers are satisfied with their hours, many of the remainder would prefer to work more hours for more pay. This article analyzes work hour preferences by sex, province, job characteristics and family situation. (Adapted froman Analytical Studies Branch research paper published in May1997.)

    Release date: 1997-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997110
    Description:

    The objectives of this paper are to determine the empirical relationships between economic performance, transfers and low income among Canadian families, and to explore whether these relationships have changed over time. Similar recent studies in the US find a weakening in the relationship between economic growth and low income reduction over the past 25 years. Using data from the Survey of Consumer Finances of Statistics Canada, we find that there is a statistically significant negative relationship between economic performance and the incidence of low income among families in Canada for the period from 1973 to 1995. Government transfers are also found to lift families above the low income threshold. These results are robust across different family types and for three different measures of low income.

    We also find a weakening in the relationship between improved economic performance and low income reduction for most family types between 1973 and 1995, and for all family types after 1980. This weakening is associated with rising pre-transfer income inequality among families. Increasing inequality has also reduced the negative impact of transfers on low income rates.

    Release date: 1997-11-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997106
    Description:

    This paper documents job turnover and labour market adjustment activities in the Ontario economy from 1978 to 1993. The following highlights the major findings. Both the permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate vary substantially from one industry to another. In 1992, the permanent layoff and total permanent separation rates ranged from 27.3% and 34.2% in construction to only 1.4% and 9.3% in public services, respectively. The permanent layoff rate and the total permanent separation rate also differ noticeably by gender, age and firm size - in most industries, the rates are higher among male workers than among females, higher among younger workers, and higher among smaller employers.

    While the permanent layoff rate increases during business cycle downturns and decreases during business cycle upswings, the reverse trend is observed with the total permanent separation rate. This is because the quit rate and the other permanent separation rate both decline during downturns and rise during upswings, more than offsetting the opposite trend associated with the permanent layoff rate.

    These univariate-tabulation findings are confirmed in the multi-variate logistic regression results on the statistical determinants of permanent layoffs and total permanent separations. In most industries, after controlling for gender, age, firm size and time periods, the estimated likelihood of permanent layoffs is lower among female workers, decreases significantly with age and firm size, increases during recessions and decreases during recovery and expansion in most industries. The patterns of estimated incidence of total permanent separations are very similar to those of permanent layoffs except that total permanent separations decline during business cycle downturns and climb during business cycle upswings.

    Permanently separated workers have had a much more difficult time in finding employment during the most recent recession than any other time in the past 15 years. Almost 40% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 did not have a job in 1993. This is in marked contrast with the experience of the early 1980s, when 29% of permanently separated workers were jobless 3 years after the separation. A very similar trend is found when the analysis is applied to labour market transitions among permanently laid-off workers.

    There is a great deal of out-of-province migration among permanently separated workers who did find a job. Nearly 45% of those who lost or left a job in 1989 and found a job in 1993 were employed outside of Ontario. An identical proportion of permanently laid-off workers is found to be employed in other provinces.

    Release date: 1997-10-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997103
    Description:

    Canadians are increasingly concerned about permanent layoffs, as many feel job instability and the possibility of job loss has increased in the 1990s. Governments, confronted with a large number of permanent layoffs each year, need to know how to respond to improve labour adjustment and the possibility of quickly finding a new job for displaced workers. Within this context, this paper uses a new longitudinal data source on the separations of workers to address three issues. First, has there in fact been an increase in the permanent layoff rate in Canada in the 1990s, as one might anticipate given concerns about rising job instability? Second, what are the underlying causes of most permanent layoffs? The paper explicitly examines the role played by cyclical variation in aggregate demand, variation in industrial demand which is often associated with structural change, and differences in layoff rates by firm size which is in turn associated with the birth and death process of firms.

    Third, with this as background, the core of the paper asks a question of concern to policy analysts: are most permanent layoffs rare events for workers, or are they a continuation of a pattern of repeat layoffs? This is important because a worker who is confronted with a layoff which is a rare event will require very different post-displacement adjustment assistance from someone whose history of employment has been marked with frequent layoffs, suggesting an inability to hold a job or demand-side instability in the firm or industry in which the person has worked. The workers' employment history over 10 years is used to explore the relationship between permanent layoff history and the probability of being laid off. Displaced workers are classified "low-risk", "medium-risk" and "high-risk" based on their layoff history, and multinomial logistic analysis is used to distinguish worker and firm characteristics associated with repeat layoffs or layoffs as rare events.

    Release date: 1997-09-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970033205
    Description:

    Around the beginning of the year, analysts were predicting that1997 would be a good year for the Canadian economy and labourmarket. Is it living up to expectations? This review examinestrends and developments in the labour market during the firsthalf of 1997. (This article appeared as an advance release inJuly 1997.)

    Release date: 1997-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970033206
    Description:

    This article compares permanent and non-permanent jobs. It looks at wages, hours, benefits and work schedules, among other aspects. The definition of non-permanent work arrangements, the diversity of these jobs, and the characteristics of the workers are also considered.

    Release date: 1997-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970033208
    Description:

    On February 20 and 21, 1997, Statistics Canada hosted the conference, "Intergenerational Equity in Canada." This report presents a brief overview of the concepts and issues associatedwith "equity" between and within generations, summarizing selected conference presentations.

    Release date: 1997-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970033209
    Description:

    Many Canadians believe that job instability and job loss have increased in the 1990s. Using a new longitudinal data source, this article explores the role of the business cycle, changes in industrial demand, and firm size in the growth in permanent layoffs. An overview of the work displacement process is also included. (Adapted from an article in Canadian Economic Observer, February 1997.)

    Release date: 1997-09-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997066
    Description:

    Widely used summary measures of inequality or the "disappearing middle class" are potentially misleading. Divergences between evidence cited and conclusions drawn include failing to distinguish the concepts of inequality and polarization, and using scalar ôinequalityö measures which are not consistent with rankings based on Lorenz curves. In addition, inappropriate claims about trends in inequality can arise from focusing on only a sub-population such as full-time male workers, and failing to account for sampling variability. These divergences are illustrated using Canadian data on labour incomes over the 1967 to 1994 period.

    Release date: 1997-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996093
    Description:

    The statistical observation that small firms have created the majority of new jobs during the 1980s has had a tremendous influence on public policy. Governmentshave looked to the small firm sector for employment growth, and have promoted policies to augment this expansion. However, recent research in the US suggeststhat net job creation in the small firm sector may have been overestimated, relative to that in large firms. The first part of this paper addresses various measurement issues raised in the recent research, and uses a very unique Canadian longitudinal data set thatencompasses all companies in the Canadian economy to reassess the issue of job creation by firm size. We conclude that over the 1978-92 period, for both theentire Canadian economy and the manufacturing sector, the growth rate of net and gross employment decreases monotonically as the size of firm increases, no matterwhich method of sizing firms is used. Measurement does matter, however, as the magnitude of the difference in the growth rates of small and large firms is verysensitive to the measurement approaches used. Part one of the paper also produces results for various industrial sectors, and examines employment growth inexisting small and large firms (i.e., excluding births). It is found that employment growth in the population of existing small and large firms is very similar. Finallyattempts are made to introduce a job quality aspect to the numbers by using payroll distributions rather than employment. The net and gross rates of increase anddecrease in payrolls by firm size are found to be only marginally different than those of employment. The second part of the paper looks at concentration of employment creation and destruction within size classes. This is relevant because if growth is highlyconcentrated, knowing that a firm is small will provide little information about its prospects for growth. Most small firms would grow relatively little, or decline, whilea few expanded a lot. It is found that both job creation and destruction is highly concentrated among relatively few firms in all size groups, but it is greater amongsmall and mid-sized companies than large. Finally attempts are made to correlate the performance of businesses over two three-year periods. It is found thatknowing that a firm is a high performer (in terms of jobs created) over one period is of only limited value in determining growth in the second period. This isparticularly true among small firms. These results suggest that firms which expand rapidly during one period are replaced to some considerable degree by others inthe subsequent period.

    Release date: 1997-07-17

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970023069
    Description:

    Job sharing occurs when two people voluntarily share the responsibilities of one full-time job. This arrangement provides flexibility for employees and allows employers to retain valued workers who do not want a full-time schedule. Do shared jobs differ from regular part-time jobs? First-time national data on job sharing offer some answers to this question.

    Release date: 1997-06-11

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19970013090
    Description:

    People with jobs involving supervision, management and decision-making have the opportunity to develop skills that are transferable to other organizations: leadership, communication, organization and management skills, for example. In addition, as supervisors and managers, they may have increased occasion to network with others, which may enhance their opportunity to further their career progression. As a result, in today's increasingly competitive labour market, those whose role in their organization includes supervision, management and decision-making responsibilities may be better able to advance their careers and to recover from a job loss. Results from analysis of data from the 1993 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and the 1994 General Social Survey (GSS), indicate that, with few exceptions, education is one of the strongest predictors of an individual's ability to access occupations offering autonomy and authority in the workplace. This remains true, even after the effects of factors that also influence access to these types of positions, such as gender, age, firm size, years of work experience and industry, are taken into consideration.

    Release date: 1997-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19970013089
    Description:

    This article focuses on the incidence of job-related education and training among the population and among workers, differentiating whether or not the training activities were employer-supported. It also explores the likelihood of receiving job-related education and training in 1993 using two complementary statistical approaches: first, a direct reading of the distribution of participants in education and training compared with the distribution of the population, divided by major characteristics; and, second, the use of a statistical technique (logistic regression) that considers each characteristic while taking others into account. In the analysis, several characteristics were retained: four demographic characteristics (sex, age, educational attainment and province of residence) and seven labour market variables (labour market status, occupation, industry, job tenure, company size, total income and union status). (For the logistic regression analysis, all these variables were decomposed into a series of dichotomous variables).

    Release date: 1997-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997100
    Description:

    Fundamental changes have taken place in the labour market and among firms in the 1980s and 1990s. In some cases we understand what has occurred, but notwhy. In other cases the data do not exist to shed light on exactly what is happening, let alone why. Changes in the labour market are often related to changes in theway in which firms are engaging and paying labour, the adoption of new technologies, changes in the types of markets in which firms compete, and other eventsoccurring in firms; i.e. changes on the demand side of the labour market. But data have never existed that allowed events occurring in firms to be related to theoutcomes for the workers. This paper outlines why such data are necessary. The example of rising inequality is used to demonstrate the need for such a survey. Alsopresented is an outline of how the new data can be provided using a new approach to surveying. The proposed survey first surveys establishments, and then surveysworkers within that establishment. In this way a direct link is made between the activities in the establishment and the outcomes for the workers. Conversely, a directlink is established between the events in the firm and the characteristics of the workers, another area of research that has suffered from a lack of data at themicro-level. This paper outlines why such a survey is needed, the possible content, and research topics that could be addressed with such data.

    Release date: 1997-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997104
    Description:

    Faced with high unemployment rates, an unequal distribution of worktime, and shifts to temporary, part-time and contract employment, Canadian workers may prefer to change their work hours. Using data from the Survey of Work Arrangements of 1995, we find that two thirds of Canadian workers are satisfied with their work hours. The majority of workers who are not satisfied would prefer more hours for more pay rather than fewer hours for less pay. This finding is robust as it holds for each age group, education level, seniority level, industrial and occupational group. Workers most likely to want more work hours are generally young, have low levels of education, have little seniority, hold temporary jobs, work short hours and are employed in low-skill occupations. Workers who are the most likely to desire a shorter work week are professionals, managers, and natural and social science workers, have high hourly wage rates, possess high levels of education, have long job tenure, occupy permanent jobs and already work long hours. Calculations based on the Survey on Work Reduction of 1985 suggest that if Canadian workers were to voluntarily reduce their work week, the number of work hours available for redistribution would unlikely be sufficient to both eliminate underemployment and reduce unemployment. The potential for work time redistribution, as measured by the propensity to desire fewer hours, appears to be greatest (lowest) in age-education groups with relatively low (high) unemployment rates. This implies that the resulting decrease in unemployment and underemployment could be more pronounced in groups where workers are already relatively successful.

    Release date: 1997-05-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970012995
    Description:

    This article provides highlights of results from the 1995 Survey of Work Arrangements and compares them with those from the 1991 survey. Issues explored include business practices, juggling school and work, balancing work and family, job quality, reasons for self-employment, and work hour preferences. (This article appeared as an advance release in December 1996.)

    Release date: 1997-03-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970012990
    Description:

    The first of two features on the Northwest Territories and the Yukon, this article compares the North's economic and employment trends with those in the rest of the country. Occupation, industry and selected population characteristics are also studied.

    Release date: 1997-03-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970012992
    Description:

    Jobs have been declining in the clothing industry since the late 1980s while production has grown. This article examines this trend, profiles those employed in the industry since 1981, and discusses factors most likely to affect future employment trends. National, provincial and

    international data are also presented.

    Release date: 1997-03-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970012989
    Description:

    How has 1996 performed compared with 1995 and 1994? This year-end review examines changes and trends in the labour market over the past year. (This article appeared as an advance release in January 1997.)

    Release date: 1997-03-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19970012991
    Description:

    This article compares earnings and incomes of northern Canadians and other Canadians by occupation, sex and other variables. It also examines income sources for both groups.

    Release date: 1997-03-14

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