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All (42)

All (42) (25 of 42 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999138
    Description:

    In this paper, we assemble data from several household surveys to document how pension coverage of young and older workers has evolved in Canada between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s. Our main findings are the following. First, both administrative data from the Pension Plans in Canada (PPIC) database and data from household surveys show an increase in RPP coverage for women. In contrast, while PPIC data show a decrease in coverage for men, household surveys indicate no downward trend for males. Second, sample aggregates hide interesting differences within the population. We find that the pension coverage of young workers (aged 25-34) has declined relative to older workers (aged 35-54). Young males have experienced a decline in coverage while RPP coverage has remained fairly stable for older men. In contrast, pension coverage has remained fairly constant for young women but has risen substantially for older women. Third, the decline in unionism and shifts towards industries with low-coverage explain most of the decrease in coverage observed among young men. Fourth, the growth in older women's coverage appears to be the result of their greater propensity to be employed in highly paid/highly covered occupations.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999008
    Description:

    This article investigates the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1999-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044757
    Description:

    The recent increase in exports' share of GDP has been exceptional. Imports have mirrored the trend in exports, with trade across the U.S. border being the driving force for both. Using Statistics Canada's Input-Output tables, this article explores the issue of some goods moving back and forth across the border at various stages of processing. (Adapted from an article in Canadian Economic Observer published in November 1999).

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044754
    Description:

    Increased interprovincial and cross-border trucking has fuelled the demand for truck drivers. This study examines the hours, earnings and demographic characteristics of workers in one of the most common occupations among men.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044756
    Description:

    Earnings of physicians continue to exceed the overall average. This article presents a demographic and earnings profile of the medical profession and highlights changes between 1980 and 1995.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044753
    Description:

    This article notes the growing incidence of self-employment among dual-earner couples and compares their characteristics with those of couples who have paid jobs. It also looks at the occupations and businesses of self-employed couples who co-own a business.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044755
    Description:

    In addition to the Survey of Consumer Finances, the Labour Force Survey now provides a way of comparing women's earnings with men's. The tow measures are explained here, as are the reasons for the sizable gap between them.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999137
    Description:

    This paper describes the evidence that several Statistics Canada studies have developed on the importance of innovation to growth and the need for highly skilled workers in the innovation process. Rather than focusing on broad industry aggregates as is often done, we concentrate our attention on firms and their behaviour. This allows us to investigate the connection between the success of businesses and the strategies that they pursue.

    We find that the more successful firms attribute their success to having developed competencies in a wide range of areas-but that the common factor that most frequently distinguishes faster from slower growing firms is innovation. Innovators in turn place greater emphasis on training and acquiring skilled workers.

    The studies also show that the emphasis on highly skilled workers varies across industries. In goods industries, a training strategy complements an innovation strategy that focuses on R&D, the adoption of new advanced technologies, or the development of new processes. Small firms that are innovative train their workers when they introduce new machinery and equipment. In the service sector, the innovation strategy relies less on new capital and more on new skills embodied in the workforce. Here there is evidence that a training strategy, by itself, has more impact on the success of a firm-probably because it is more likely to be the innovation strategy of the firm.

    Release date: 1999-11-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999006
    Description:

    This paper explores the management development profiles of mid-to-senior level managers of the Canadian Red Cross Society.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999005
    Description:

    This paper outlines the structure of the January 1999 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) labour interview questionnaire, including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1999026
    Description:

    Growth in the gambling industries has continued to outstrip that of most industries. Gambling has brought such economic benefits as increased revenues and employment to many regions. Although some communities have not embraced the arrival of casinos and video lottery terminals, most households in Canada do participate in and spend money on some form of gambling activity. This article presents a statistical portrait of Canada's gambling industry. It examines the economic output, jobs, and government revenues generated by the gambling industry, and also provides provincial comparisons.

    Release date: 1999-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034682
    Description:

    Women are an integral part of the labour market. Understanding their work patterns can help employers manage birth-related work interruptions and, in the end, retain experienced employees. This article looks at the work patterns of women who gave birth between 1993 and 1994. It examines the timing of their return to paid work following a birth, and considers the personal and job characteristics of those who returned within two years and those who did not.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034683
    Description:

    Have baby boom women had an easier path through the labour market than women a generation older or younger? This article studies the "success" of baby boom women by looking at their situation in 1977 and 1997 and comparing it with that of the preceding and succeeding generations, using four major indicators: labour force participation; full-time employment; unemployment; and full-year full-time earnings.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034685
    Description:

    Considerable attention has been paid in recent years to self-employment in Canada, especially to workers' reasons for choosing this option. Have they been "pushed" by lack of full-time paid jobs or "pulled" by the positive benefits of self-employment? This article looks at the characteristics of the self-employed and the growth of self-employment in Canada and the United States.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034686
    Description:

    This update of Perspectives' socio-demographic and economic profile of union members provides unionization rates according to the new North American Industry Classification System and the 1991 Standard Occupational Classification. The update, which extends to the provincial level, also includes data on earnings, wage settlements, inflation, and strikes and lockouts.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Table: 11-516-X198300111301
    Description:

    This section provides series relating to the labour force, employment, unemployment and job vacancies. For the most part, the series are obtained from publications of Statistics Canada, formerly the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Some of the older series are directly from census tabulations while others are derived from such tabulations but incorporate adjustments to improve the consistency of the series through time. Many of the series of more recent vintage are derived from the Labour Force Survey. Also included are series from the Statistics Canada Employment Survey, the Statistics Canada Job Vacancy Survey, the set of Help-Wanted Indexes developed in the Department of Finance and taken over subsequently by Statistics Canada, and a few other series.

    Release date: 1999-07-29

  • Table: 11-516-X198300111302
    Description:

    The statistics of this section are in eight parts as follows: labour income (series E1-40); employment, earnings and hours of work (series E41-135); employer labour cost (series E136-151); unemployment insurance (series E152-171); employment service (series E172-174); labour unions and strikes and lockouts (series E175-197); index numbers of wage rates, wage rates and salaries (series E198-375); workmen's compensation (series E376-389).

    Release date: 1999-07-29

  • Public use microdata: 95M0012X
    Description:

    This file contains details of family composition in Canada. It features 145 variables, such as information on labour force activity and income for census family and non-family persons.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-23

  • Public use microdata: 95M0010X
    Description:

    This file provides data on the characteristics of the population such as ethnic origin, labour force activity and income levels. It contains 122 variables.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-13

  • Table: 75M0007X
    Description:

    The Absence from Work Survey was designed primarily to fulfill the objectives of Human Resources Development Canada. They sponsor the qualified wage loss replacement plan which applies to employers who have their own private plans to cover employee wages lost due to sickness, accident, etc. Employers who fall under the plan are granted a reduction in their quotas payable to the Unemployment Insurance Commission. The data generated from the responses to the supplement will provide input to determine the rates for quota reductions for qualified employers.

    Although the Absence from Work Survey collects information on absences from work due to illness, accident or pregnancy, it does not provide a complete picture of people who have been absent from work for these reasons because the concepts and definitions have been developed specifically for the needs of the client. Absences in this survey are defined as being at least two weeks in length, and respondents are only asked the three reasons for their most recent absence and the one preceding it.

    Release date: 1999-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1999024
    Description:

    In recent years, Canada's economy has continued to become more service-based. This shift is particularly evident when examining information by sector for Canada's workforce. This paper offers a descriptive historical overview of changes in employment and remuneration in the services sector during the 1984-97 period. Changes in full-time employment, part-time employment, self-employment, and average wages and salaries are noted.

    As well, particular attention is devoted to shifts in these indicators for such service industries as: finance, insurance and real estate services; business services; food and beverage services; communication services; amusement and recreation services; and traveler accommodation services.

    Release date: 1999-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999135
    Description:

    Two quasi-experiments are used to estimate the impact of parental divorce on the adult incomes and labour market behaviour of adolescents, as well as on their use of social programs, and their marital/fertility behaviour. These involve the use of individuals experiencing the death of a parent, and legislative changes to the Canadian divorce law in 1986. Parental loss by death is assumed to be exogenous; the experiences of children with a bereaved background offering a benchmark to assess the endogeneity of parental loss through divorce. Differences between individuals with divorced parents and those from intact and bereaved families significantly overstate the impact of divorce across a broad range of outcomes. When background characteristics are controlled for-most notably the income and labour market activity of parents in the years leading up to the divorce-parental divorce seems to influence the marital and fertility decisions of children, but not their labour market outcomes. Adolescents whose parents divorced tend to put off marriage, and once married suffer a greater likelihood of marital instability, but their earnings and incomes are not on average much different from others.

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990024601
    Description:

    Increasingly, men past the traditional retirement age (65) are continuing to work. This article examines whether changes in the workplace have accompanied this trend. The variables examined include self-employment, part-time work and flexible work arrangements.

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990024603
    Description:

    Hours polarization, or the move away from the standard work week to either a shorter or longer work week, is a continuing trend in Canada. This study looks at how hours polarization has grown in the 1990s. (Based on a paper presented at Statistics Canada's Economic Conference 1999.)

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990024600
    Description:

    Over the last decade, a renewed interest in the distribution of earnings has taken hold in Canada, spurred largely by concerns about increasing inequality during a period of relatively flat earnings. This analysis looks at the earnings mobility of Canadians from 1982 to 1992 using Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Databank. (Adapted from a report published by Human Resources Development Canada.)

    Release date: 1999-06-09

Data (5)

Data (5) (5 of 5 results)

  • Table: 11-516-X198300111301
    Description:

    This section provides series relating to the labour force, employment, unemployment and job vacancies. For the most part, the series are obtained from publications of Statistics Canada, formerly the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Some of the older series are directly from census tabulations while others are derived from such tabulations but incorporate adjustments to improve the consistency of the series through time. Many of the series of more recent vintage are derived from the Labour Force Survey. Also included are series from the Statistics Canada Employment Survey, the Statistics Canada Job Vacancy Survey, the set of Help-Wanted Indexes developed in the Department of Finance and taken over subsequently by Statistics Canada, and a few other series.

    Release date: 1999-07-29

  • Table: 11-516-X198300111302
    Description:

    The statistics of this section are in eight parts as follows: labour income (series E1-40); employment, earnings and hours of work (series E41-135); employer labour cost (series E136-151); unemployment insurance (series E152-171); employment service (series E172-174); labour unions and strikes and lockouts (series E175-197); index numbers of wage rates, wage rates and salaries (series E198-375); workmen's compensation (series E376-389).

    Release date: 1999-07-29

  • Public use microdata: 95M0012X
    Description:

    This file contains details of family composition in Canada. It features 145 variables, such as information on labour force activity and income for census family and non-family persons.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-23

  • Public use microdata: 95M0010X
    Description:

    This file provides data on the characteristics of the population such as ethnic origin, labour force activity and income levels. It contains 122 variables.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-13

  • Table: 75M0007X
    Description:

    The Absence from Work Survey was designed primarily to fulfill the objectives of Human Resources Development Canada. They sponsor the qualified wage loss replacement plan which applies to employers who have their own private plans to cover employee wages lost due to sickness, accident, etc. Employers who fall under the plan are granted a reduction in their quotas payable to the Unemployment Insurance Commission. The data generated from the responses to the supplement will provide input to determine the rates for quota reductions for qualified employers.

    Although the Absence from Work Survey collects information on absences from work due to illness, accident or pregnancy, it does not provide a complete picture of people who have been absent from work for these reasons because the concepts and definitions have been developed specifically for the needs of the client. Absences in this survey are defined as being at least two weeks in length, and respondents are only asked the three reasons for their most recent absence and the one preceding it.

    Release date: 1999-06-29

Analysis (31)

Analysis (31) (25 of 31 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999138
    Description:

    In this paper, we assemble data from several household surveys to document how pension coverage of young and older workers has evolved in Canada between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s. Our main findings are the following. First, both administrative data from the Pension Plans in Canada (PPIC) database and data from household surveys show an increase in RPP coverage for women. In contrast, while PPIC data show a decrease in coverage for men, household surveys indicate no downward trend for males. Second, sample aggregates hide interesting differences within the population. We find that the pension coverage of young workers (aged 25-34) has declined relative to older workers (aged 35-54). Young males have experienced a decline in coverage while RPP coverage has remained fairly stable for older men. In contrast, pension coverage has remained fairly constant for young women but has risen substantially for older women. Third, the decline in unionism and shifts towards industries with low-coverage explain most of the decrease in coverage observed among young men. Fourth, the growth in older women's coverage appears to be the result of their greater propensity to be employed in highly paid/highly covered occupations.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044757
    Description:

    The recent increase in exports' share of GDP has been exceptional. Imports have mirrored the trend in exports, with trade across the U.S. border being the driving force for both. Using Statistics Canada's Input-Output tables, this article explores the issue of some goods moving back and forth across the border at various stages of processing. (Adapted from an article in Canadian Economic Observer published in November 1999).

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044754
    Description:

    Increased interprovincial and cross-border trucking has fuelled the demand for truck drivers. This study examines the hours, earnings and demographic characteristics of workers in one of the most common occupations among men.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044756
    Description:

    Earnings of physicians continue to exceed the overall average. This article presents a demographic and earnings profile of the medical profession and highlights changes between 1980 and 1995.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044753
    Description:

    This article notes the growing incidence of self-employment among dual-earner couples and compares their characteristics with those of couples who have paid jobs. It also looks at the occupations and businesses of self-employed couples who co-own a business.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044755
    Description:

    In addition to the Survey of Consumer Finances, the Labour Force Survey now provides a way of comparing women's earnings with men's. The tow measures are explained here, as are the reasons for the sizable gap between them.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999137
    Description:

    This paper describes the evidence that several Statistics Canada studies have developed on the importance of innovation to growth and the need for highly skilled workers in the innovation process. Rather than focusing on broad industry aggregates as is often done, we concentrate our attention on firms and their behaviour. This allows us to investigate the connection between the success of businesses and the strategies that they pursue.

    We find that the more successful firms attribute their success to having developed competencies in a wide range of areas-but that the common factor that most frequently distinguishes faster from slower growing firms is innovation. Innovators in turn place greater emphasis on training and acquiring skilled workers.

    The studies also show that the emphasis on highly skilled workers varies across industries. In goods industries, a training strategy complements an innovation strategy that focuses on R&D, the adoption of new advanced technologies, or the development of new processes. Small firms that are innovative train their workers when they introduce new machinery and equipment. In the service sector, the innovation strategy relies less on new capital and more on new skills embodied in the workforce. Here there is evidence that a training strategy, by itself, has more impact on the success of a firm-probably because it is more likely to be the innovation strategy of the firm.

    Release date: 1999-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1999026
    Description:

    Growth in the gambling industries has continued to outstrip that of most industries. Gambling has brought such economic benefits as increased revenues and employment to many regions. Although some communities have not embraced the arrival of casinos and video lottery terminals, most households in Canada do participate in and spend money on some form of gambling activity. This article presents a statistical portrait of Canada's gambling industry. It examines the economic output, jobs, and government revenues generated by the gambling industry, and also provides provincial comparisons.

    Release date: 1999-09-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034682
    Description:

    Women are an integral part of the labour market. Understanding their work patterns can help employers manage birth-related work interruptions and, in the end, retain experienced employees. This article looks at the work patterns of women who gave birth between 1993 and 1994. It examines the timing of their return to paid work following a birth, and considers the personal and job characteristics of those who returned within two years and those who did not.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034683
    Description:

    Have baby boom women had an easier path through the labour market than women a generation older or younger? This article studies the "success" of baby boom women by looking at their situation in 1977 and 1997 and comparing it with that of the preceding and succeeding generations, using four major indicators: labour force participation; full-time employment; unemployment; and full-year full-time earnings.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034685
    Description:

    Considerable attention has been paid in recent years to self-employment in Canada, especially to workers' reasons for choosing this option. Have they been "pushed" by lack of full-time paid jobs or "pulled" by the positive benefits of self-employment? This article looks at the characteristics of the self-employed and the growth of self-employment in Canada and the United States.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034686
    Description:

    This update of Perspectives' socio-demographic and economic profile of union members provides unionization rates according to the new North American Industry Classification System and the 1991 Standard Occupational Classification. The update, which extends to the provincial level, also includes data on earnings, wage settlements, inflation, and strikes and lockouts.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1999024
    Description:

    In recent years, Canada's economy has continued to become more service-based. This shift is particularly evident when examining information by sector for Canada's workforce. This paper offers a descriptive historical overview of changes in employment and remuneration in the services sector during the 1984-97 period. Changes in full-time employment, part-time employment, self-employment, and average wages and salaries are noted.

    As well, particular attention is devoted to shifts in these indicators for such service industries as: finance, insurance and real estate services; business services; food and beverage services; communication services; amusement and recreation services; and traveler accommodation services.

    Release date: 1999-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999135
    Description:

    Two quasi-experiments are used to estimate the impact of parental divorce on the adult incomes and labour market behaviour of adolescents, as well as on their use of social programs, and their marital/fertility behaviour. These involve the use of individuals experiencing the death of a parent, and legislative changes to the Canadian divorce law in 1986. Parental loss by death is assumed to be exogenous; the experiences of children with a bereaved background offering a benchmark to assess the endogeneity of parental loss through divorce. Differences between individuals with divorced parents and those from intact and bereaved families significantly overstate the impact of divorce across a broad range of outcomes. When background characteristics are controlled for-most notably the income and labour market activity of parents in the years leading up to the divorce-parental divorce seems to influence the marital and fertility decisions of children, but not their labour market outcomes. Adolescents whose parents divorced tend to put off marriage, and once married suffer a greater likelihood of marital instability, but their earnings and incomes are not on average much different from others.

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990024601
    Description:

    Increasingly, men past the traditional retirement age (65) are continuing to work. This article examines whether changes in the workplace have accompanied this trend. The variables examined include self-employment, part-time work and flexible work arrangements.

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990024603
    Description:

    Hours polarization, or the move away from the standard work week to either a shorter or longer work week, is a continuing trend in Canada. This study looks at how hours polarization has grown in the 1990s. (Based on a paper presented at Statistics Canada's Economic Conference 1999.)

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990024600
    Description:

    Over the last decade, a renewed interest in the distribution of earnings has taken hold in Canada, spurred largely by concerns about increasing inequality during a period of relatively flat earnings. This analysis looks at the earnings mobility of Canadians from 1982 to 1992 using Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Databank. (Adapted from a report published by Human Resources Development Canada.)

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19990014576
    Description:

    This article looks at methods used in finding a job after graduation and the criteria for choosing a job.

    Release date: 1999-06-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999133
    Description:

    This paper highlights recent developments in self-employment in Canada and explores its relationship to unemployment/full-time paid-employment. There are now two and a half million Canadians working at their own businesses, amounting to 16.2% of the total labour force or accounting for 17.8% of total employment. In the first eight years of the 1990s, self-employment on average expanded by 4.1% per year, contributing to over three out of four new jobs the economy has created. Entry and exit data demonstrate that there are substantial flows into and out of this sector of the economy. Gross flows into and out of self-employment as the main labour market activity averaged nearly half a million per year between 1982 and 1994, amounting to 42% of the total self-employed population.

    The fixed-effects modelling results show a statistically significant but empirically small negative (positive) relationship between self-employment and unemployment (full-time paid- employment). This conclusion holds true across different data sources, for different time periods, for different measures and definitions, for different empirical samples, and across various estimating techniques. There is also a statistically significant but empirically small negative (positive) relationship between exits out of self-employment and unemployment (full-time paid- employment). It appears that a host of non-cyclical factors are behind the recent surge in self-employment.

    Release date: 1999-04-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999132
    Description:

    Child poverty is high on the government's agenda. In order to reduce the rate of low-income among children, one has to either reduce the number of children flowing into low-income, or increase the number flowing out. But what is behind such movement? Most analysts would immediately think of job loss among the parents, but obviously divorce and remarriage can also play a role. In order to favourably alter the flows, one has to have some understanding of what is driving them. This paper asks to what extent this movement of children is determined by (1) changes in family status of the parents of children, or (2) changes in the parent's labour market conditions (i.e. job loss and gain, changes in hours of work or wages). We find that for an individual child, a divorce or marriage can have a tremendous influence on the likelihood of entering or exiting low-income. At the level of the individual, changes in family composition (when they occur) are more important than changes in jobs held by parents. However, changes in family status are relatively infrequent compared to labour market changes. Parents are much more likely to lose or find jobs, and experience changes in hours worked or wages, than they are to marry or divorce. When this is accounted for we find that, in the aggregate, flows of children into and out of low income are associated roughly equally with family compositional changes and changes in wages and hours worked.

    Release date: 1999-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999129
    Description:

    While there are many studies on differences in earnings between immigrants and the native-born or among immigrant groups, they ignore the distribution and concentration of income. These aspects are important for understanding the distribution of economic welfare and consumer behaviour among members and hence are policy relevant.

    Using the 1991 Census data, the distribution and concentration of income have been examined among 15 broad birthplace groups for population aged 55 years and over. About 19% of males and 15% of females receive less than half the median income and obtain 5% and 3% of the aggregate income respectively. About 30% of males and 29% of females receive more than one and half times the median income and obtain 61% and59% of aggregate income respectively. About 51% of males and 56% of females who receive incomes between half and one and half times the median income are termed middle-class and their shares of aggregate income amount to 34 and 38% respectively.

    Although, older immigrants aged 55 years and over, as a group, have roughly the same quartile distribution and concentration of income as their Canadian-born counterparts, the birthplace groups differ from each other. The groups coming from the developing regions, that is, the very groups that have lower average annual incomes, also have more inequitable distribution of income than the Canadian-born or their counterparts from the developed regions. Thus, the income distribution is more polarized in the populations from developing regions than in the populations from developed regions or in the Canadian-born population. On average, females receive 45% less income than males, and there is less polarization of income among them than among males regardless of the place of birth. A part of the explanation lies in the receipt of government transfers which tend to equalize rather than polarize incomes, and older women derive higher proportion of their income from government transfers than older men.

    Release date: 1999-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19980034471
    Description:

    Earlier this decade, labour market conditions for young Canadians aged 15-24 deteriorated significantly. In the late 1980s, youths were more likely to be working than were adults. By 1997, only about half were employed, almost ten percentage points less than adults. Furthermore, when they did find work, youths today are more likely to be working part-time compared to adults and compared to yourths at the start of the decade, leading to reduced pay.

    Release date: 1999-03-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999131
    Description:

    Using a regression decomposition approach, we find that, during the 1980s, the growth in the relative educational attainment of older workers has contributed to about one-quarter of the increase in the age-wage gap of men and women. During the 1990s, the age-wage gap increased to a much lesser extent. Changing relative educational attainment accounted for a much greater proportion of the much smaller increase in the gap: almost one-half for males and over three-quarters for women. We also find that, during the 1980s, the expected weekly wages associated with all levels of education fell for younger workers, both for men and women (from 2% to 16%, depending upon education level). Older employees, on the other hand, experienced mixed results. Expected weekly wages rose for some older workers and fell for some others.

    Release date: 1999-03-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999134
    Description:

    This paper i) documents the extent and cyclicality of self-employment entry and exit flows; ii) explores transitions to and from self-employment; and iii) investigates the influence of individual characteristics and labour market experience as well as macroeconomic conditions on the probability of moving into or out of self-employment.

    The self-employed sector now employs over two and a half million Canadian workers, has expanded on average by over 4% a year so far in this decade and accounted for over three out of every four new jobs the economy has created. There are substantial flows both into and out of self-employment over the last 15 years. Gross flows into and out of self-employment averaged nearly half a million per year between 1982 and 1994, amounting to 42% of the total self-employed population.

    Regression results reveal no statistical evidence supporting the dominance of the push hypothesis over the pull hypothesis --- the notion that people are increasingly pushed into self-employment by deteriorating economic conditions. This analysis is done both through time-series analysis and the analysis of the determinants of flows into (and out of) self-employment. As in paid employment, younger Canadians are subject to higher turnover in self-employment --- they are not only more likely to enter but also substantially more likely to leave self-employment. Prior paid-employment experience and prior self-employment experience are both found to be associated with a higher likelihood of entering self-employment. The longer one is self-employed, the less likely he/she is going to leave the business. Having a spouse in business (being self-employed) substantially increases the likelihood of the other spouse becoming self-employed --- a self-employed spouse often attracts the other to either join the family business or start their own. We also find evidence that steady family income through paid-employment from one spouse increases the self-employed's (the other spouse's) affordability to continue with the business venture and hence reduces the likelihood of leaving self-employment.

    Release date: 1999-03-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990014408
    Description:

    Seasonality is an important issue because it can add a burden to the economy. The short-term use of seasonal labour is a more costly process than a steady use of labour throughout the year. This article reviews the change in seasonal employment patterns over the past two decades, and looks at how various industries, dempgraphic groups and regions have been affected.

    Release date: 1999-03-03

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