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All (64) (25 of 64 results)

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1998007
    Description:

    This study examines the upward mobility of low-paid Canadians between 1993 and 1995 using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1998-12-31

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1998001
    Description:

    This study addresses the labour market adjustment of immigrants in Canada and specifically, employment stability. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1998-12-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1998016
    Description:

    This paper estimates a structural model of self-employment using data from Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). It provides a comprehensive analysis of the self-employment decision and it assesses the self-employment behavior of men and women separately.

    Release date: 1998-12-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1998018
    Description:

    This paper presents data on labour market transitions (or the seam) using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1998-12-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1998003
    Description:

    This paper provides a written approximation of the 1998 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) labour interview questionnaire.

    Release date: 1998-12-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1998008
    Description:

    This paper examines how workers react to being laid off. It looks at which laid off workers maintain their participation in the labor market, and how long it takes to find a new job.

    Release date: 1998-12-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1998009
    Description:

    This study looks at men and women who experienced an increase in their employment earnings following the last recession and aims to identify the factors and characteristics that created that increase.

    Release date: 1998-12-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1998010
    Description:

    This paper examines the role of economic circumstances in the dissolution of marriage or common-law unions. It uses 1993 and 1994 data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1998-12-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1998014
    Description:

    This paper compares hours worked obtained from two different surveys: the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) in order to evaluate the quality of the data from each survey.

    Release date: 1998-12-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980044042
    Description:

    This article investigates the common claim that jobs are less stable in the service sector. It also contests the view that overall job stability has declined as the economy has shifted toward employment in services. (Adapted from an article in Canadian Economic Observer published in May 1998).

    Release date: 1998-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980044043
    Description:

    This profile of unionized women covers demographic and labour characteristics, wages, benefits and work arrangements. Also included are selected union statistics for both men and women. (This is an updated version of an article released shortly before Labour Day, 1998).

    Release date: 1998-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998120
    Description:

    Considerable attention has been directed at understanding the structural changes that are generating an increased need for skilled workers. These changes are perceived to be the result of developments associated with the emergence of the new knowledge economy, whose potential is often linked to the growth of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). Where are these firms to be found? Related work on changes in technology and innovativeness has been accompanied by the creation of taxonomies that classify industries as high-tech or high-knowledge, based primarily on the characteristics of large firms. There is a temptation to use these taxonomies to identify new technology-based firms only within certain sectors. This paper uses a special survey that collected data on new firms to argue that this would be unwise.

    The paper investigates the limitations of existing classification schemes that might be used to classify industries as high- or low-tech, as advanced or otherwise. Characteristically unidimensional in scope, many of these taxonomies employ conceptual and operational measures that are narrow and incomplete. Consequently, previous rankings that identify sectors as high- or low-tech using these measures obscure the degree of innovativeness and human capital formation exhibited by certain industries. In a policy environment wherein emotive 'scoreboard' classifications have direct effects on resource allocation, the social costs of misclassification are potentially significant.

    Using a comparative methodology, this study investigates the role that conceptualization plays in devising taxonomies of high- and low-tech industries. Far from producing definitive classifications, existing measures of technological advancement are found to be wanting when their underpinnings are examined closely. Our objective in the current analysis is to examine the limitations of standard classification schemes, particularly when applied to new small firms, and to suggest an alternative framework based on a competency-model of the firm.

    Release date: 1998-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19980024078
    Description:

    Educational attainment is an important determinant of one's job opportunities and relative well-being. One influence on the level of education children attain is the level of education attained by parents.

    Release date: 1998-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 61F0019X19970044038
    Description:

    Profiles are available by type of business (unincorporated, incorporated, and both combined) for about 680 different industries in Canada. They are also produced for each province and territory, but with reduced industry detail. This article focuses on revenue, profit, assets and equity.

    Release date: 1998-11-25

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1995002
    Description:

    This paper is the second of a two-part series on business services and their role in the Canadian economy. It provides a detailed industrial and geographical profile of employment, illustrates its composition and major characteristics and analyzes its sources of growth by type, gender, occupation, education and other features.

    Business services is a dynamic sector with impressive employment growth, considerably higher than the economy average. Growth has been particularly strong in self-employment, part-time and female employment. Much of the growth in employment originates in the computer services industry. The proportion of managerial and professional positions has been growing relative to clerical ones. Employment is heavily concentrated in urban centres. Individuals employed in these industries are better educated and better paid than the average worker.

    Release date: 1998-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1998015
    Description:

    This brief paper looks at how the services sector fared during the 1981/82 and 1990/92 recessions, offering insights into how the sector could be affected in the event of another recession. It examines recession-period changes in the sector's gross domestic product (GDP), employment patterns and workforce remuneration, compared to those in the rest of the economy. The article concludes that during recessions, these indicators of economic health declined less for services than for the rest of the economy, suggesting that recessions have relatively less impact on the services sector.

    Release date: 1998-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1998016
    Description:

    This article looks at the rapid growth of the architectural, engineering and other scientific and technical services (AES) industry and, when possible, its three sub-industries, from 1982 to 1994. Industry growth, employment and remuneration patterns are compared to those in the overall Canadian economy. The article also examines characteristics of the AES industry's workforce, particularly the employees' education qualifications, occupations and demographic characteristics.

    Release date: 1998-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1996008
    Description:

    Human resources in science and technology are deemed to be important to Canada's economic growth because of the key role they play in the development and use of new technologies. To gain a better understanding of this group and its relation to industry, this paper examines its demographic structure, occupation and education profile as well as its working conditions. The analysis is based on data from the 1991 census of population. It reveals a picture of a well-educated, well-paid, middle-aged (25-44 years) professionals and managers who work full-time all year. The majority are male and have an educational specialization related to their scientific occupation. However, the correspondence between scientific education and occupation is not perfect. There are some who have a certain educational background but who work elsewhere, and there are some who work in scientific occupations without the typical educational profile. The distribution across occupations appears to be changing, with the younger generation moving towards mathematics and systems occupations and away from engineering and the natural and applied sciences. The profile of women differs from that of men in terms of their greater concentration in mathematics and systems occupations. Women in the oldest group have more varied specializations than men.

    Release date: 1998-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998128
    Description:

    We provide recent evidence on job characteristics by firm size in Canada. Using a variety of household surveys, we assemble a wide set of facts on wages, fringe benefits and work schedules in small and large firms. We show that the wage gap between small and large firms has reamined fairly stable over the past decade. After controlling for observable worker characteristics and industry-specific effects, large firms pay 15-20% more than small firms. Pension plan coverage remains at least four times higher in large firms than in small firms. While the gap in pension coverage between small and large firms has not increased over time for men, there is some evidence that it has increased for women. We assess the extent to which work schedules vary between small and large firms. Our results indicate that compared to workers in large firms, employees of small firms work at least as many weekly hours. Furthermore, they are more likely to work more than five days per week. This implies that the firm size wage premium cannot be explained by a longer workweek in large firms. As long as workers prefer working during the day, the greater frequency of shift work in large, goods-producing companies is one dimension along which work schedules are less desirable in large firms. According to the theory of compensating differentials, the size-wage differential may partially reflect the willingness of large firms to compensate workers for shift work. We test this hypothesis and conclude that shift work has virtually no effect on the firm size wage premium. Our results emphasize the need to look at several dimensions of work to assess how job quality varies between small and large firms.

    Release date: 1998-11-13

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014019
    Description:

    The goal of this chapter is to document how the young fare in today's labour market. The focus is on young men for two reasons. First, most of the recent literature on the growth of earnings inequality has concentrated on the study of male earnings. This approach is chosen because one of the questions addressed is about the consequences of the growth of earnings inequality on youth age-earnings profiles. Second, and more importantly, the labour market behaviour of women is much more complicated to examine because their participation rates have changed dramatically over the last twenty years.

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014018
    Description:

    In this chapter we document trends in social transfers, market incomes and family composition from 1973 through 1995, and their impact on the incidence of low-income among four generations: children (new-borns to those 14 years of age), young adults (25 to 34), the older working-age population (45 to 54), and the elderly (over 65).

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Table: 95F0268X
    Description:

    The Area Profile Series provides a univariate statistical overview of a region presenting most of the census variables. This electronic profile contains all levels of geography, i.e. Canada, provinces, territories, census divisions, census subdivisions, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations, census tracts, federal electoral districts*, enumeration areas and forward sortation areas.These data are based on a 20% sample except for the variables Age, Sex and Marital Status which are obtained on a 100% basis.Area Profiles are available on diskette by a variety of geographical areas and there is a print publication for census divisions and subdivisions, as well as for census tracts. For a brief look at the type of information available on the Area Profiles, the Community Profiles at the census subdivision level can be accessed on the Statistics Canada web site at www.statcan.gc.ca under the heading Census - "Statistical Profile of Canadian Communities". A statistical profile is presented for all Canadian communities (cities, towns, villages, Indian reserves and settlements, etc.) highlighting information on education, income and work, families and dwellings, as well as general population information. Confidentiality procedures have been applied to the data (both suppression of data and random rounding of numbers) to protect the confidentiality of individual respondents.*As per the 1987 Representation Order or the 1996 Representation Order.

    Release date: 1998-10-30

  • Technical products: 88F0006X1998002
    Description:

    Statistics Canada is engaged in the "Information System for Science and Technology Project" to develop useful indicators of activity and a framework to tie them together into a coherent picture of science and technology (S&T) in Canada. The working papers series is used to publish results of the different initiatives conducted within this project. The data are related to the activities, linkages and outcomes of S&T. Several key areas are covered such as: innovation, technology diffusion, human resources in S&T and interrelations between different actors involved in S&T. This series also presents data tabulations taken from regular surveys on research and development (R&D) and S&T and made possible by the project.

    Release date: 1998-10-30

  • Technical products: 88F0006X1998003
    Description:

    Statistics Canada is engaged in the "Information System for Science and Technology Project" to develop useful indicators of activity and a framework to tie them together into a coherent picture of science and technology (S&T) in Canada. The working papers series is used to publish results of the different initiatives conducted within this project. The data are related to the activities, linkages and outcomes of S&T. Several key areas are covered such as: innovation, technology diffusion, human resources in S&T and interrelations between different actors involved in S&T. This series also presents data tabulations taken from regular surveys on research and development (R&D) and S&T and made possible by the project.

    Release date: 1998-10-30

  • Technical products: 88F0006X1998004
    Description:

    Statistics Canada is engaged in the "Information System for Science and Technology Project" to develop useful indicators of activity and a framework to tie them together into a coherent picture of science and technology (S&T) in Canada. The working papers series is used to publish results of the different initiatives conducted within this project. The data are related to the activities, linkages and outcomes of S&T. Several key areas are covered such as: innovation, technology diffusion, human resources in S&T and interrelations between different actors involved in S&T. This series also presents data tabulations taken from regular surveys on research and development (R&D) and S&T and made possible by the project.

    Release date: 1998-10-30

Data (12)

Data (12) (12 of 12 results)

  • Table: 95F0268X
    Description:

    The Area Profile Series provides a univariate statistical overview of a region presenting most of the census variables. This electronic profile contains all levels of geography, i.e. Canada, provinces, territories, census divisions, census subdivisions, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations, census tracts, federal electoral districts*, enumeration areas and forward sortation areas.These data are based on a 20% sample except for the variables Age, Sex and Marital Status which are obtained on a 100% basis.Area Profiles are available on diskette by a variety of geographical areas and there is a print publication for census divisions and subdivisions, as well as for census tracts. For a brief look at the type of information available on the Area Profiles, the Community Profiles at the census subdivision level can be accessed on the Statistics Canada web site at www.statcan.gc.ca under the heading Census - "Statistical Profile of Canadian Communities". A statistical profile is presented for all Canadian communities (cities, towns, villages, Indian reserves and settlements, etc.) highlighting information on education, income and work, families and dwellings, as well as general population information. Confidentiality procedures have been applied to the data (both suppression of data and random rounding of numbers) to protect the confidentiality of individual respondents.*As per the 1987 Representation Order or the 1996 Representation Order.

    Release date: 1998-10-30

  • Table: 93F0020X
    Description:

    This CD-ROM contains the cumulative set of 143 data tables from all Nation Series CDROMs .This comprehensive CD-ROM provides a full range of statistics on characteristics of the population which includes: Age, Sex, Marital Status and Common-law Unions; Families, Households and Dwellings, Immigration and Citizenship, Mother Tongue, Home Language, Official and non-official Languages; Aboriginal data, Ethnic Origin, Visible Minorities (Population group), Labour Market Activity, Industry and Occupation, Unpaid Household Activities (unpaid work), Place of Work, Mode of Transportation; Education; Mobility and Migration; Individual and Family Income and Family, Dwellings and Household Information.These data are national in coverage and provide information for Canada, provinces and territories and, in some tabulations, census metropolitan area levels. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.A variety of Nation Series data table extracts presenting social and economic characteristics of the Canadian population are available on the Statistics Canada Census Web site (www.statcan.gc.ca).

    Release date: 1998-09-18

  • Table: 95F0271X
    Description:

    These are a series of approximately 65 tabulations of 1996 Census data, which features two or three inter-related variables that deal with specific characteristics of people, families or households, or with a characteristic of Canadian dwellings. All variables covered by the 1996 Census are represented in the BST program. Forward Sortation Level geography is available for the first time.

    Release date: 1998-07-14

  • Table: 95F0272X
    Description:

    These are a series of approximately 65 tabulations of 1996 Census data, which features two or three inter-related variables that deal with specific characteristics of people, families or households, or with a characteristic of Canadian dwellings. All variables covered by the 1996 Census are represented in the BST program. Forward Sortation Level geography is available for the first time.

    Release date: 1998-07-14

  • Table: 95F0269X
    Description:

    These are a series of approximately 65 tabulations of 1996 Census data, which features two or three inter-related variables that deal with specific characteristics of people, families or households, or with a characteristic of Canadian dwellings. All variables covered by the 1996 Census are represented in the BST program. Forward Sortation Level geography is available for the first time.

    Release date: 1998-07-14

  • Table: 95F0270X
    Description:

    These are a series of approximately 65 tabulations of 1996 Census data, which features two or three inter-related variables that deal with specific characteristics of people, families or households, or with a characteristic of Canadian dwellings. All variables covered by the 1996 Census are represented in the BST program. Forward Sortation Level geography is available for the first time.

    Release date: 1998-07-14

  • Table: 95F0180X
    Description:

    The Area Profile Series provides a univariate statistical overview of a region presenting most of the census variables. This electronic profile contains all levels of geography, i.e. Canada, provinces, territories, census divisions, census subdivisions, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations, census tracts, federal electoral districts*, enumeration areas and forward sortation areas.These data are based on a 20% sample except for the variables Age, Sex and Marital Status which are obtained on a 100% basis.Area Profiles are available on diskette by a variety of geographical areas and there is a print publication for census divisions and subdivisions, as well as for census tracts. For a brief look at the type of information available on the Area Profiles, the Community Profiles at the census subdivision level can be accessed on the Statistics Canada web site at www.statcan.gc.ca under the heading Census - "Statistical Profile of Canadian Communities". A statistical profile is presented for all Canadian communities (cities, towns, villages, Indian reserves and settlements, etc.) highlighting information on education, income and work, families and dwellings, as well as general population information. Confidentiality procedures have been applied to the data (both suppression of data and random rounding of numbers) to protect the confidentiality of individual respondents.*As per the 1987 Representation Order or the 1996 Representation Order.

    Release date: 1998-07-09

  • Table: 71-539-X
    Description:

    This publication about worker turnover in the Canadian economy provides comprehensive data for the first time on job separations and hiring, with emphasis on permanent separations, temporary separations, quits and layoffs.

    Release date: 1998-06-25

  • Table: 93F0030X
    Description:

    The Nation is the first series to release basic data from the 1996 Census, providing national coverage. This series covers characteristics of the population, including demographic, social, cultural, labour force and income variables as well as details on dwellings, households and families. Generally the data are represented for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas. Some tables include comparisons with data from earlier censuses.

    Release date: 1998-06-09

  • Table: 71-583-X
    Description:

    This overview report provides the first data from a new pilot survey recently conducted by Statistics Canada for Human Resources Development Canada. This survey, called the "Workplace and Employee Survey" (WES) and developed jointly by the two agencies represents the first attempt in Canada at conducting a large-scale linked employer-employee survey. The survey consists of two components: (1) an establishment survey on the adoption of technologies, organizational change, training and other human resource practices, business strategies, and labour turnover in the establishment; and (2) a survey of workers within these same establishments to obtain data on their wages, hours of work, job type, human capital, other characteristics, use of technologies, and training taken. This data source provides, for the first time in Canada, detailed linked micro-data on establishments and their workers.

    Release date: 1998-05-04

  • Public use microdata: 72M0001X
    Description:

    The Canadian Out-of-Employment Panel Survey was conducted by Statistics Canada for Human Resources Development Canada, Strategic Evaluation and Monitoring. This survey interviewed people who had a job interruption during one of the two reference periods: (1) Jan. 29-Mar. 11, 1995; or (2) Apr. 23-June 3, 1995.

    The survey gathered information on subsequent employment during a 13-month period, background demographics on the individual and the household, as well as information on job search activities and outcomes, income, assets and debts, expenditures, and training.

    In 1996, the COEP survey was re-designed as the Changes in Employment Survey, referred to as COEP 1996. The re-designed survey had changes in the sample design and content to allow a more complete picture of the population of individuals experiencing a loss or change of employment.

    The survey collects information on employment history during an 18-month period, background demographics on the individual and the household, as well as information on job search activities and outcomes, income, assets and debts, expenditures, and training.The main changes to the sample design compared to COEP 1995 are as follows: all individuals who are issued an ROE in the reference period are included in the 1996 design whereas under the 1995 design, only individuals whose ROE was issued for particular reasons were included; and the reference periods for the 1996 design are consecutive quarters, giving complete coverage across time whereas for the 1995 design, two discrete time periods were selected.

    The main change to the content compared to COEP 1995 is as follows: information is collected about all employers the individual worked for during the reference period whereas under the 1995 design, information was only collected for the ROE employer, the next employer and the current employer.

    Release date: 1998-04-15

  • Table: 68-513-X19970013567
    Description:

    Generational Accounting (GA) attempts to measure the degree of intergenerational redistribution that exists within a given fiscal and demographic structure. This approach produces a more comprehensive measure of the extent of intergenerational redistribution stemming from government programs than traditional measures that are based solely on government debt and deficits.

    Release date: 1998-02-04

Analysis (39)

Analysis (39) (25 of 39 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980044042
    Description:

    This article investigates the common claim that jobs are less stable in the service sector. It also contests the view that overall job stability has declined as the economy has shifted toward employment in services. (Adapted from an article in Canadian Economic Observer published in May 1998).

    Release date: 1998-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980044043
    Description:

    This profile of unionized women covers demographic and labour characteristics, wages, benefits and work arrangements. Also included are selected union statistics for both men and women. (This is an updated version of an article released shortly before Labour Day, 1998).

    Release date: 1998-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998120
    Description:

    Considerable attention has been directed at understanding the structural changes that are generating an increased need for skilled workers. These changes are perceived to be the result of developments associated with the emergence of the new knowledge economy, whose potential is often linked to the growth of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). Where are these firms to be found? Related work on changes in technology and innovativeness has been accompanied by the creation of taxonomies that classify industries as high-tech or high-knowledge, based primarily on the characteristics of large firms. There is a temptation to use these taxonomies to identify new technology-based firms only within certain sectors. This paper uses a special survey that collected data on new firms to argue that this would be unwise.

    The paper investigates the limitations of existing classification schemes that might be used to classify industries as high- or low-tech, as advanced or otherwise. Characteristically unidimensional in scope, many of these taxonomies employ conceptual and operational measures that are narrow and incomplete. Consequently, previous rankings that identify sectors as high- or low-tech using these measures obscure the degree of innovativeness and human capital formation exhibited by certain industries. In a policy environment wherein emotive 'scoreboard' classifications have direct effects on resource allocation, the social costs of misclassification are potentially significant.

    Using a comparative methodology, this study investigates the role that conceptualization plays in devising taxonomies of high- and low-tech industries. Far from producing definitive classifications, existing measures of technological advancement are found to be wanting when their underpinnings are examined closely. Our objective in the current analysis is to examine the limitations of standard classification schemes, particularly when applied to new small firms, and to suggest an alternative framework based on a competency-model of the firm.

    Release date: 1998-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19980024078
    Description:

    Educational attainment is an important determinant of one's job opportunities and relative well-being. One influence on the level of education children attain is the level of education attained by parents.

    Release date: 1998-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 61F0019X19970044038
    Description:

    Profiles are available by type of business (unincorporated, incorporated, and both combined) for about 680 different industries in Canada. They are also produced for each province and territory, but with reduced industry detail. This article focuses on revenue, profit, assets and equity.

    Release date: 1998-11-25

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1995002
    Description:

    This paper is the second of a two-part series on business services and their role in the Canadian economy. It provides a detailed industrial and geographical profile of employment, illustrates its composition and major characteristics and analyzes its sources of growth by type, gender, occupation, education and other features.

    Business services is a dynamic sector with impressive employment growth, considerably higher than the economy average. Growth has been particularly strong in self-employment, part-time and female employment. Much of the growth in employment originates in the computer services industry. The proportion of managerial and professional positions has been growing relative to clerical ones. Employment is heavily concentrated in urban centres. Individuals employed in these industries are better educated and better paid than the average worker.

    Release date: 1998-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1998015
    Description:

    This brief paper looks at how the services sector fared during the 1981/82 and 1990/92 recessions, offering insights into how the sector could be affected in the event of another recession. It examines recession-period changes in the sector's gross domestic product (GDP), employment patterns and workforce remuneration, compared to those in the rest of the economy. The article concludes that during recessions, these indicators of economic health declined less for services than for the rest of the economy, suggesting that recessions have relatively less impact on the services sector.

    Release date: 1998-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1998016
    Description:

    This article looks at the rapid growth of the architectural, engineering and other scientific and technical services (AES) industry and, when possible, its three sub-industries, from 1982 to 1994. Industry growth, employment and remuneration patterns are compared to those in the overall Canadian economy. The article also examines characteristics of the AES industry's workforce, particularly the employees' education qualifications, occupations and demographic characteristics.

    Release date: 1998-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1996008
    Description:

    Human resources in science and technology are deemed to be important to Canada's economic growth because of the key role they play in the development and use of new technologies. To gain a better understanding of this group and its relation to industry, this paper examines its demographic structure, occupation and education profile as well as its working conditions. The analysis is based on data from the 1991 census of population. It reveals a picture of a well-educated, well-paid, middle-aged (25-44 years) professionals and managers who work full-time all year. The majority are male and have an educational specialization related to their scientific occupation. However, the correspondence between scientific education and occupation is not perfect. There are some who have a certain educational background but who work elsewhere, and there are some who work in scientific occupations without the typical educational profile. The distribution across occupations appears to be changing, with the younger generation moving towards mathematics and systems occupations and away from engineering and the natural and applied sciences. The profile of women differs from that of men in terms of their greater concentration in mathematics and systems occupations. Women in the oldest group have more varied specializations than men.

    Release date: 1998-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998128
    Description:

    We provide recent evidence on job characteristics by firm size in Canada. Using a variety of household surveys, we assemble a wide set of facts on wages, fringe benefits and work schedules in small and large firms. We show that the wage gap between small and large firms has reamined fairly stable over the past decade. After controlling for observable worker characteristics and industry-specific effects, large firms pay 15-20% more than small firms. Pension plan coverage remains at least four times higher in large firms than in small firms. While the gap in pension coverage between small and large firms has not increased over time for men, there is some evidence that it has increased for women. We assess the extent to which work schedules vary between small and large firms. Our results indicate that compared to workers in large firms, employees of small firms work at least as many weekly hours. Furthermore, they are more likely to work more than five days per week. This implies that the firm size wage premium cannot be explained by a longer workweek in large firms. As long as workers prefer working during the day, the greater frequency of shift work in large, goods-producing companies is one dimension along which work schedules are less desirable in large firms. According to the theory of compensating differentials, the size-wage differential may partially reflect the willingness of large firms to compensate workers for shift work. We test this hypothesis and conclude that shift work has virtually no effect on the firm size wage premium. Our results emphasize the need to look at several dimensions of work to assess how job quality varies between small and large firms.

    Release date: 1998-11-13

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014019
    Description:

    The goal of this chapter is to document how the young fare in today's labour market. The focus is on young men for two reasons. First, most of the recent literature on the growth of earnings inequality has concentrated on the study of male earnings. This approach is chosen because one of the questions addressed is about the consequences of the growth of earnings inequality on youth age-earnings profiles. Second, and more importantly, the labour market behaviour of women is much more complicated to examine because their participation rates have changed dramatically over the last twenty years.

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Articles and reports: 89-553-X19980014018
    Description:

    In this chapter we document trends in social transfers, market incomes and family composition from 1973 through 1995, and their impact on the incidence of low-income among four generations: children (new-borns to those 14 years of age), young adults (25 to 34), the older working-age population (45 to 54), and the elderly (over 65).

    Release date: 1998-11-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998126
    Description:

    Controlling for observable worker attributes, we find that computer use is associated with a wage premium of at most 14%. Following Dinardo and Pischke (1997), we examine the wage premium associated with other tools used on the job. While these authors find a significant wage premium for the use of pencils or for sitting down while working, we find a substantial and robust wage premium for the use of a fax machine. Using a variety of reasonable specifications of wage equations including both a computer use indicator and a fax use indicator, we consistently find a stronger effect for fax machines than for computers. Along with Dinardo and Pischke (1997), we argue that workers who use computers earn more than other employees not because of their computing skills per se, but rather because they have more other unobserved skills - innate or learned through school - than other employees.

    Release date: 1998-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998113
    Description:

    Our objective is to obtain an accurate estimate of the degree of intergenerational income mobility in Canada. We use income tax information on about 400,000 father-son pairs, and find intergenerational earnings elasticities to be about 0.2. Earnings mobility tends to be slightly greater than income mobility, but non-parametric techniques uncover significant non-linearities in both of these relationships. Intergenerational earnings mobility is greater at the lower end of the income distribution than at the upper end, and displays an inverted V-shape elsewhere. Intergenerational income mobility follows roughly the same pattern, but is much lower at the very top of the income distribution.

    Release date: 1998-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 63-016-X19980024000
    Description:

    It is common knowledge that the services sector has over the past few decades become the largest employer in Canada. From 1976 to 1996, the services industries have grown from 67% to 75% of employment, with most of this growth taking place in consumer and business services.

    Release date: 1998-10-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998125
    Description:

    This paper highlights recent trends in employment insurance (formerly unemployment insurance). It also provides a review of the historic evolution of the employment insurance program. The following summarizes the main results.

    The EI system has turned from large deficits prior to 1993, to nearly balancing the books in that year, and further to substantial surpluses ever since. This is attributable to many factors. Premium contributions collected from employees and employers have been stable at a historically high level since 1994 largely thanks to the recovery of the economy. On the other hand, benefit payouts have steadily declined since 1993 mainly due to a falling number of beneficiaries since 1993, benefit rate reduction from 60% to 57% in 1993 and further to 55% in 1994 except for low income claimants with dependents (back up 60%).

    The declining number of beneficiaries is in turn attributable to many factors. Unemployment as well as the unemployment rate has been falling since 1993 (there was a slight increase in 1996). Characteristics of the unemployed may have changed. There has also been a series of significant changes in policy parameters regarding benefit eligibility since 1990.

    Over the course of its nearly sixty years of existence, the EI system has undergone numerous changes. Most significantly, the 1971 UI Act which widely liberalized the pre-1971 system; a series of subsequent fine-tuning and tightening-up; and the abolishment of minimum hours/earnings coverage requirements (all employees are now covered), as well as the name change to "employment insurance" from "unemployment insurance".

    Release date: 1998-09-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998114
    Description:

    This paper investigates the inter-provincial labour mobility behaviour of immigrants relative to that of native-born Canadians. Foreign-born Canadians differ a great deal from their domestically-born counterparts. The foreign-born population is geographically concentrated in a few provinces and a few big cities. As a whole, they are older, better educated, more likely to be married, and more likely to have dependent children and bigger households. They are less active in participating in full-time education and training. They fare relatively better in the labour market. As a result, a higher proportion of them receive social security benefits that are directly tied to the presence of dependent children or age such as family allowance benefits and pension income, but a lower proportion receive benefits that are related to labour market performance such as employment insurance benefits and social assistance benefits.

    As a whole, immigrants are relatively less mobile inter-provincially. This is true both nationally and across almost every province. Among those who move to other provinces, destinations for foreign-born migrants are highly geographically concentrated. Most of them make their new homes in Alberta, Ontario and British Columbia. A significantly lower proportion of them relocate to other provinces for economic considerations but a much higher proportion move to go to school or after retirement. Earnings return to their inter-provincial migration is significantly more substantial. This is the result of both wage increase and more hours of work after migration.

    Multi-variate regression results show that there are no statistically significant structural differences in the determinants of inter-provincial migration decisions between comparable foreign- and native-born Canadians. The probability of moving to other provinces, for immigrants as well as for domestically-born Canadians, is higher if earnings potentials elsewhere are relatively higher, lower if it is relatively harder to find employment elsewhere, higher among better educated workers, lower among French-speaking Canadians, lower among union members, and decreases with age, family size and job tenure. None of the proxies for government's labour market interventions significantly affect the decision to move inter-provincially. The lower mobility rates among the foreign-born are fully attributable to distributional and compositional differences between the immigrant and non-immigrant populations.

    These findings have a direct policy implication on immigration selection. To encourage population and labour force growth in economically less prosperous provinces, it appears appropriate and effective to amend the current immigration selection and approval system, considering intended destinations as an additional factor and awarding additional points to applicants who choose designated provinces.

    Release date: 1998-09-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980033945
    Description:

    Unemployed job seekers have changed their approach to looking for work. This article, which presents data for 1977 to 1997, examines job search methods by age, sex, education and duration of unemployment.

    Release date: 1998-09-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980033942
    Description:

    This brief note updates employment data for computer programmers and systems analysts, to the second quarter of 1998.

    Release date: 1998-09-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980033944
    Description:

    Labour Force Survey data show that most of the recent decline in labour force participation is attributable to the upswing in school attendance and the trend toward earlier retirement.

    Release date: 1998-09-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980033943
    Description:

    In 1995, 4 out of 10 dual-earner couples working full time had at least one spouse working shift (that is, other than "9 to 5"). This article examines several job and life-cycle characteristics to determine who is more likely to work shift.

    Release date: 1998-09-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19980033947
    Description:

    As a complement to "Working at home," published in the Summer 1998 issue, this study focuses on the self-employed who work from home. Who are they? What do they do? Why do they work from home? These are some of the questions addressed.

    Release date: 1998-09-09

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19980013902
    Description:

    Education is an important determinant of one's position in society, affecting a person's participation in the community and likely success in the labour market. The inherited intellectual capital of the family - forged over the years by generations of family members' achievements at school and work - often plays a large role in a child's educational achievement. It can contribute indirectly by paving the way for a higher level of educational attainment. This article assesses the role of inherited intellectual capital in children's acquisition of postsecondary education.

    Release date: 1998-08-12

  • Articles and reports: 63-016-X19980013842
    Description:

    This study presents estimates of job reallocation, calculated as gross job gains plus gross job losses; compares job reallocation in the service sector to that in the goods-producing sector; explains why innovative industries do not necessarily have similar employment patterns; and examines why some industries that are less technologically sophisticated appear to exhibit the same job reallocation patterns as some innovative industries.

    Release date: 1998-07-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1998124
    Description:

    Conventional wisdom has it that U. S. society is both richer and more unequal than Canadian society, and that both have become more unequal in recent decades. It is true that earnings inequality increased in both countries from 1974 to 1985. However, in the 1985 to 1995 period, while generally rising in the United States, earnings inequality fell marginally in Canada. At the same time, perhaps surprisingly, polarization-the spreading out of the earning distribution away from the median- fell over the past decade in both nations. Adding in the role of government income taxes and transfers, families' disposable incomes became more equal in Canada, but more unequal in the United States. Finally, a large portion of Canadian families had absolutely higher purchasing power than their U. S. counterparts.

    Release date: 1998-07-08

Reference (13)

Reference (13) (13 of 13 results)

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