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All (40)

All (40) (25 of 40 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20021126392
    Description:

    This paper examines the characteristics of men 55 and over who are no longer active in the labour market, and the "voluntary" or "involuntary" reasons for inactivity.

    Release date: 2002-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20020036397
    Description:

    This article addresses overqualification, which concerns both workers and employers because people who hold jobs that make few demands on their skills have lower earnings and lower levels of productivity.

    Release date: 2002-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2002002
    Description:

    In 1996, 17% of Canada's total population were immigrants, and 88% of them were living in urban regions. The three provinces with the largest urban centres attracted most immigrants: 55% went to Ontario, 18% to British Columbia and 13% to Quebec, a pattern that has remained constant for immigrants who have arrived since 1961. The remaining 12% (or 580,000 people) were living in predominantly rural regions. They can be characterized by the period in which they arrived in Canada.

    Recent and new immigrants were better educated than pre-1981 immigrants, particularly in terms of university education. But pre-1981 immigrants had the highest employment rate and were more likely to have professional service occupations than the Canadian-born. Visible minority immigrants fared worse, in socio-economic terms, than non-visible minority immigrants; these differences were more pronounced in predominantly rural regions. The profiles of immigrants in predominantly rural regions were similar to those in predominantly urban regions. However, the few immigrants who resided in rural northern regions had a very different and more favourable profile.

    Release date: 2002-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002195
    Description:

    Many studies have examined the relative success of immigrant men in the (primarily paid) workforce. Despite the fact that they represent approximately one-sixth of the immigrant workforce, self-employed immigrants are a relatively understudied group. This study uses the 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996 Census files to assess the success of self-employed immigrant men (compared with self-employed native-born men), using the relative success of paid immigrant men as the benchmark.

    After controlling for various other factors, recent immigrants (those arriving within the last five years) are as likely to be self-employed as the native-born and, over time spent in the country, are more likely to become self-employed. Recent immigrants in the 1990s were far more likely to be self-employed than the native-born. Successive cohorts of recent immigrants have fared progressively worse in the paid labour market compared with paid native-born workers. This is not the case in the self-employed workforce. Although self-employed recent immigrants typically report lower net self-employment income upon entry than the self-employed native-born, the gap has not grown. Instead, it has followed a cyclical movement: narrowing at the peak, and widening in times of weaker economic activity.

    Release date: 2002-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002194
    Description:

    The wage progression of less skilled workers is of particular policy interest in light of evidence of skill-biased technology changes. There exist two conflicting views regarding the wage progression of less skilled workers. One view believes that work experience is the driving force for wage growth of less skilled workers, so effective policies should encourage workers to participate in the labour market and accumulate work experience. The other view stresses that less skilled workers are usually locked into dead-end jobs in which wages are stagnant and policies that facilitate job shopping (changing jobs and employers) would be desirable.

    Job tenure is a key factor in testing the hypothesis that less skilled workers are locked into dead-end jobs. If the return to tenure is zero, the hypothesis cannot be rejected. An extended human capital model of wage growth for less skilled workers is estimated using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) 1993 to 1998. In order to compare the wage growth mechanisms for workers with different skill endowments, the model is also estimated for workers with higher skill levels. The result implies that the return to job tenure for less skilled workers is significantly different from zero. This is inconsistent with the view that less skilled workers are locked into dead-end jobs.

    The return to job tenure is also found to be greater than the return to total labour market experience for less skilled workers. This finding supports the notion that firm-specific human capital acquired by less skilled workers substitutes for their generally low human capital endowments and the accumulation of firm-specific human capital by less skilled workers greatly improves their earnings prospect.

    Release date: 2002-12-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2002002
    Description:

    This document outlines the structure of the January 2001 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) labour interview, including question wording, possible responses and the flow of questions.

    Release date: 2002-12-04

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2002004
    Description:

    This document presents the information for the Entry Exit portion of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) Labour interview.

    Release date: 2002-12-04

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002162
    Description:

    Using data from the 1976-1999 Canadian Labour Force Survey, we examine the stability of currently held jobs in a manner similar to Diebold, Neumark and Polsky (1997) and Neumark, Polsky and Hansen (1999) who analyzed data from the U.S. Current Population Survey. We find that although the current distribution of in-progress job tenures is filling up with more long jobs, and more shorter jobs - suggesting a polarization of job tenure, the stability of currently held jobs has remained quite stable over the period. A closer look reveals two phases in the Canadian data. The period 1977 to 1993 was characterized by declining job stability. Examining the data by current job tenure, we see a declining stability of short jobs - those less than one year in length were less likely to last one more year in at the end of the 1980s (and beginning of the 1990s) than in the late 1970s. At the same time jobs between one and two years long tended to become more stable - becoming more likely to last one more year by 1993. The second phase - 1993-1999 - was characterized by a reversal of these trends such that by the end of the period, jobs of all lengths were equally as stable as in the late 1970s. Declines across the 1980s in job stability were concentrated in low education, older and younger groups but job stability grew most for these same groups in the 1990s.

    Following U.S. methods allows us to undertake an international comparison. We find that while job stability changes were similar in the two countries between 1987 and 1991, job stability rose relative to the United States between 1991 and 1995. We speculate that this difference is due to a relatively deeper recession in Canada in the early 1990s, and a relatively slow recovery in the mid 1990s.

    Release date: 2002-10-16

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2002001
    Description:

    Rural areas have a higher incidence of part-time employment. The average annual rate of part-time job growth in rural Canada was higher between 1987 and 1997 than between 1997 and 1999. The predominantly rural provinces have the highest incidence of part-time employment in their rural areas. The majority of part-time employment growth in rural areas is occurring in mainly urban provinces.

    Release date: 2002-10-07

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016225
    Description:

    The European Union Labour Forces Survey (LFS) is based on national surveys that were originally very different. For the past decade, under pressure from increasingly demanding users (particularly with respect to timeliness, comparability and flexibility), the LFS has been subjected to a constant process of quality improvement.

    The following topics are presented in this paper:A. the quality improvement process, which comprises screening national survey methods, target structure, legal foundations, quality reports, more accurate and more explicit definitions of components, etc.;B. expected or achieved results, which include an ongoing survey producing quarterly results within reasonable time frames, comparable employment and unemployment rates over time and space in more than 25 countries, specific information on current political topics, etc.;C. continuing shortcomings, such as implementation delays in certain countries, possibilities of longitudinal analysis, public access to microdata, etc.; D. future tasks envisioned, such as adaptation of the list of ISCO and ISCED variables and nomenclatures (to take into account evolution in employment and teaching methods), differential treatment of structural variables and increased recourse to administrative files (to limit respondent burden), harmonization of questionnaires, etc.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002188
    Description:

    The aging of the Canadian population is a well recognized phenomenon and has received considerable policy research attention, particularly in the health and public pension domains. Very little work has been focused on the impacts of aging at the organizational level. Foot and Venne studied the advancement of the baby boom through traditional organizational hierarchies, noting its impacts on human resource policies that encourage horizontal career development. Saba et al looked more particularly at the management of older professionals in the Quebec public service, finding that employee recognition was an important human resource strategy for motivating this group. We extend these studies further along the aging ladder -- to the point where retirement and replacement become the major concerns.

    Looking at the management hierarchy within Statistics Canada, we use a microsimulation model first to estimate the expected level of retirements over the next 10 years. We then detail the adjustments to promotion and hiring rates required to replace outgoing managers. We then examine simulated microdata to estimate the experience effects of increasing turnover. Finally, we use the demographic features of the model to examine whether the increasing turnover is likely to increase the representation of women and visible minorities among Statistics Canada managers.

    Given the assumptions outlined in the paper, we find that increasing turnover rates in the next 10 years will generally not reduce management experience to below recently observed levels. We also find that given equal promotion rates for men and women, the representation rate of women among Statistics Canada managers is likely to increase rapidly in coming years. On the other hand, visible minority representation among managers will likely stall for several years, even with proactive recruitment and advancement policies.

    Release date: 2002-08-08

  • Articles and reports: 71-584-M2002004
    Description:

    This paper addresses pay differentials between the sexes in terms of the characteristics of the individual worker, the tasks of the worker, the employment contract between the worker and the workplace, and the contribution of specific workplace characteristics to these pay differentials.

    Release date: 2002-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20010046315
    Description:

    This article describes the characteristics of shift workers and compares stress factors and health behaviours of shift and regular daytime workers. Based on an analysis of people followed over four years, associations between shift work and the incidence of chronic conditions and changes in psychological distress levels are explored.

    Release date: 2002-07-25

  • Articles and reports: 71-584-M2002003
    Description:

    This paper explores the relationship between employers' computer technology investments and employees' training and education, with emphasis on the education of new hires.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X2002039
    Description:

    The paper presents a general statistical profile of the life and health insurance industry from 1988 to 1998. Trends are presented in view of the industry's evolving regulatory environment, and aggregate comparisons of this industry are made to the deposit-accepting intermediaries industry.

    Release date: 2002-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X20010036215
    Description:

    This research paper documents patterns of self-employment among postsecondary graduates categorized by level of study in the five years immediately following their graduation.

    Release date: 2002-06-26

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2002001
    Description:

    This paper assesses the effects of subjective health and disability on a wide range of reasons for job separation, while controlling for other factors. The data are from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 2002-06-25

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20010046202
    Description:

    This article looks at the labour market experiences of recent culture graduates, with a focus on comparing university graduates with their community college and collège d'enseignement général et professionel (CEGEP) counterparts.

    Release date: 2002-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002185
    Description:

    This paper examines whether long-run labour market outcomes depend on residential environment among adults who grew up in subsidized housing in Toronto. The housing program in Toronto provides a full spectrum of neighbourhood quality types to measure outcome differences, and offers a real-life example of large scale neighbourhood quality reform. A primary advantage with this approach is that, conditional on participation in public housing, residential choice is substantially limited. Families that applied for public housing could not specify which project they wished to be housed in and were constrained to what was offered based on availability at the time they applied and by family size. Unlike previous housing mobility experiments, the availability of administrative tax records are used to measure both short and long run outcomes. The results indicate almost no difference in educational attainment, adult earnings, income, and social assistance participation between children from different public housing types. Average outcomes, estimated wage distributions, and outcome correlations among unrelated project neighbours show no significant neighbourhood impact. In contrast, family differences seem to matter a great deal.

    Release date: 2002-06-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002189
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring size of entry. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the information we have on the amount of entry in Canada.

    The paper also fulfils another purpose. Some studies have focused on cross-country comparisons (Geroski and Schwalbach 1991; OECD 2001). Interpretation of the results of these studies is difficult unless methodological issues regarding how entry is measured are addressed. Without an understanding of the extent to which different databases produce different results, international comparisons are difficult to evaluate. Cross-country comparisons that are derived from extremely different data sources may be misleading because of the lack of comparability.

    Since there is more than one reliable database that can be used to estimate entry in Canada, this paper asks how measured entry rates vary across different Canadian databases. By examining the difference in entry rates produced by these databases, we provide an estimate of the range or confidence interval that should be used in evaluating whether there are real differences in measured entry rates across countries. We also offer guidance as to the questions that should be asked about the databases used by researchers who conduct international studies. Finally, we make suggestions as to areas of comparison on which international studies should focus.

    Release date: 2002-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2002003
    Description:

    This paper examines small producers in the Canadian and U.S. manufacturing sectors in terms of output and employment from the early 1970s to the late 1990s.

    Release date: 2002-05-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002186
    Description:

    Current trends in marriage and fertility patterns suggest that young Canadian women are delaying family formation and concentrating on developing their careers. Using data from the 1998 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study provides Canadian evidence on the effect of marital status and parenthood status on the wage rates of Canadian women. As well, this paper attempts to determine whether decisions regarding the timing of family formation influence the wages of women and whether these decisions have a permanent or temporary impact on earnings. The main results of the paper are as follows.

    After controlling for differences in work history, labour force qualifications and selected job characteristics, the cross sectional analysis suggests that there is no association between marital status and wages while the evidence on the relationship between wages and motherhood is mixed.

    When controls for years with children were included, there is a positive association of motherhood with wages that persists in the early years of motherhood but declines as the number of years with children lengthens. These results support the specialization, selection, differential treatment by employers and the work effort explanations for differences in the wages of mothers relative to other women. There is no such finding for married women and the duration of marriage.

    It is a well-documented fact that the acquisition of job-related skills and significant wage growth is concentrated at the start of workers' careers - which generally coincides with decisions regarding marriage and children. If this is the case, then the timing of marriage and children may be considered proxies for omitted, unobserved characteristics, related to human capital skills, differentiated work history or labour force attachment. Conforming to theoretical expectations when the timing of children is taken into account, women that postpone having children earn at least 6.0% more than women who have children early. There is no significant association between the timing of marriage and wages.

    The observed relationship between women's wages and their decision to delay having children tends to persist after the birth of their first child but tends to decline over time. Thus, augmented family responsibilities will tend to reduce any initial wage differentials based on delays of assuming these responsibilities.

    Release date: 2002-05-01

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2001008
    Description:

    This analysis bulletin, the twenty-fourth profiling trends in rural Canada, uses survey data to reveal the seasonal pattern of employment in rural Canada from 1996 to 2000. It is published in collaboration with the Rural Secretariat of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. A higher seasonal variation in employment exists in rural areas compared with urban areas, and is spread throughout virtually all industrial sectors. The lower industrial productivity and reduced wages that likely result present a particular challenge for developing and revitalizing rural areas. This bulleting is useful for researchers and decision-makers who need information on employment seasonality in rural Canada to create appropriate economic strategies.

    Release date: 2002-04-24

  • Articles and reports: 75F0048M2002007
    Description:

    This paper reviews principal definitions and boundary and classification issues for the nonprofit sector.

    Release date: 2002-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 75F0048M2002004
    Description:

    This report documents changes that have occurred in the patterns of volunteering between 1987 and 1997 in Canada.

    Release date: 2002-03-21

Data (5)

Data (5) (5 of 5 results)

  • Table: 97F0023X
    Description:

    The Topic Bundles (22) are a series of tables that were released as the variables from the 2001 Census of Population became available. Each Topic Bundle contains cross-tabulations for selected levels of geography.

    The release dats of the variables are listed below:Population and Dwelling Counts - March 12, 2002Age and Sex - July 16, 2002Marital Status, Common-law Status, Families, Dwellings and Households - October 22, 2002Language, Mobility and Migration - December 10, 2002Citizenship, Immigration, Birthplace, Generation Status, Ethnic Origin, Visible Minorities, Aboriginal Peoples - January 21, 2003Labour Force Activity, Class of worker, Occupation, Industry, Place of Work, Mode of Transportation, Language of Work, Unpaid Work - February 11, 2003School Attendance, Education, Field of Study, Highest Level of Schooling, Earnings - March 11, 2003Religion, Income of Individuals, Families and Households, Social and Economic Characteristics of Individuals, Families and Households and Housing Costs - May 13, 2003

    Release date: 2002-03-12

  • Public use microdata: 75M0011X
    Description:

    This microdata file provides data from the Compensation Sector Survey. The purpose of the survey is to obtain a profile of members of the compensation community in the Human Resources community of the federal public service. The results will allow the Human Resources Community Secretariat to renew recruiting, training and development programs for this community in such a manner that these programs would take into account current data.

    Release date: 2002-03-11

  • Public use microdata: 71M0017X
    Description:

    This microdata file contains survey data from the Survey of Self-employment. The survey was conducted in April 2000 by Statistics Canada on behalf of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC). It collected data on the socio-demographic characteristics of the self-employed, as well as the hours they work, previous work experience, participation in dental, health and disability plans, income security, and their attitudes towards self-employment.

    Nearly one worker out of six was self-employed in 2000, and most of these individuals became and remained self-employed by choice, according to the first results from the Survey of Self-employment. Strong growth in the number of self-employed Canadians that was observed in the 1990s stimulated interest in self-employment. Among the existing sources of information on this topic, the most extensive is Statistics Canada article The Self-employed in the publication Labour force update (71-005-XPB, Autumn 1997, Vol. 1 no.3.) which portrayed the self-employed using data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), the annual Survey of Consumer Finances, and the 1995 Survey of Work Arrangements. It provided a thorough picture of the basic socio-demographic characteristics of this population, but due to the lack of data it did not cover several specific aspects of self-employment. Human Resources Development undertook to enrich the data sources on self-employment by funding a survey devoted entirely to this topic.

    Release date: 2002-01-29

Analysis (29)

Analysis (29) (25 of 29 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20021126392
    Description:

    This paper examines the characteristics of men 55 and over who are no longer active in the labour market, and the "voluntary" or "involuntary" reasons for inactivity.

    Release date: 2002-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20020036397
    Description:

    This article addresses overqualification, which concerns both workers and employers because people who hold jobs that make few demands on their skills have lower earnings and lower levels of productivity.

    Release date: 2002-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2002002
    Description:

    In 1996, 17% of Canada's total population were immigrants, and 88% of them were living in urban regions. The three provinces with the largest urban centres attracted most immigrants: 55% went to Ontario, 18% to British Columbia and 13% to Quebec, a pattern that has remained constant for immigrants who have arrived since 1961. The remaining 12% (or 580,000 people) were living in predominantly rural regions. They can be characterized by the period in which they arrived in Canada.

    Recent and new immigrants were better educated than pre-1981 immigrants, particularly in terms of university education. But pre-1981 immigrants had the highest employment rate and were more likely to have professional service occupations than the Canadian-born. Visible minority immigrants fared worse, in socio-economic terms, than non-visible minority immigrants; these differences were more pronounced in predominantly rural regions. The profiles of immigrants in predominantly rural regions were similar to those in predominantly urban regions. However, the few immigrants who resided in rural northern regions had a very different and more favourable profile.

    Release date: 2002-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002195
    Description:

    Many studies have examined the relative success of immigrant men in the (primarily paid) workforce. Despite the fact that they represent approximately one-sixth of the immigrant workforce, self-employed immigrants are a relatively understudied group. This study uses the 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996 Census files to assess the success of self-employed immigrant men (compared with self-employed native-born men), using the relative success of paid immigrant men as the benchmark.

    After controlling for various other factors, recent immigrants (those arriving within the last five years) are as likely to be self-employed as the native-born and, over time spent in the country, are more likely to become self-employed. Recent immigrants in the 1990s were far more likely to be self-employed than the native-born. Successive cohorts of recent immigrants have fared progressively worse in the paid labour market compared with paid native-born workers. This is not the case in the self-employed workforce. Although self-employed recent immigrants typically report lower net self-employment income upon entry than the self-employed native-born, the gap has not grown. Instead, it has followed a cyclical movement: narrowing at the peak, and widening in times of weaker economic activity.

    Release date: 2002-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002194
    Description:

    The wage progression of less skilled workers is of particular policy interest in light of evidence of skill-biased technology changes. There exist two conflicting views regarding the wage progression of less skilled workers. One view believes that work experience is the driving force for wage growth of less skilled workers, so effective policies should encourage workers to participate in the labour market and accumulate work experience. The other view stresses that less skilled workers are usually locked into dead-end jobs in which wages are stagnant and policies that facilitate job shopping (changing jobs and employers) would be desirable.

    Job tenure is a key factor in testing the hypothesis that less skilled workers are locked into dead-end jobs. If the return to tenure is zero, the hypothesis cannot be rejected. An extended human capital model of wage growth for less skilled workers is estimated using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) 1993 to 1998. In order to compare the wage growth mechanisms for workers with different skill endowments, the model is also estimated for workers with higher skill levels. The result implies that the return to job tenure for less skilled workers is significantly different from zero. This is inconsistent with the view that less skilled workers are locked into dead-end jobs.

    The return to job tenure is also found to be greater than the return to total labour market experience for less skilled workers. This finding supports the notion that firm-specific human capital acquired by less skilled workers substitutes for their generally low human capital endowments and the accumulation of firm-specific human capital by less skilled workers greatly improves their earnings prospect.

    Release date: 2002-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002162
    Description:

    Using data from the 1976-1999 Canadian Labour Force Survey, we examine the stability of currently held jobs in a manner similar to Diebold, Neumark and Polsky (1997) and Neumark, Polsky and Hansen (1999) who analyzed data from the U.S. Current Population Survey. We find that although the current distribution of in-progress job tenures is filling up with more long jobs, and more shorter jobs - suggesting a polarization of job tenure, the stability of currently held jobs has remained quite stable over the period. A closer look reveals two phases in the Canadian data. The period 1977 to 1993 was characterized by declining job stability. Examining the data by current job tenure, we see a declining stability of short jobs - those less than one year in length were less likely to last one more year in at the end of the 1980s (and beginning of the 1990s) than in the late 1970s. At the same time jobs between one and two years long tended to become more stable - becoming more likely to last one more year by 1993. The second phase - 1993-1999 - was characterized by a reversal of these trends such that by the end of the period, jobs of all lengths were equally as stable as in the late 1970s. Declines across the 1980s in job stability were concentrated in low education, older and younger groups but job stability grew most for these same groups in the 1990s.

    Following U.S. methods allows us to undertake an international comparison. We find that while job stability changes were similar in the two countries between 1987 and 1991, job stability rose relative to the United States between 1991 and 1995. We speculate that this difference is due to a relatively deeper recession in Canada in the early 1990s, and a relatively slow recovery in the mid 1990s.

    Release date: 2002-10-16

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2002001
    Description:

    Rural areas have a higher incidence of part-time employment. The average annual rate of part-time job growth in rural Canada was higher between 1987 and 1997 than between 1997 and 1999. The predominantly rural provinces have the highest incidence of part-time employment in their rural areas. The majority of part-time employment growth in rural areas is occurring in mainly urban provinces.

    Release date: 2002-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002188
    Description:

    The aging of the Canadian population is a well recognized phenomenon and has received considerable policy research attention, particularly in the health and public pension domains. Very little work has been focused on the impacts of aging at the organizational level. Foot and Venne studied the advancement of the baby boom through traditional organizational hierarchies, noting its impacts on human resource policies that encourage horizontal career development. Saba et al looked more particularly at the management of older professionals in the Quebec public service, finding that employee recognition was an important human resource strategy for motivating this group. We extend these studies further along the aging ladder -- to the point where retirement and replacement become the major concerns.

    Looking at the management hierarchy within Statistics Canada, we use a microsimulation model first to estimate the expected level of retirements over the next 10 years. We then detail the adjustments to promotion and hiring rates required to replace outgoing managers. We then examine simulated microdata to estimate the experience effects of increasing turnover. Finally, we use the demographic features of the model to examine whether the increasing turnover is likely to increase the representation of women and visible minorities among Statistics Canada managers.

    Given the assumptions outlined in the paper, we find that increasing turnover rates in the next 10 years will generally not reduce management experience to below recently observed levels. We also find that given equal promotion rates for men and women, the representation rate of women among Statistics Canada managers is likely to increase rapidly in coming years. On the other hand, visible minority representation among managers will likely stall for several years, even with proactive recruitment and advancement policies.

    Release date: 2002-08-08

  • Articles and reports: 71-584-M2002004
    Description:

    This paper addresses pay differentials between the sexes in terms of the characteristics of the individual worker, the tasks of the worker, the employment contract between the worker and the workplace, and the contribution of specific workplace characteristics to these pay differentials.

    Release date: 2002-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20010046315
    Description:

    This article describes the characteristics of shift workers and compares stress factors and health behaviours of shift and regular daytime workers. Based on an analysis of people followed over four years, associations between shift work and the incidence of chronic conditions and changes in psychological distress levels are explored.

    Release date: 2002-07-25

  • Articles and reports: 71-584-M2002003
    Description:

    This paper explores the relationship between employers' computer technology investments and employees' training and education, with emphasis on the education of new hires.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X2002039
    Description:

    The paper presents a general statistical profile of the life and health insurance industry from 1988 to 1998. Trends are presented in view of the industry's evolving regulatory environment, and aggregate comparisons of this industry are made to the deposit-accepting intermediaries industry.

    Release date: 2002-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X20010036215
    Description:

    This research paper documents patterns of self-employment among postsecondary graduates categorized by level of study in the five years immediately following their graduation.

    Release date: 2002-06-26

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20010046202
    Description:

    This article looks at the labour market experiences of recent culture graduates, with a focus on comparing university graduates with their community college and collège d'enseignement général et professionel (CEGEP) counterparts.

    Release date: 2002-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002185
    Description:

    This paper examines whether long-run labour market outcomes depend on residential environment among adults who grew up in subsidized housing in Toronto. The housing program in Toronto provides a full spectrum of neighbourhood quality types to measure outcome differences, and offers a real-life example of large scale neighbourhood quality reform. A primary advantage with this approach is that, conditional on participation in public housing, residential choice is substantially limited. Families that applied for public housing could not specify which project they wished to be housed in and were constrained to what was offered based on availability at the time they applied and by family size. Unlike previous housing mobility experiments, the availability of administrative tax records are used to measure both short and long run outcomes. The results indicate almost no difference in educational attainment, adult earnings, income, and social assistance participation between children from different public housing types. Average outcomes, estimated wage distributions, and outcome correlations among unrelated project neighbours show no significant neighbourhood impact. In contrast, family differences seem to matter a great deal.

    Release date: 2002-06-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002189
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring size of entry. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the information we have on the amount of entry in Canada.

    The paper also fulfils another purpose. Some studies have focused on cross-country comparisons (Geroski and Schwalbach 1991; OECD 2001). Interpretation of the results of these studies is difficult unless methodological issues regarding how entry is measured are addressed. Without an understanding of the extent to which different databases produce different results, international comparisons are difficult to evaluate. Cross-country comparisons that are derived from extremely different data sources may be misleading because of the lack of comparability.

    Since there is more than one reliable database that can be used to estimate entry in Canada, this paper asks how measured entry rates vary across different Canadian databases. By examining the difference in entry rates produced by these databases, we provide an estimate of the range or confidence interval that should be used in evaluating whether there are real differences in measured entry rates across countries. We also offer guidance as to the questions that should be asked about the databases used by researchers who conduct international studies. Finally, we make suggestions as to areas of comparison on which international studies should focus.

    Release date: 2002-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2002003
    Description:

    This paper examines small producers in the Canadian and U.S. manufacturing sectors in terms of output and employment from the early 1970s to the late 1990s.

    Release date: 2002-05-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002186
    Description:

    Current trends in marriage and fertility patterns suggest that young Canadian women are delaying family formation and concentrating on developing their careers. Using data from the 1998 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study provides Canadian evidence on the effect of marital status and parenthood status on the wage rates of Canadian women. As well, this paper attempts to determine whether decisions regarding the timing of family formation influence the wages of women and whether these decisions have a permanent or temporary impact on earnings. The main results of the paper are as follows.

    After controlling for differences in work history, labour force qualifications and selected job characteristics, the cross sectional analysis suggests that there is no association between marital status and wages while the evidence on the relationship between wages and motherhood is mixed.

    When controls for years with children were included, there is a positive association of motherhood with wages that persists in the early years of motherhood but declines as the number of years with children lengthens. These results support the specialization, selection, differential treatment by employers and the work effort explanations for differences in the wages of mothers relative to other women. There is no such finding for married women and the duration of marriage.

    It is a well-documented fact that the acquisition of job-related skills and significant wage growth is concentrated at the start of workers' careers - which generally coincides with decisions regarding marriage and children. If this is the case, then the timing of marriage and children may be considered proxies for omitted, unobserved characteristics, related to human capital skills, differentiated work history or labour force attachment. Conforming to theoretical expectations when the timing of children is taken into account, women that postpone having children earn at least 6.0% more than women who have children early. There is no significant association between the timing of marriage and wages.

    The observed relationship between women's wages and their decision to delay having children tends to persist after the birth of their first child but tends to decline over time. Thus, augmented family responsibilities will tend to reduce any initial wage differentials based on delays of assuming these responsibilities.

    Release date: 2002-05-01

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2001008
    Description:

    This analysis bulletin, the twenty-fourth profiling trends in rural Canada, uses survey data to reveal the seasonal pattern of employment in rural Canada from 1996 to 2000. It is published in collaboration with the Rural Secretariat of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. A higher seasonal variation in employment exists in rural areas compared with urban areas, and is spread throughout virtually all industrial sectors. The lower industrial productivity and reduced wages that likely result present a particular challenge for developing and revitalizing rural areas. This bulleting is useful for researchers and decision-makers who need information on employment seasonality in rural Canada to create appropriate economic strategies.

    Release date: 2002-04-24

  • Articles and reports: 75F0048M2002007
    Description:

    This paper reviews principal definitions and boundary and classification issues for the nonprofit sector.

    Release date: 2002-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 75F0048M2002004
    Description:

    This report documents changes that have occurred in the patterns of volunteering between 1987 and 1997 in Canada.

    Release date: 2002-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 75F0048M2002005
    Description:

    This paper provides an analysis of regional differences in the volunteering and charitable giving of Canadians by considering both formal and informal modes of contributing.

    Release date: 2002-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002164
    Description:

    This paper reports the results of an empirical analysis of the early career outcomes of recent Canadian Bachelor's level graduates by discipline based on three waves of the National Graduates Surveys, which comprise large, representative databases of individuals who successfully completed their programmes at Canadian universities in 1982, 1986, and 1990, with information gathered during interviews conducted two and five years after graduation for each group of graduates (1984/87, 1988/92, 1990/95).

    The outcomes analysed, all broken down by sex and discipline, include: the distribution of graduates by field and the percentage of female graduates; the percentage of graduates who subsequently completed another educational programme; the overall evaluation of the choice of major (would they choose it again?); unemployment rates, the percentage of workers in part-time jobs, in temporary jobs, self-employed; the job-education skill and credentials matches; earnings levels and rates of growth; and job satisfaction (earnings, overall).

    Many of the outcomes conform to expectations, typically reflecting the different orientations of the various disciplines with respect to direct career preparedness, with the professions and other applied disciplines generally characterised by lower unemployment rates, closer skill and qualification matches, higher earnings, and so on. On the other hand, while the "applied" fields also tend to perform well in terms of the "softer", more subjective measures regarding job satisfaction and the overall evaluation of the chosen programme (would the graduate choose the same major again?), the findings also indicate that graduates' assessments of their post-graduation experiences and overall evaluations of the programmes from which they graduated are based on more than simply adding up standard measures of labour market "success", with the job satisfaction scores and - perhaps most interestingly - the overall programme evaluations often departing from what the objective measures (unemployment rates, earnings levels, etc.) might have predicted. Some implications of the findings are discussed and avenues for future research are suggested.

    Release date: 2002-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002183
    Description:

    Changes in the labour market such as an increase in the incidence of part-time, part-year work, multiple job holding and self-employment have often been conjectured as demand-driven shifts - that is, that they have resulted from a lack of more traditional job opportunities rather than in response to workers' changing preferences. Yet while the issue of non-standard work is an interesting and important one, there is relatively little existing empirical evidence on the topic.

    The general purpose of this paper is to report the results of an empirical analysis that exploits the self-employment status indicator available in the National Graduates Survey (and Follow-Up) databases. It documents and analyses the patterns of self-employment amongst several cohorts of Canadian post-secondary graduates in the first five years following graduation. More specifically, it provides solid empirical documentation of the incidence of self-employment (levels, patterns, trends) amongst recent college and university graduates, overall, and broken down by degree level, sex and year of graduation. This paper also addresses the issue of whether self-employment tends to be the preferred employment option (for those who enter it), or the result of a lack of suitable "conventional" employment opportunities, or some combination of the two.

    There are two over-arching conclusions to be drawn from the analysis. First, the incidence of self-employment was relatively stable for the first three cohorts of graduates covered in the analysis. The overall rates ranged from 6.5 to 11.1 percent amongst male graduates and from 3.2 to 6.7 percent for females. The rates tended to be higher for some (but not all) graduates of the most recent cohort (graduates of 1995). Second, the evidence generally points to self-employment representing a relatively attractive job status on average: For every cohort the rates of self-employment rise from the first interview following graduation (after two years) to the second (after five years), an interval over which job opportunities generally improve significantly for graduates; Simple point-in-time (cross-sectional) comparisons of earnings, the job-education skill match, and job satisfaction levels suggest that although the results are somewhat mixed, there is little evidence that the self-employment status is generally characterized by less favourable outcomes, and is perhaps particularly marked by generally higher (not lower) overall levels of job satisfaction;Finally, both the conventional cross-sectional earnings model and the difference equations which control for various fixed effects with which job status might be correlated, further point to self-employment being a higher-paying (and therefore more attractive) job status than the conventional paid worker status.

    Release date: 2002-03-21

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20021036210
    Description:

    This article examines barriers to job-related training, the groups that experience these obstacles and whether access to training has improved over time.

    Release date: 2002-03-20

Reference (6)

Reference (6) (6 of 6 results)

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2002002
    Description:

    This document outlines the structure of the January 2001 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) labour interview, including question wording, possible responses and the flow of questions.

    Release date: 2002-12-04

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2002004
    Description:

    This document presents the information for the Entry Exit portion of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) Labour interview.

    Release date: 2002-12-04

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016225
    Description:

    The European Union Labour Forces Survey (LFS) is based on national surveys that were originally very different. For the past decade, under pressure from increasingly demanding users (particularly with respect to timeliness, comparability and flexibility), the LFS has been subjected to a constant process of quality improvement.

    The following topics are presented in this paper:A. the quality improvement process, which comprises screening national survey methods, target structure, legal foundations, quality reports, more accurate and more explicit definitions of components, etc.;B. expected or achieved results, which include an ongoing survey producing quarterly results within reasonable time frames, comparable employment and unemployment rates over time and space in more than 25 countries, specific information on current political topics, etc.;C. continuing shortcomings, such as implementation delays in certain countries, possibilities of longitudinal analysis, public access to microdata, etc.; D. future tasks envisioned, such as adaptation of the list of ISCO and ISCED variables and nomenclatures (to take into account evolution in employment and teaching methods), differential treatment of structural variables and increased recourse to administrative files (to limit respondent burden), harmonization of questionnaires, etc.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2002001
    Description:

    This paper assesses the effects of subjective health and disability on a wide range of reasons for job separation, while controlling for other factors. The data are from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 2002-06-25

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-584-G
    Description:

    This book introduces technical aspects of the Statistics Canada Total Work Accounts System (TWAS). The TWAS is designed to facilitate the analysis of issues that require simultaneous consideration of both paid work and unpaid productive work. Its key contribution is to allocate the deemed output of each episode of unpaid work activity to a specific beneficiary or group of beneficiaries (called "destinations"). The guide presents the criteria used to decide the allocation of each work episode to one of the destinations, as well as the pseudo code for DESTIN, the key variable of the System. This pseudo code allows programmers to quickly create the actual programming code needed to derive the DESTIN variable in their own microdata files of diary-based time-use records. The guide also discusses illustrative applications of the System, as well as its key limitations.

    Release date: 2002-02-12

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2002001
    Description:

    This paper is based on information from the 2000 Survey of Electronic Commerce and Technology (SECT) (see Appendix for more details on the survey) and concentrates on the introduction of organisational and technological change in the public sector. To provide context, comparisons are made to the rates of introduction of organisational and technological change in the private sector. Rates of organisational and technological change in the public sector by employment size groups are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a look at these changes in the public sector based on industrial classification.

    Release date: 2002-01-31

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