Statistics by subject – Business adaptation and adjustment

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Analysis (36)

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  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-10-21

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-08-25

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014091
    Description:

    This paper uses data from Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program database to study the distribution of annual employment growth rates in Canada over the 2000-to-2009 period, with a special emphasis on firms in the tails of the distribution, referred to here as High-Growth Firms (HGFs) and Rapidly Shrinking Firms (RSFs).

    The study has three objectives. First, it describes the distributions of employment growth rates in Canada to see whether they are consistent with observations in other countries. Second, it quantifies the contribution of HGFs and RSFs to aggregate job creation and destruction. The third objective is to examine, using quantile regression techniques, the role of firm size and firm age in the performance of HGFs and RSFs.

    Release date: 2014-05-15

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2012-07-05

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2012-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012009
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series decomposes business-sector annual net employment growth into gross employment creation and gross employment destruction at the firm level. It is based on research carried out by Statistics Canada on the topic of business dynamics.

    Release date: 2012-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2012024
    Description:

    This paper looks at annual changes in Canadian business sector employment from 2001 to 2009. This period encompasses an expansionary phase (2001 to 2008), followed by a recession (2008/2009). Firm-level data are used to decompose yearly net employment change into gross employment creation and destruction, which makes it possible to measure the size of total annual employment reallocation. These measures of employment turnover are compared across industries and firm size classes.

    Release date: 2012-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2012078
    Description:

    This paper asks how market expansion contributes to productivity growth. It investigates whether entry to both new international markets and new domestic markets is associated with greater productivity growth. It also examines whether exit from export markets is necessarily associated with deteriorating performance or whether it too can lead to success when associated with movements to new markets. Finally, the paper examines the strategy of firms that move to new markets after they withdraw from export markets in order to examine the differences that set them apart from their counterparts that do not find themselves able to adapt because they simply withdraw to their home domestic markets.

    Release date: 2012-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010063
    Description:

    This paper examines how trade liberalization and fluctuations in real exchange rates affect export-market entry/exit and plant-level productivity. It uses the experience of Canadian manufacturing plants over three separate periods that featuring different rates of bilateral tariff reduction and differing movements in bilateral real exchange rates. The patterns of entry and exit responses as well as the productivity outcomes differ markedly in the three periods. Consistent with much of the recent literature, the paper finds that plants self-select into export markets-that is, more efficient plants are more likely to enter and less likely to exit export markets. The reverse also occurs: entrants to export markets improve their productivity performance relative to the population from which they originated and plants that stay in export markets do better than comparable plants that exited, lending support to the thesis that exporting boosts productivity. Finally, we find that overall market access conditions, including real exchange rate trends, significantly affect the extent of productivity gains to be derived from participating in export markets. In particular, the increase in the value of the Canadian dollar during the post-2002 period almost completely offset the productivity growth advantages that new export-market participants would otherwise have enjoyed.

    Release date: 2010-06-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010061
    Description:

    We examine the simultaneous effects of real-exchange-rate movements and of tariff reductions on plant death in Canadian manufacturing industries between 1979 and 1996. We find that both currency appreciation and tariff cuts increase the probability of plant death, but that tariff reductions have a much greater effect. Consistent with the implications of recent international-trade models involving heterogeneous firms, we further find that the effect of exchange-rate movements and tariff cuts on exit are heterogeneous across plants - particularly pronounced among least efficient plants. Our results reveal multi-dimensional heterogeneity that current models featuring one-dimensional heterogeneity (efficiency differences among plants) cannot fully explain. There are significant and substantial differences between exporters and non-exporters, and between domestic- and foreign- controlled plants. Exporters and foreign-owned plants have much lower failure rates; however, their survival is more sensitive to changes in tariffs and real exchange rates, whether differences in their efficiency levels are controlled or not.

    Release date: 2010-04-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010060
    Description:

    This paper asks whether synergies or managerial discipline operates in different ways across small versus large plants to affect the likelihood of mergers. Our findings indicate that those characteristics which provide the type of synergies upon which ownership changes rely are important factors leading to plant-ownership changes across most size classes. The magnitudes, however, are different across plant-size classes, with synergies generally being more important in larger plants.

    Foreign plants in all size classes are more likely to be taken over. The effective rates of control change differ much more in the small than in the larger size classes. Compared to domestic plants, multinational plants in the smaller size classes contain relatively more of the type of intangible capital that makes them attractive vehicles for the transmission of new knowledge via takeover.

    Release date: 2010-02-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2008020
    Description:

    This paper presents the long-term trends in outsourcing and offshoring across Canadian industries.

    Release date: 2008-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008055
    Description:

    This paper has three main objectives. First, it presents the long-term trends in outsourcing and offshoring across Canadian industries. Second, it examines the relationship between offshoring and changes in trade patterns at the industry level. It focuses on two major drivers that some have suggested are behind the recent trends toward offshoring: globalization and technological changes associated with information and communications technologies. Third, the paper examines the economic impact of offshoring by investigating the relationship between the extent of offshoring and productivity growth, shifts to high value-added activities and changes in labour markets.

    Release date: 2008-05-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008054
    Description:

    The paper investigates how Canadian manufacturing plants adjust to an increase in low-wage import competition by changing their commodity portfolios. At the commodity level, we distinguish between 'core' versus 'peripheral' and differentiated versus homogeneous commodities. We also account for cost and technological complementarities using input-output linkages between commodities produced by a plant. We document large commodity turnover within plants over the period from 1988 to 1996. The largest changes happened in multi-commodity plants and involved peripheral commodities. The commodities that were affected the most were those commodities that are potentially used as inputs in production of the 'core' commodity; homogeneous (rather than differentiated) commodities; and, commodities with relatively weak input complementarities with the core product. Plants experiencing large import competition shifted their output toward production of their core commodity and away from production of unrelated peripheral commodities.

    Release date: 2008-05-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008052
    Description:

    Over the past three decades, tariff barriers have fallen significantly, leading to an increasing integration of Canadian manufactures into world markets and especially the U.S. market. Much attention has been paid to the effects of this shift at the national scale, while little attention has been given to whether these effects vary across regions. In a country that spans a continent, there is ample reason to believe that the effects of trade will vary across regions. In particular, location has a significant effect on the size of markets available to firms, and this may impact the extent to which firms reorganize their production in response to falling trade barriers. Utilizing a longitudinal microdata file of manufacturing plants (1974 to 1999), this study tests the effect of higher levels of trade across regions on the organization of production within plants. The study finds that higher levels of export intensity (exports as a share of output) across regions are positively associated with longer production runs, larger plants and product specialization within plants. These effects are strongest in Ontario and Quebec, provinces that are best situated with respect to the U.S. market.

    Release date: 2008-05-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008051
    Description:

    This paper investigates the productivity effects of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) on Canadian manufacturing. It finds that Canadian tariff cuts increased exit rates among moderately productive non-exporting plants. This led to the reallocation of market share toward highly productive plants, which helps explain why aggregate productivity gains were observed when Canadian tariffs were reduced. The paper also finds that all of the within-plant productivity gains resulting from the U.S. tariff cuts involved exporters and, especially, new entrants into the export market. It demonstrates that any lack of output responses and labour-shedding as a consequence of the FTA were experienced by Canadian plants who were non-exporters, while exporters captured the gains from the FTA.

    Release date: 2008-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2007044
    Description:

    Utilizing a longitudinal micro data file of manufacturing plants (1974 to 1999), this study tests the effect of higher levels of trade on the level of industrial specialization experienced by regional manufacturing economies. Consistent with trade driven by comparative advantage, the analysis demonstrates that higher levels of export intensity (exports as a share of output) across regions are associated with greater industrial specialization. However, the analysis also shows that changes in export intensity are only weakly associated with changes in specialization. This occurs because comparative advantage tends to shift away from industries that account for a large share of regional manufacturing employment and towards industries that initially have lower shares. This ebb and flow of comparative advantage helps to explain why Canadian manufacturing regions have not become more specialized in an environment of increasing integration into the world market.

    Release date: 2007-06-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20070039602
    Description:

    The productivity slowdown during 2006 largely originated in the mining and manufacturing industries. The drop in mining was part of a long-term trend, while for manufacturing it was mostly cyclical. Many sectors struggled with labour quality as a result of shortages, especially in western Canada.

    Release date: 2007-03-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006038
    Description:

    This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on plant scale, production-run length and product diversification. We first develop a model of trade in differentiated products with multi-product plants. We then present empirical evidence using a large panel of Canadian manufacturing plants and their experience with the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The model predicts that the bilateral tariff reduction reduces the product diversification of exporting plants, increases the production-run length and has an ambiguous effect on the size of those plants. It also reduces the product diversification and size of non-exporting plants, and has no effect on the production-run length of those plants. The empirical evidence on non-exporting plants provides broad support for the model. The evidence on exporting plants shows that exporters reduce product diversification, and increase production-run length and plant size, but those changes do not appear to be related to tariff cuts. Once in the export markets, plants respond to forces other than tariff cuts. Further tariff cuts have less effect on those plants.

    Release date: 2006-05-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2006013
    Description:

    This paper examines the incidence of foreign control in Canadian non-financial industries. It focuses on changes in the share of assets and revenues under foreign control over a long-run period during which Canada's regulatory climate shifted from being more restrictive to more liberal in its treatment of inward foreign direct investment. These regulatory changes coincided with a retrenchment and then a resurgence in the activities of foreign multinationals in Canadian industry. We report aggregate results for non-financial industries, along with specific tabulations for the energy sector. More detailed industry tabulations are presented for the 2000-2003 period.

    Release date: 2006-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060039136
    Description:

    Foreign control in our economy has fallen and rebounded largely as a result of regulatory changes, especially in energy.

    Release date: 2006-03-16

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2005008
    Description:

    This paper outlines broad changes in foreign ownership in Canada over the last forty years. It makes use of several different but complementary data sources that are produced by Statistics Canada to analyze the importance of foreign ownership in Canada. Over the last four decades, foreign multinationals that are operating in Canada have experienced first, a retrenchment and then, a resurgence in their activities. This retrenchment occurred during the period when foreign investment was tightly regulated and could be found across most industries, but was particularly evident in the energy and mining sector. The resurgence that has occurred subsequent to the introduction of a more liberal regulatory regime was also relatively widespread, though there are several sectors like the science-based and energy industries where this has not occurred.

    Release date: 2005-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005256
    Description:

    We investigate whether trade liberalization affects profitability and financial leverage, using Canadian data from the period following implementation of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. We find that falling domestic tariffs are associated with declining profits and increasing leverage for import-competing firms, while falling foreign tariffs are associated with increasing profits and decreasing leverage for firms in export-oriented industries. This pattern is consistent with the "pecking order" theory of capital structure.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005257
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: Trade liberalization, profitability, and financial leverage. Changes in international trade policy may influence financial leverage, the relative importance of debt as opposed to equity in financing the firm, expressed by a debt-to-asset ratio. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate empirically whether trade liberalization has an impact on leverage. The second is to estimate the effect of trade liberalization on profitability. Changes in trade policy are a major part of the international business environment, and our theoretical formulation suggests that trade liberalization influences leverage largely through its effect on profits. Therefore, testing the link between liberalization and profits is a central test of our overall theoretical structure. The paper is divided into the following sections: four testable hypotheses regarding the possible effect of trade liberalization on profits and leverage; a description of the data set; empirical results and analysis; and concluding remarks.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

Reference (4)

Reference (4) (4 of 4 results)

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