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All (57) (25 of 57 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200511113152
    Description:

    After a period of decline from the late 1980s to mid-1990s, the youth employment rate (aged 15 to 24) rebounded between 1997 and 2004. Most of the jobs were in industries that traditionally hire large numbers of young people, including food services. The article documents the growth in youth employment by age, sex, industry and province.

    Release date: 2005-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050038967
    Description:

    In recent years, commuting patterns have become more complex as employment has grown more rapidly in the suburbs than in city core areas. Faced with few convenient public transit options, the increasing numbers of people who now commute cross-town to jobs in these suburbs overwhelmingly drive to work. This article examines commuting patterns between 1996 and 2001 as they relate to recent job growth in the suburbs. It briefly looks at the demographic characteristics of commuters and explores some of the implications that changing work locations and commute patterns have for infrastructure in Canadian cities.

    Release date: 2005-12-06

  • Technical products: 21-601-M2005076
    Description:

    This report reviews the literature related to the spatial variation of skills and human capital and its implication for local innovation capacity and economic development. The report develops around three major themes 1) skills and human capital; 2) innovation and technological change; and 3) growth.

    Release date: 2005-11-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005266
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: The Instability of Family Earnings and Family Income in Canada, 1986 to 1991 and 1996 to 2001. Despite its implications for family well-being, little attention has been paid to the analysis of earnings instability in the context of the family versus the earnings profiles of individuals. While a focus on individuals is important, the extent to which families can generate stable income flows from the labour market is a key concern for policymakers. Therefore, using data from Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD), this study documents how family earnings instability has evolved between two six-year periods: 1986-1991 and 1996-2001. We also examine how husbands' earnings instability compares to couples' earnings instability, and we compute measures of instability based on family earnings, family market income, and family income before and after tax. This allows us to examine the extent to which wives' earnings reduce the volatility of husbands' employment income; the extent to which the tax and transfer system plays a stabilization role; and the extent to which wives' earnings, taxes, and transfers reduce the differences in instability between couples in the bottom of the earnings distribution and those in the top.

    Release date: 2005-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005265
    Description:

    We investigate how family earnings instability has evolved between the late 1980s and the late 1990s and how family income instability varies across segments of the (family-level) earnings distribution. We uncover four key patterns. First, among the subset of families who were intact over the 1982-1991 and 1992-2001 periods, family earnings instability changed little between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. Second, the dispersion of families' permanent earnings became much more unequal during that period. Third, families who were in the bottom tertile of the (age-specific) earnings distribution in 1992-1995 had, during the 1996-2001 period, much more unstable market income than their counterparts in the top tertile. Fourth, among families with husbands aged under 45, the tax and transfer system has, during the 1996-2001 period, eliminated at least two-thirds (and up to all) of the differences in instability (measured in terms of proportional income gains/losses) in family market income that were observed during that period between families in the bottom tertile and those in the top tertile. This finding highlights the key stabilization role played by the tax and transfer system, a feature that has received relatively little attention during the 1990s when Employment Insurance (EI) (formerly known as Unemployment Insurance (UI)) and Social Assistance were reformed.

    Release date: 2005-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005035
    Description:

    This study examines the impact of information and communication technologies (ICT) and of foreign outsourcing on the demand for skilled workers. One of the defining features of the Canadian economy in the last two decades has been an increasing wage gap between more- and less-skilled workers. Over the same period, there have been dramatic increases in expenditures on information and communication technologies and in purchases of foreign intermediate inputs. Using data for 84 Canadian manufacturing industries over the 1981-1996 period, we find that both ICT and foreign outsourcing are important contributors to the demand for skills.

    Release date: 2005-10-28

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-615-X
    Description:

    The Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), conducted jointly by Statistics Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada under the Policy Research Initiative, is a comprehensive survey designed to study the process by which new immigrants adapt to Canadian society. About 12,000 immigrants aged 15 and older who arrived in Canada from abroad between October 2000 and September 2001 were interviewed. By late 2005, when all three waves of interviews will have been completed, the survey will provide a better understanding of how the settlement process unfolds for new immigrants.

    The results of this survey will provide valuable information on how immigrants are meeting various challenges associated with integration and what resources are most helpful to their settlement in Canada. The main topics being investigated include housing, education, foreign credentials recognition, employment, income, the development and use of social networks, language skills, health, values and attitudes, and satisfaction with the settlement experience.

    Results from the first wave of the LSIC had shown that labour market integration was a particularly critical aspect of the immigrant settlement process. This paper therefore focuses on this issue. The release addresses questions such as: how long does it take newly arrived immigrants to get their first job? How many of them find employment in their intended occupation? And what obstacles do they encounter when looking for work?

    Release date: 2005-10-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510613145
    Description:

    Changes in hours worked normally track employment changes very closely. Recently, however, employment has increased more than hours, resulting in an unprecedented gap. In effect, the average annual hours worked have decreased by the equivalent of two weeks. Many factors can affect the hours worked. Some are structural or cyclical - population aging, industrial shifts, the business cycle, natural disasters, legislative changes or personal preferences. Others are a result of the survey methodology. How have the various factors contributed to the recent drop in hours of work?

    Release date: 2005-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510713146
    Description:

    Workers who use computers earn more than those who do not. Is this a productivity effect or merely selection (that is, workers selected to use computers are more productive to begin with). After controlling for selection, the average worker enjoys a wage premium of 3.8% upon adopting a computer. This premium, however, obscures important differences by education and occupation. Long-run returns to computer use are over 5% for most workers. Differences between short-run and long-run returns suggest that workers may share training costs through sacrificed wages.

    Release date: 2005-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510813148
    Description:

    Certain provisions such as pay, leave and supplementary medical coverage are common to virtually all collective agreements. Others such as a cost-of-living allowance reflect the socioeconomic climate of the times. From a list of 10 collective bargaining provisions, employers in the Workplace and Employee Survey were asked the ones included in their settlements. The two most common in 2001 dealt with job security and occupational health and safety.

    Release date: 2005-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2005031
    Description:

    This study used data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) to examine three groups of the unemployed population: the seldom unemployed, the always unemployed and the chronically unemployed. For the purposes of this study, the seldom unemployed group is defined as the 10% of the unemployed with the least time spent unemployed. The always unemployed, those who couldn't find a job when they searched for one, accounted for another 5%. The chronically unemployed group has been defined as the remaining top 10% of the unemployed with the most time spent in unemployment - between 48% and 99% of their time in the labour force.

    Release date: 2005-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20030028447
    Description:

    This article investigates gender dynamics in employment in Canada's culture sector. It explores various questions such as changes in female employment and characteristics of female participation in the workforce by various culture sub-sectors and activities.

    Release date: 2005-08-23

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20030028448
    Description:

    This profile gives provincial level information on the presence of teacher-librarians, library technicians and other library staff in Canadian schools.

    Release date: 2005-08-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005260
    Description:

    The exploration of newly available administrative data in a number of countries has led to a growing realization that a careful study of the interaction between employer and employee characteristics is needed to fully understand labour market outcomes. The objective of this paper is to develop this theme by examining the design of social policy and its interaction with the labour market. The focus is on the Canadian unemployment insurance (UI) program. This analysis uses administrative data on the universe of employees, firms, and UI recipients in Canada over an 11 year period to examine the operation of UI from the perspective of the firm, paying particular attention to longitudinal issues associated with the pattern and causes of cross-subsidies. The findings show that persistent transfers through UI are present at both industry and firm levels. These cross-subsidies are concentrated among a small fraction of firms. An analysis using firm fixed effect indicates that almost 60 percent of explained variation in persistent cross-subsidies can be attributed to firm effects. Calculations of overall efficiency loss are very sensitive to the degree to which firm level information is used. A full appreciation of how social programs like UI interact with the labour market requires recognition of the characteristics and human resource practices of firms, and might be more fruitfully explored by implicit contract models of unemployment.

    Release date: 2005-06-30

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2005031
    Description:

    This bulletin presents the final set of tables which contain salary information for the year 2003-2004. This information is collected annually under the University and College Academic Staff System and has a reference date of October 1st. Therefore, the data reflect employment in universities as of that date. Each university must authorize Statistics Canada to release their information. However, information for institutions that have less than 100 full-time staff are not included.

    Release date: 2005-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005262
    Description:

    This paper reviews the increase in the earnings gap between immigrants and Canadian-born over the past two decades, and the current explanations of this labour market deterioration among recent immigrants in particular. The paper also outlines the rising gap in low-income rates between immigrants and non-immigrants. Like previous research, the paper concludes that the earnings gap at entry has increased for immigrants entering Canada during the 1990s, as compared to those of the 1970s. Furthermore, the gap in the low-income rate has been increasing. The rate of low income has been rising among immigrants (particularly recent immigrants) during the 1990s, while falling among the Canadian-born. The rise in low-income rates among immigrants was widespread, affecting immigrants in all education groups, age groups, and from most source countries (except the "traditional source regions"). Immigrants with university degrees were not excluded from this rise in low-income rates, in spite of the discussion regarding the rising demand for more highly-skilled workers in Canada. As a result of both rising low-income rates among immigrants, and their increasing share of the population, in Canada's major cities virtually all of the increase in the city low-income rates during the 1990s was concentrated among the immigrant population.

    Also reviewed here are the explanations discussed in the literature for the deterioration of immigrant economic outcomes. Three major sources are identified as being empirically important, all of which follow from declining labour market outcomes. First, the change in the characteristics of immigrants (e.g., from different source regions, rising levels of educational attainment, etc.) appears to have accounted for about one-third of the increase in the earnings gap at entry (i.e., the gap between immigrants and comparable Canadian-born). Second, decreasing economic returns to foreign work experience appears to play an equally large role. Third, there has been a general decline in the labour market outcomes of all new entrants to the Canadian labour market, and when new immigrants arrive in Canada they, regardless of age, appear to face a similar phenomenon. Other possible explanations are also discussed. Importantly, one potential factor that does not appear to be behind the decline is a reduction in the economic return to education. Immigrants, on average, do have a somewhat lower return to education obtained prior to immigrating (although not to education obtained once in Canada), but this has not changed much over the past two decades.

    Release date: 2005-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005258
    Description:

    This paper uses firm-level data from the T2/LEAP to investigate whether the link between tariff changes and employment differed across firms with various productivity and leverage characteristics over the period 1988 to 1994. The results suggest that the combined effect of domestic and U.S. tariff reductions on employment was typically small, but that losses were significantly larger for firms which were less productive. For instance, firms with average productivity in 1988 responded to tariff changes by cutting employment by only 3.6% over the period 1988 to 1994, while lower productivity firms typically shed 15.1% of their workforce over the same period. This paper also indicates that firms which were more heavily in debt downsized more in response to declining domestic tariffs, suggesting that financial constrains became more binding when tariff cuts were implemented. These results suggest that firms with high productivity and low leverage were less likely than others to feel the impact of declining U.S. and domestic tariffs.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005259
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: Tariff Reduction and Employment in Canadian Manufacturing, 1988-1994. At the end of the 1980s, Canada and the United States reached an agreement to phase out import tariffs over a 10-year period beginning January 1st, 1989. This tariff reduction scheme was a major centre-piece of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The implementation of the FTA was followed by a recession, characterized by massive job cuts in manufacturing industries, which led to suggestions that employment losses were related to the reduction of trade barriers. Research on firm output and survival (Gu, Sawchuk and Whewell, 2003; Baggs, 2004) suggests the impact of tariff changes was different across industries and across firms within industries. Using firm-level data, this study investigates the impact of reduced Canadian and U.S. tariffs on Canadian manufacturing employment. The study also asks whether the impact was heterogeneous across firms with various productivity and leverage characteristics.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510513142
    Description:

    Call centres are believed to be largely responsible for the phenomenal growth of the business support services industry over the past two decades. The Labour Force Survey is used to profile call-centre workers and to substantiate or disprove some commonly held perceptions.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510413141
    Description:

    Prolonged periods of low earnings can limit an individual's capacity to cope with income losses or unexpected expenses, and makes economic self-sufficiency difficult. The ability to escape low earnings is linked to a number of factors, including age, firm size, and changing jobs.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510413140
    Description:

    Since the 1980s, the proportion of Canadian workers belonging to labour unions has declined considerably. Some workers have been more affected than others - particularly men, younger workers, and those in goods-producing industries. The article focuses on the extent to which the trends reflect changes in the distribution of employment by occupation, industry, or other characteristics.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510513143
    Description:

    This article investigates factors influencing the chances of find a job for people who were unemployed for more than six months in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Results for the short-term jobless are included for comparison.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005007
    Description:

    Every January, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) Labour interview is conducted using computer-assisted interviewing (CAI). CAI is paperless interviewing. This document is therefore a written approximation of the CAI interview, or the questionnaire.

    A labour interview is collected for all respondents 16 years of age and over. In January, 2004 data was collected for reference year 2003 from panels 3 and 4. Panel 3, in its fifth year, consisted of approximately 17,000 households and panel 4, in its second year, also consisted of approximately 17,000 households.

    This document outlines the structure of the January 2004 Labour interview (for the 2003 reference year) including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005008
    Description:

    In May 2004 the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) collected data on income from both its third and fourth panels. Panel 3 was in its fifth year of collection and panel 4 was in its second year.

    Respondents had the option of answering income questions in an interview, or of giving permission to Statistics Canada to allow SLID to use the information on their income tax return.

    The purpose of this document is to present the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 2004 Income questionnaire (for the 2003 reference year).

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005006
    Description:

    A preliminary interview of background information is collected for all respondents aged 16 and over, who enter the sample for the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). For the majority of the longitudinal respondents, this occurs when a new panel is introduced and the preliminary information is collected during the first Labour interview. However, all persons living with a longitudinal respondent are also interviewed for SLID. Thus Preliminary interviews are conducted for new household members during their first Labour interview after they join the household. Longitudinal persons who have turned 16 while their household is in the SLID sample are then eligible for SLID interviews so they are asked the Preliminary interview questions during their first Labour interview.

    The purpose of this document is to present the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 2004 Preliminary questionnaire (for the 2003 reference year).

    Release date: 2005-06-16

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  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200511113152
    Description:

    After a period of decline from the late 1980s to mid-1990s, the youth employment rate (aged 15 to 24) rebounded between 1997 and 2004. Most of the jobs were in industries that traditionally hire large numbers of young people, including food services. The article documents the growth in youth employment by age, sex, industry and province.

    Release date: 2005-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050038967
    Description:

    In recent years, commuting patterns have become more complex as employment has grown more rapidly in the suburbs than in city core areas. Faced with few convenient public transit options, the increasing numbers of people who now commute cross-town to jobs in these suburbs overwhelmingly drive to work. This article examines commuting patterns between 1996 and 2001 as they relate to recent job growth in the suburbs. It briefly looks at the demographic characteristics of commuters and explores some of the implications that changing work locations and commute patterns have for infrastructure in Canadian cities.

    Release date: 2005-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005266
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: The Instability of Family Earnings and Family Income in Canada, 1986 to 1991 and 1996 to 2001. Despite its implications for family well-being, little attention has been paid to the analysis of earnings instability in the context of the family versus the earnings profiles of individuals. While a focus on individuals is important, the extent to which families can generate stable income flows from the labour market is a key concern for policymakers. Therefore, using data from Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD), this study documents how family earnings instability has evolved between two six-year periods: 1986-1991 and 1996-2001. We also examine how husbands' earnings instability compares to couples' earnings instability, and we compute measures of instability based on family earnings, family market income, and family income before and after tax. This allows us to examine the extent to which wives' earnings reduce the volatility of husbands' employment income; the extent to which the tax and transfer system plays a stabilization role; and the extent to which wives' earnings, taxes, and transfers reduce the differences in instability between couples in the bottom of the earnings distribution and those in the top.

    Release date: 2005-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005265
    Description:

    We investigate how family earnings instability has evolved between the late 1980s and the late 1990s and how family income instability varies across segments of the (family-level) earnings distribution. We uncover four key patterns. First, among the subset of families who were intact over the 1982-1991 and 1992-2001 periods, family earnings instability changed little between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. Second, the dispersion of families' permanent earnings became much more unequal during that period. Third, families who were in the bottom tertile of the (age-specific) earnings distribution in 1992-1995 had, during the 1996-2001 period, much more unstable market income than their counterparts in the top tertile. Fourth, among families with husbands aged under 45, the tax and transfer system has, during the 1996-2001 period, eliminated at least two-thirds (and up to all) of the differences in instability (measured in terms of proportional income gains/losses) in family market income that were observed during that period between families in the bottom tertile and those in the top tertile. This finding highlights the key stabilization role played by the tax and transfer system, a feature that has received relatively little attention during the 1990s when Employment Insurance (EI) (formerly known as Unemployment Insurance (UI)) and Social Assistance were reformed.

    Release date: 2005-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005035
    Description:

    This study examines the impact of information and communication technologies (ICT) and of foreign outsourcing on the demand for skilled workers. One of the defining features of the Canadian economy in the last two decades has been an increasing wage gap between more- and less-skilled workers. Over the same period, there have been dramatic increases in expenditures on information and communication technologies and in purchases of foreign intermediate inputs. Using data for 84 Canadian manufacturing industries over the 1981-1996 period, we find that both ICT and foreign outsourcing are important contributors to the demand for skills.

    Release date: 2005-10-28

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-615-X
    Description:

    The Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), conducted jointly by Statistics Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada under the Policy Research Initiative, is a comprehensive survey designed to study the process by which new immigrants adapt to Canadian society. About 12,000 immigrants aged 15 and older who arrived in Canada from abroad between October 2000 and September 2001 were interviewed. By late 2005, when all three waves of interviews will have been completed, the survey will provide a better understanding of how the settlement process unfolds for new immigrants.

    The results of this survey will provide valuable information on how immigrants are meeting various challenges associated with integration and what resources are most helpful to their settlement in Canada. The main topics being investigated include housing, education, foreign credentials recognition, employment, income, the development and use of social networks, language skills, health, values and attitudes, and satisfaction with the settlement experience.

    Results from the first wave of the LSIC had shown that labour market integration was a particularly critical aspect of the immigrant settlement process. This paper therefore focuses on this issue. The release addresses questions such as: how long does it take newly arrived immigrants to get their first job? How many of them find employment in their intended occupation? And what obstacles do they encounter when looking for work?

    Release date: 2005-10-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510613145
    Description:

    Changes in hours worked normally track employment changes very closely. Recently, however, employment has increased more than hours, resulting in an unprecedented gap. In effect, the average annual hours worked have decreased by the equivalent of two weeks. Many factors can affect the hours worked. Some are structural or cyclical - population aging, industrial shifts, the business cycle, natural disasters, legislative changes or personal preferences. Others are a result of the survey methodology. How have the various factors contributed to the recent drop in hours of work?

    Release date: 2005-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510713146
    Description:

    Workers who use computers earn more than those who do not. Is this a productivity effect or merely selection (that is, workers selected to use computers are more productive to begin with). After controlling for selection, the average worker enjoys a wage premium of 3.8% upon adopting a computer. This premium, however, obscures important differences by education and occupation. Long-run returns to computer use are over 5% for most workers. Differences between short-run and long-run returns suggest that workers may share training costs through sacrificed wages.

    Release date: 2005-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510813148
    Description:

    Certain provisions such as pay, leave and supplementary medical coverage are common to virtually all collective agreements. Others such as a cost-of-living allowance reflect the socioeconomic climate of the times. From a list of 10 collective bargaining provisions, employers in the Workplace and Employee Survey were asked the ones included in their settlements. The two most common in 2001 dealt with job security and occupational health and safety.

    Release date: 2005-09-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2005031
    Description:

    This study used data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) to examine three groups of the unemployed population: the seldom unemployed, the always unemployed and the chronically unemployed. For the purposes of this study, the seldom unemployed group is defined as the 10% of the unemployed with the least time spent unemployed. The always unemployed, those who couldn't find a job when they searched for one, accounted for another 5%. The chronically unemployed group has been defined as the remaining top 10% of the unemployed with the most time spent in unemployment - between 48% and 99% of their time in the labour force.

    Release date: 2005-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20030028447
    Description:

    This article investigates gender dynamics in employment in Canada's culture sector. It explores various questions such as changes in female employment and characteristics of female participation in the workforce by various culture sub-sectors and activities.

    Release date: 2005-08-23

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20030028448
    Description:

    This profile gives provincial level information on the presence of teacher-librarians, library technicians and other library staff in Canadian schools.

    Release date: 2005-08-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005260
    Description:

    The exploration of newly available administrative data in a number of countries has led to a growing realization that a careful study of the interaction between employer and employee characteristics is needed to fully understand labour market outcomes. The objective of this paper is to develop this theme by examining the design of social policy and its interaction with the labour market. The focus is on the Canadian unemployment insurance (UI) program. This analysis uses administrative data on the universe of employees, firms, and UI recipients in Canada over an 11 year period to examine the operation of UI from the perspective of the firm, paying particular attention to longitudinal issues associated with the pattern and causes of cross-subsidies. The findings show that persistent transfers through UI are present at both industry and firm levels. These cross-subsidies are concentrated among a small fraction of firms. An analysis using firm fixed effect indicates that almost 60 percent of explained variation in persistent cross-subsidies can be attributed to firm effects. Calculations of overall efficiency loss are very sensitive to the degree to which firm level information is used. A full appreciation of how social programs like UI interact with the labour market requires recognition of the characteristics and human resource practices of firms, and might be more fruitfully explored by implicit contract models of unemployment.

    Release date: 2005-06-30

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2005031
    Description:

    This bulletin presents the final set of tables which contain salary information for the year 2003-2004. This information is collected annually under the University and College Academic Staff System and has a reference date of October 1st. Therefore, the data reflect employment in universities as of that date. Each university must authorize Statistics Canada to release their information. However, information for institutions that have less than 100 full-time staff are not included.

    Release date: 2005-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005262
    Description:

    This paper reviews the increase in the earnings gap between immigrants and Canadian-born over the past two decades, and the current explanations of this labour market deterioration among recent immigrants in particular. The paper also outlines the rising gap in low-income rates between immigrants and non-immigrants. Like previous research, the paper concludes that the earnings gap at entry has increased for immigrants entering Canada during the 1990s, as compared to those of the 1970s. Furthermore, the gap in the low-income rate has been increasing. The rate of low income has been rising among immigrants (particularly recent immigrants) during the 1990s, while falling among the Canadian-born. The rise in low-income rates among immigrants was widespread, affecting immigrants in all education groups, age groups, and from most source countries (except the "traditional source regions"). Immigrants with university degrees were not excluded from this rise in low-income rates, in spite of the discussion regarding the rising demand for more highly-skilled workers in Canada. As a result of both rising low-income rates among immigrants, and their increasing share of the population, in Canada's major cities virtually all of the increase in the city low-income rates during the 1990s was concentrated among the immigrant population.

    Also reviewed here are the explanations discussed in the literature for the deterioration of immigrant economic outcomes. Three major sources are identified as being empirically important, all of which follow from declining labour market outcomes. First, the change in the characteristics of immigrants (e.g., from different source regions, rising levels of educational attainment, etc.) appears to have accounted for about one-third of the increase in the earnings gap at entry (i.e., the gap between immigrants and comparable Canadian-born). Second, decreasing economic returns to foreign work experience appears to play an equally large role. Third, there has been a general decline in the labour market outcomes of all new entrants to the Canadian labour market, and when new immigrants arrive in Canada they, regardless of age, appear to face a similar phenomenon. Other possible explanations are also discussed. Importantly, one potential factor that does not appear to be behind the decline is a reduction in the economic return to education. Immigrants, on average, do have a somewhat lower return to education obtained prior to immigrating (although not to education obtained once in Canada), but this has not changed much over the past two decades.

    Release date: 2005-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005258
    Description:

    This paper uses firm-level data from the T2/LEAP to investigate whether the link between tariff changes and employment differed across firms with various productivity and leverage characteristics over the period 1988 to 1994. The results suggest that the combined effect of domestic and U.S. tariff reductions on employment was typically small, but that losses were significantly larger for firms which were less productive. For instance, firms with average productivity in 1988 responded to tariff changes by cutting employment by only 3.6% over the period 1988 to 1994, while lower productivity firms typically shed 15.1% of their workforce over the same period. This paper also indicates that firms which were more heavily in debt downsized more in response to declining domestic tariffs, suggesting that financial constrains became more binding when tariff cuts were implemented. These results suggest that firms with high productivity and low leverage were less likely than others to feel the impact of declining U.S. and domestic tariffs.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005259
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: Tariff Reduction and Employment in Canadian Manufacturing, 1988-1994. At the end of the 1980s, Canada and the United States reached an agreement to phase out import tariffs over a 10-year period beginning January 1st, 1989. This tariff reduction scheme was a major centre-piece of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The implementation of the FTA was followed by a recession, characterized by massive job cuts in manufacturing industries, which led to suggestions that employment losses were related to the reduction of trade barriers. Research on firm output and survival (Gu, Sawchuk and Whewell, 2003; Baggs, 2004) suggests the impact of tariff changes was different across industries and across firms within industries. Using firm-level data, this study investigates the impact of reduced Canadian and U.S. tariffs on Canadian manufacturing employment. The study also asks whether the impact was heterogeneous across firms with various productivity and leverage characteristics.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510513142
    Description:

    Call centres are believed to be largely responsible for the phenomenal growth of the business support services industry over the past two decades. The Labour Force Survey is used to profile call-centre workers and to substantiate or disprove some commonly held perceptions.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510413141
    Description:

    Prolonged periods of low earnings can limit an individual's capacity to cope with income losses or unexpected expenses, and makes economic self-sufficiency difficult. The ability to escape low earnings is linked to a number of factors, including age, firm size, and changing jobs.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510413140
    Description:

    Since the 1980s, the proportion of Canadian workers belonging to labour unions has declined considerably. Some workers have been more affected than others - particularly men, younger workers, and those in goods-producing industries. The article focuses on the extent to which the trends reflect changes in the distribution of employment by occupation, industry, or other characteristics.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510513143
    Description:

    This article investigates factors influencing the chances of find a job for people who were unemployed for more than six months in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Results for the short-term jobless are included for comparison.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Journals and periodicals: 71-587-X
    Description:

    This paper provides information on Aboriginal employment and unemployment, Aboriginal youths and the impact of education on labour market performance in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. Annual average data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS) on off-reserve Aboriginal peoples from April 2004 to March 2005 are used.

    Release date: 2005-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2005030
    Description:

    This bulletin contains salary information for the year 2004-2005. Information is provided for institutions that have determined salaries for the period and have responded quickly to the survey. This information is collected annually under the "University and College Academic Staff Survey" and has a reference date of October 1st. Therefore, the data reflect employment in universities as of that date. Each university must authorize Statistics Canada to release their information. However, information for institutions that have less than 100 full-time staff are not included.

    Release date: 2005-06-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005034
    Description:

    This paper examines head office employment in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It focuses on the characteristics that are related to the creation of a head office and the amount of employment in that head office. Among the characteristics investigated are firm size, number of plants, industrial diversity, geographical location, industry and nationality. The paper finds that foreign-owned firms are more likely to create a head office and to create more employment in their head offices than are domestic-controlled firms, after controlling for firm characteristics. It also finds that head office creation and employment levels are associated with a firm's level of complexity (e.g., its size) and how it organises its production geographically.

    Release date: 2005-06-08

  • Articles and reports: 89-613-M2005007
    Description:

    The report examined the location of jobs in 27 census metropolitan areas, paying particular attention to developments in Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa-Hull, Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver. It also analysed the modes commuters used to travel to work, emphasising public transit and car (as driver or passenger) commute modes.

    While Canadian metropolitan areas continue to be characterized by a strong concentration of jobs in the downtown core, employment grew faster in the suburbs of Canada's largest metropolitan areas than in the city centres between 1996 and 2001. One characteristic of increasing employment in suburban locations is the shifting of manufacturing activities from the core of the city to the suburbs. Retail trade also shifted away from the central core towards more suburban locations. Relatively few workers employed outside the city centre commuted on public transit, rather, most drove or were a passenger in a car. This tendency to commute by car increased the farther the job was located from the city centre.

    Furthermore commute patterns have become more complex, with growth in suburb-to-suburb commutes outpacing traditional commute paths within the city centre, and between the city centre and suburbs. Commuters travelling from suburb to suburb were also much more likely to drive than take public transit.

    Despite the decentralization of jobs occurring in the metropolitan areas, public transit did not lose its share of commuters between 1996 and 2001. While more car traffic headed to jobs in the suburbs, a larger share of commuters heading for the city centre took public transit. This kept the total share of commuters who took public transit stable between 1996 and 2001.

    The report also found that jobs in the downtown core were higher skilled and higher paid, and that earnings increased faster for jobs in the city centre between 1996 and 2001.

    The report uses the 1996 and 2001 censuses of Canada.

    Release date: 2005-06-01

Reference (8)

Reference (8) (8 of 8 results)

  • Technical products: 21-601-M2005076
    Description:

    This report reviews the literature related to the spatial variation of skills and human capital and its implication for local innovation capacity and economic development. The report develops around three major themes 1) skills and human capital; 2) innovation and technological change; and 3) growth.

    Release date: 2005-11-15

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005007
    Description:

    Every January, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) Labour interview is conducted using computer-assisted interviewing (CAI). CAI is paperless interviewing. This document is therefore a written approximation of the CAI interview, or the questionnaire.

    A labour interview is collected for all respondents 16 years of age and over. In January, 2004 data was collected for reference year 2003 from panels 3 and 4. Panel 3, in its fifth year, consisted of approximately 17,000 households and panel 4, in its second year, also consisted of approximately 17,000 households.

    This document outlines the structure of the January 2004 Labour interview (for the 2003 reference year) including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005008
    Description:

    In May 2004 the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) collected data on income from both its third and fourth panels. Panel 3 was in its fifth year of collection and panel 4 was in its second year.

    Respondents had the option of answering income questions in an interview, or of giving permission to Statistics Canada to allow SLID to use the information on their income tax return.

    The purpose of this document is to present the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 2004 Income questionnaire (for the 2003 reference year).

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005006
    Description:

    A preliminary interview of background information is collected for all respondents aged 16 and over, who enter the sample for the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). For the majority of the longitudinal respondents, this occurs when a new panel is introduced and the preliminary information is collected during the first Labour interview. However, all persons living with a longitudinal respondent are also interviewed for SLID. Thus Preliminary interviews are conducted for new household members during their first Labour interview after they join the household. Longitudinal persons who have turned 16 while their household is in the SLID sample are then eligible for SLID interviews so they are asked the Preliminary interview questions during their first Labour interview.

    The purpose of this document is to present the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 2004 Preliminary questionnaire (for the 2003 reference year).

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005005
    Description:

    The Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) conducts two annual interviews: the Labour interview in January and the Income interview in May. The data are collected using computer-assisted interviewing. Thus there are no paper questionnaires required for data collection. The questions, responses and interview flow for Labour and Income are documented in other SLID research papers. This document presents the information for the 2004 Entry Exit portion of the Labour and the Income interviews (for the 2003 reference year).

    The Entry Exit Component consists of five separate modules. The Entry module is the first set of data collected. It is information collected to update household composition and place of residence. For each person identified in Entry, the Demographics module collects (or updates) the person's name, date of birth, sex and marital status. Then the Relationships module identifies (or updates) the relationship between each respondent and every other household member. Relationship data is not collected in the May Income interview. The Exit module includes questions on who to contact for the next interview and the names, phone numbers and addresses of two contacts to be used only if future tracing of respondents is required. An overview of the Tracing module is also included in this document.

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2005008
    Description:

    Canada's economic growth and competitiveness depends on scientific and technological development and also on the people responsible for this development, especially those engaged in research and development (R&D). The number of R&D personnel is a supplementary measure to the statistics on intramural expenditures on R&D. In this report we shall present some statistical estimates and definitions concerning R&D personnel. Data on R&D personnel are derived from surveys and from estimates based on various data sources.

    Release date: 2005-05-03

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 71F0031X2005002
    Description:

    This paper introduces and explains modifications made to the Labour Force Survey estimates in January 2005. Some of these modifications include the adjustment of all LFS estimates to reflect population counts based on the 2001 Census, updates to industry and occupation classification systems and sample redesign changes.

    Release date: 2005-01-26

  • Index and guides: 92-397-X
    Description:

    This report covers concepts and definitions, the imputation method and data quality for this variable. The 2001 Census collected information on three types of unpaid work performed during the week preceding the Census: looking after children, housework and caring for seniors. The 2001 data on unpaid work are compared with the 1996 Census data and with the data from the General Social Survey (use of time in 1998). The report also includes historical tables.

    Release date: 2005-01-11

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