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All (27) (25 of 27 results)

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-02-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2015096
    Description:

    This analysis examines provincial income convergence in Canada from 1926 to 2011 using National Accounts-based estimates of per capita household disposable income. Household disposable income is the income available for consumption and saving, and is, therefore, closely aligned with material well-being.

    Convergence is a long-run tendency for income levels between economies to become more similar. In its most literal sense, convergence implies that all provincial per capita disposable incomes across Canada will eventually reach the same level. Less exacting forms of convergence allow for differences in per capita income levels due to structural differences across provinces. Factors such as resource endowments, urbanization, human capital, and industry structure are believed to be sources of such differences.

    Release date: 2015-02-12

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014092
    Description:

    Using data from the Provincial KLEMS database, this paper asks whether provincial economies have undergone structural change in their business sectors since 2000. It does so by applying a measure of industrial change (the dissimilarity index) using measures of output (real GDP) and hours worked. The paper also develops a statistical methodology to test whether the shifts in the industrial composition of output and hours worked over the period are due to random year-over-year changes in industrial structure or long-term systematic change in the structure of provincial economies. The paper is designed to inform discussion and analysis of recent changes in industrial composition at the national level, notably, the decline in manufacturing output and the concomitant rise of resource industries, and the implications of this change for provincial economies.

    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2010020
    Description:

    Using 2001 Census data, this paper investigates the extent to which the urban-rural gap in the earnings of employed workers is associated with human capital composition and agglomeration economies. Both factors have been theoretically and empirically linked to urban-rural earnings differences. Agglomeration economies-the productivity enhancing effects of the geographic concentration of workers and firms-may underlie these differences as they may be stronger in larger urban centres. But human capital composition may also drive the urban-rural earnings gap if workers with higher levels of education and/or experience are more prevalent in cities. The analysis finds that up to one-half of urban-rural earnings differences are related to human capital composition. It also demonstrates that agglomeration economies related to city size are associated with earnings levels, but their influence is significantly reduced by the inclusion of controls for human capital.

    Release date: 2010-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2008019
    Description:

    University degree holders in large cities are more prevalent and are growing at a more rapid pace than in smaller cities and rural areas. This relatively high rate of growth stems from net migratory flows and/or higher rates of degree attainment in cities. Using data from the 1996 and 2001 Censuses, this paper tests the relative importance of these two sources of human capital growth by decomposing degree-holder growth across cities into net migratory flows (domestic and foreign) and in situ growth: that is, growth resulting from higher rates of degree attainment among the resident populations of cities. We find that both sources are important, with in situ growth being the more dominant force. Hence, it is less the ability of cities to attract human capital than their ability to generate it that underlies the high rates of degree attainment we observe across city populations.

    Release date: 2008-06-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008049
    Description:

    Productivity and wages tend to be higher in cities. This is typically explained by agglomeration economies, which increase the returns associated with urban locations. Competing arguments of specialization and diversity undergird these claims. Empirical research has long sought to confirm the existence of agglomeration economies and to adjudicate between the models of Marshall, Arrow and Romer (MAR) that suggest the benefits of proximity are largely confined to individual industries, and the claims of Jacobs (1969) that such benefits derive from a general increase in the density of economic activity in a particular place and are shared by all occupants of that location. The primary goal of this paper is to identify the main sources of urban increasing returns, after Marshall (1920). A secondary goal is to examine the geographical distance across which externalities flow between businesses in the same industry. We bring to bear on these questions plant-level data organized in the form of a panel across the years 1989 and 1999. The panel data overcome selection bias resulting from unobserved plant-level heterogeneity that is constant over time. Plant-level production functions are estimated across the Canadian manufacturing sector as a whole and for five broad industry groups, each characterized by the nature of their output. Results provide strong support for Marshall's (1920) claims about the importance of buyer-supplier networks, labour market pooling and spillovers. The data show spillovers enhance plant productivity within industries rather than between them and that these spillovers tend to be more spatially extensive than previous studies have found.

    Release date: 2008-02-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2008018
    Description:

    This paper examines the presence of knowledge spillovers that affect the adoption of advanced technologies in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It examines whether plants that adopt advanced technologies are more likely to do so when there are other nearby plants that do so within a model of technology adoption.

    Release date: 2008-02-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2008017
    Description:

    This paper examines the growth of human capital in Canadian and U.S. cities. Using pooled Census of Population data for 242 urban centres, we evaluate the link between long run employment growth and the supply of different types of skilled labour. The paper also examines whether the scientific capabilities of cities are influenced by amenities such as the size of the local cultural sector.

    The first part of the paper investigates the contribution of broad and specialized forms of human capital to long-run employment growth. We differentiate between employed degree holders (a general measure of human capital) and degree holders employed in science and cultural occupations (specific measures of human capital). Our growth models investigate long-run changes in urban employment from 1980 to 2000, and control for other factors that have been posited to influence the growth of cities. These include estimates of the amenities that proxy differences in the attractiveness of urban areas.

    The second part of the paper focuses specifically on a particular type of human capital'degree holders in science and engineering occupations. Our models evaluate the factors associated with the medium- and long-run growth of these occupations. Particular attention is placed on disentangling the relationships between science and engineering growth and other forms of human capital.

    Release date: 2008-01-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2007044
    Description:

    Utilizing a longitudinal micro data file of manufacturing plants (1974 to 1999), this study tests the effect of higher levels of trade on the level of industrial specialization experienced by regional manufacturing economies. Consistent with trade driven by comparative advantage, the analysis demonstrates that higher levels of export intensity (exports as a share of output) across regions are associated with greater industrial specialization. However, the analysis also shows that changes in export intensity are only weakly associated with changes in specialization. This occurs because comparative advantage tends to shift away from industries that account for a large share of regional manufacturing employment and towards industries that initially have lower shares. This ebb and flow of comparative advantage helps to explain why Canadian manufacturing regions have not become more specialized in an environment of increasing integration into the world market.

    Release date: 2007-06-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2007045
    Description:

    Productivity levels and productivity growth rates vary significantly over space. These differences are perhaps most pronounced between countries, but they remain acutely evident within national spaces as economic growth favors some cities and regions and not others. In this paper, we map the spatial variation in productivity levels across Canadian cities and we model the underlying determinants of that variation. We have two main goals. First, to confirm the existence, the nature and the size of agglomeration economies, that is, the gains in efficiency related to the spatial clustering of economic activity. We focus attention on the impacts of buyer-supplier networks, labour market pooling and knowledge spillovers. Second, we identify the geographical extent of knowledge spillovers using information on the location of individual manufacturing plants. Plant-level data developed by the Micro-economic Analysis Division of Statistics Canada underpin the analysis. After controlling for a series of plant and firm characteristics, analysis reveals that the productivity performance of plants is positively influenced by all three of Marshall's mechanisms of agglomeration (Marshall, 1920). The analysis also shows that the effect of knowledge spillovers on productivity is spatially circumscribed, extending, at most, only 10 km beyond individual plants. The reliance of individual businesses on place-based economies varies across the sectors to which the businesses are aggregated. These sectors are defined by the factors that influence the process of competition'access to natural resources, labour costs, scale economies, product differentiation, and the application of scientific knowledge. Neither labour market pooling, buyer-supplier networks nor knowledge spillovers are universally important across all sectors. This paper provides confirmation of the importance of agglomeration, while also providing evidence that external economies are spatially bounded and not universally important across all industries.

    Release date: 2007-06-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006039
    Description:

    This paper relates to two understudied, but increasingly important concerns: the measurement of regional integration, and the regional benefits to North American economic integration. The objective is to measure Canada's regional integration in manufacturing industries with that of the United States, and examine the regional impact of growing trade integration on productivity growth and select other economic performance variables.

    Our research shows that Canada and each of its regions are becoming more integrated in trade in manufactures with the United States, but Ontario is much more integrated than the rest of Canada. While all regions have benefited through improved productivity performance, higher wages and higher output growth, Ontario has been the principal beneficiary. No evidence was found that increased trade integration in manufactures with the United States caused anything more than short-run adjustment losses in employment. Canada and each of its regions have expanded their share of North American manufacturing which stands in sharp contrast to the supposition that it would be the United States that would experience a growth in North American production share (Krugman, 1980).

    Release date: 2006-05-31

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2006012
    Description:

    In recent years, cities have become increasingly interested in their ability to generate, attract and retain human capital. One measure of human capital is employment in science- and engineering-based occupations. This paper provides a comparison of the employment shares of these specialized occupations across Canadian and U.S. cities by using data from the Canadian and the U.S. censuses from 1980-1981 and 2000-2001. The paper, therefore, provides a perspective on how Canadian cities performed relative to their U.S. counterparts over a twenty-year period. It also seeks to evaluate how cities of different sizes have performed, because large cities may be advantaged over smaller cities in terms of factors influencing both the demand for, and supply of, scientists and engineers.

    Release date: 2006-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050088449
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse geographic income disparities in Canada from the perspective of provinces and especially urban and rural areas. In particular, it looks at how per capita incomes vary across the urban-rural continuum - that is, how per capita incomes in large cities like Toronto and Montreal compare with medium sized cities like Halifax and Victoria, small cities like Brandon and Drummondville and with rural areas.

    Release date: 2005-08-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2005012
    Description:

    This paper describes per capita employment income disparities across provinces and across the urban-rural continuum, from larger to small cities and between cities and rural areas. Its first objective is to compare the degree of income disparities across provinces to income disparities across the urban-rural continuum. Its second objective is to determine the extent to which provincial disparities can be tied to the urban-rural composition of provinces. The paper also seeks to determine whether urban-rural disparities in per capita employment income stem from poorer labour market conditions in smaller cities and rural areas compared to large cities.

    Release date: 2005-07-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2004024
    Description:

    This paper compares gross domestic product (GDP) per capita across Canadian provinces for the period 1990 to 2003. It starts by examining relative GDP per capita measured in current dollars across provinces and over time. In the second section, growth in nominal dollar GDP is broken down into a price and a volume component to determine whether growth over the period came from a higher volume of real output or higher prices received for the products being produced. In the third section, the relationship between increases in the volume component (real GDP per capita) and changes in productivity or in labour market conditions (hours worked per employee and the proportion of the working age population employed) is explored.

    Release date: 2004-11-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2003019
    Description:

    This paper examines the migration of head offices to other countries from 1999 to 2002. It uses data from Statistics Canada's Business Register.

    Release date: 2003-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2003003
    Description:

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the levels and trends in the industrial diversity of Canadian cities over the past 10 years (1992 to 2002). Diverse cities are thought to be more stable and provide better environments that lead to stronger economic growth.

    Release date: 2003-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2003003
    Description:

    This report compares employment growth in information and communications technology (ICT) industries and science-based industries across provinces, urban and rural regions and census metropolitan areas (CMAs).

    Release date: 2003-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2003008
    Description:

    This paper analyses the border effect and its relation to tariff-based and non-tariff-based barriers to cross-border trade in North America.

    Release date: 2003-04-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2003005
    Description:

    This paper measures the structural characteristics of regional economies; diversity, growth, plant size and export intensity; increases in export orientation; and other aspects of manufacturing employment in different Canadian regions for the period 1976 to 1997.

    Release date: 2003-04-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001180
    Description:

    This study examines provincial differences in productivity (GDP per job) using decomposition and regression analysis. In the first stage of the study, the relative size of productivity differences across provinces is examined. Then, these differences are decomposed into two components - the first is the portion of the difference that arises from industry-mix, and the second is due to "real" productivity differences at the industry level. The paper also examines the contributions of the "new" and "old" economy sectors to differences in provincial productivity. Finally, regression analysis is performed in order to determine the statistical significance of interprovincial productivity differences. The paper finds that British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec do not differ significantly from another in terms of GDP per job after differences in industry mix are considered. Manitoba and the Atlantic Provinces lag behind the others. Most of the difference in the latter two cases stems from "real" differences at the industry level rather than from the effect of differences in industry mix. The Natural Resources sector plays an important role in bolstering the performance of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    Release date: 2001-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001169
    Description:

    This paper documents the changing geography of the Canadian manufacturing sector over a twenty-two year period (1976-1997). It does so by looking at the shifts in employment, as well as other measures of industrial change, across different levels of the rural/urban hierarchy - central cities, adjacent suburbs, medium and small cities, and rural areas.

    The analysis demonstrates that the most dramatic shifts in manufacturing employment were from the central cities of large metropolitan regions to their suburbs. Paralleling trends in the United States, rural regions of Canada have increased their share of manufacturing employment. Rising rural employment shares were due to declining employment shares of small cities and, to lesser degree, large urban regions. Increasing rural employment was particularly prominent in Quebec, where employment shifted away from the Montreal region. By way of contrast, Ontario's rural regions only maintained their share of employment and the Toronto region increased its share of provincial employment over the period. The changing fortunes of rural and urban areas was not the result of across-the-board shifts in manufacturing employment, but was the net outcome of differing locational patterns across industries.

    Change across the rural/urban hierarchy is also measured in terms of wage and productivity levels, diversity, and volatility. In contrast to the United States, wages and productivity in Canada do not consistently decline moving down the rural/urban hierarchy from the largest cities to the most rural parts of the country. Only after controlling for the types of manufacturing industries found in rural and urban regions is it apparent that wages and productivity decline with the size of place. The analysis also demonstrates that over time most rural and urban regions are diversifying across a wider variety of manufacturing industries and that shifts in employment shares across industries - a measure of economic instability - has for some rural/urban classifications increased modestly.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001177
    Description:

    Recent research has suggested that investment has shifted from urban areas to more rural locales. However, Canadian manufacturing remains predominantly an urban activity with more than 40% of manufacturing employment located in Canada's three largest urban regions. This paper examines the changing manufacturing landscapes of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver and outlines the shifts in industry mix, employment, and wage levels that have taken place over the period between 1976 and 1997. The analysis uses a longitudinal plant-level database based upon the Annual Survey of Manufactures conducted by Statistics Canada.

    Toronto and Vancouver both experience growth in the manufacturing sector, while Montreal experiences decline driven by differences in their industrial structure. Manufacturing activity has increased in a number of sectors of Toronto's economy, but has been particularly influenced by the growing automotive sector that ties the city to a large North American market. Montreal has experienced declines across most of the manufacturing industries. A heavy concentration of employment in labour intensive industries such as textiles and clothing, which have experienced severe declines across Canada, has amplified the level of decline in Montreal. However, Montreal has seen some growth in science-based industries. While Vancouver's manufacturing economy is much smaller in absolute terms, maintaining slightly less than a 5% share of national manufacturing employment, it has exhibited higher levels of long-run growth and restructuring than its eastern counterparts.

    A second focus of the paper is to explore the relationship between economic volatility and diversity in the manufacturing sector using a number of statistical measures. Toronto and Montreal have diverse industrial structures, although each has become slightly more concentrated over the study period. In Montreal, this is due to the increasing importance of other industries, as the clothing and textiles industry declines. In Toronto, this can be attributed to the increased importance of the food and transportation equipment industries. Vancouver has become increasingly diversified over the study period, reflecting the growth and dynamism of this sector. The mature manufacturing economies of Toronto and Montreal exhibit lower levels of volatility than their western counterpart.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Technical products: 21-601-M1998037
    Description:

    This paper looks at the number of business establishment starts in smaller and larger communities in Canada from 1993 to 1996.

    Release date: 2000-01-18

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Analysis (26)

Analysis (26) (25 of 26 results)

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-02-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2015096
    Description:

    This analysis examines provincial income convergence in Canada from 1926 to 2011 using National Accounts-based estimates of per capita household disposable income. Household disposable income is the income available for consumption and saving, and is, therefore, closely aligned with material well-being.

    Convergence is a long-run tendency for income levels between economies to become more similar. In its most literal sense, convergence implies that all provincial per capita disposable incomes across Canada will eventually reach the same level. Less exacting forms of convergence allow for differences in per capita income levels due to structural differences across provinces. Factors such as resource endowments, urbanization, human capital, and industry structure are believed to be sources of such differences.

    Release date: 2015-02-12

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014092
    Description:

    Using data from the Provincial KLEMS database, this paper asks whether provincial economies have undergone structural change in their business sectors since 2000. It does so by applying a measure of industrial change (the dissimilarity index) using measures of output (real GDP) and hours worked. The paper also develops a statistical methodology to test whether the shifts in the industrial composition of output and hours worked over the period are due to random year-over-year changes in industrial structure or long-term systematic change in the structure of provincial economies. The paper is designed to inform discussion and analysis of recent changes in industrial composition at the national level, notably, the decline in manufacturing output and the concomitant rise of resource industries, and the implications of this change for provincial economies.

    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2010020
    Description:

    Using 2001 Census data, this paper investigates the extent to which the urban-rural gap in the earnings of employed workers is associated with human capital composition and agglomeration economies. Both factors have been theoretically and empirically linked to urban-rural earnings differences. Agglomeration economies-the productivity enhancing effects of the geographic concentration of workers and firms-may underlie these differences as they may be stronger in larger urban centres. But human capital composition may also drive the urban-rural earnings gap if workers with higher levels of education and/or experience are more prevalent in cities. The analysis finds that up to one-half of urban-rural earnings differences are related to human capital composition. It also demonstrates that agglomeration economies related to city size are associated with earnings levels, but their influence is significantly reduced by the inclusion of controls for human capital.

    Release date: 2010-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2008019
    Description:

    University degree holders in large cities are more prevalent and are growing at a more rapid pace than in smaller cities and rural areas. This relatively high rate of growth stems from net migratory flows and/or higher rates of degree attainment in cities. Using data from the 1996 and 2001 Censuses, this paper tests the relative importance of these two sources of human capital growth by decomposing degree-holder growth across cities into net migratory flows (domestic and foreign) and in situ growth: that is, growth resulting from higher rates of degree attainment among the resident populations of cities. We find that both sources are important, with in situ growth being the more dominant force. Hence, it is less the ability of cities to attract human capital than their ability to generate it that underlies the high rates of degree attainment we observe across city populations.

    Release date: 2008-06-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008049
    Description:

    Productivity and wages tend to be higher in cities. This is typically explained by agglomeration economies, which increase the returns associated with urban locations. Competing arguments of specialization and diversity undergird these claims. Empirical research has long sought to confirm the existence of agglomeration economies and to adjudicate between the models of Marshall, Arrow and Romer (MAR) that suggest the benefits of proximity are largely confined to individual industries, and the claims of Jacobs (1969) that such benefits derive from a general increase in the density of economic activity in a particular place and are shared by all occupants of that location. The primary goal of this paper is to identify the main sources of urban increasing returns, after Marshall (1920). A secondary goal is to examine the geographical distance across which externalities flow between businesses in the same industry. We bring to bear on these questions plant-level data organized in the form of a panel across the years 1989 and 1999. The panel data overcome selection bias resulting from unobserved plant-level heterogeneity that is constant over time. Plant-level production functions are estimated across the Canadian manufacturing sector as a whole and for five broad industry groups, each characterized by the nature of their output. Results provide strong support for Marshall's (1920) claims about the importance of buyer-supplier networks, labour market pooling and spillovers. The data show spillovers enhance plant productivity within industries rather than between them and that these spillovers tend to be more spatially extensive than previous studies have found.

    Release date: 2008-02-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2008018
    Description:

    This paper examines the presence of knowledge spillovers that affect the adoption of advanced technologies in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It examines whether plants that adopt advanced technologies are more likely to do so when there are other nearby plants that do so within a model of technology adoption.

    Release date: 2008-02-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2008017
    Description:

    This paper examines the growth of human capital in Canadian and U.S. cities. Using pooled Census of Population data for 242 urban centres, we evaluate the link between long run employment growth and the supply of different types of skilled labour. The paper also examines whether the scientific capabilities of cities are influenced by amenities such as the size of the local cultural sector.

    The first part of the paper investigates the contribution of broad and specialized forms of human capital to long-run employment growth. We differentiate between employed degree holders (a general measure of human capital) and degree holders employed in science and cultural occupations (specific measures of human capital). Our growth models investigate long-run changes in urban employment from 1980 to 2000, and control for other factors that have been posited to influence the growth of cities. These include estimates of the amenities that proxy differences in the attractiveness of urban areas.

    The second part of the paper focuses specifically on a particular type of human capital'degree holders in science and engineering occupations. Our models evaluate the factors associated with the medium- and long-run growth of these occupations. Particular attention is placed on disentangling the relationships between science and engineering growth and other forms of human capital.

    Release date: 2008-01-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2007044
    Description:

    Utilizing a longitudinal micro data file of manufacturing plants (1974 to 1999), this study tests the effect of higher levels of trade on the level of industrial specialization experienced by regional manufacturing economies. Consistent with trade driven by comparative advantage, the analysis demonstrates that higher levels of export intensity (exports as a share of output) across regions are associated with greater industrial specialization. However, the analysis also shows that changes in export intensity are only weakly associated with changes in specialization. This occurs because comparative advantage tends to shift away from industries that account for a large share of regional manufacturing employment and towards industries that initially have lower shares. This ebb and flow of comparative advantage helps to explain why Canadian manufacturing regions have not become more specialized in an environment of increasing integration into the world market.

    Release date: 2007-06-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2007045
    Description:

    Productivity levels and productivity growth rates vary significantly over space. These differences are perhaps most pronounced between countries, but they remain acutely evident within national spaces as economic growth favors some cities and regions and not others. In this paper, we map the spatial variation in productivity levels across Canadian cities and we model the underlying determinants of that variation. We have two main goals. First, to confirm the existence, the nature and the size of agglomeration economies, that is, the gains in efficiency related to the spatial clustering of economic activity. We focus attention on the impacts of buyer-supplier networks, labour market pooling and knowledge spillovers. Second, we identify the geographical extent of knowledge spillovers using information on the location of individual manufacturing plants. Plant-level data developed by the Micro-economic Analysis Division of Statistics Canada underpin the analysis. After controlling for a series of plant and firm characteristics, analysis reveals that the productivity performance of plants is positively influenced by all three of Marshall's mechanisms of agglomeration (Marshall, 1920). The analysis also shows that the effect of knowledge spillovers on productivity is spatially circumscribed, extending, at most, only 10 km beyond individual plants. The reliance of individual businesses on place-based economies varies across the sectors to which the businesses are aggregated. These sectors are defined by the factors that influence the process of competition'access to natural resources, labour costs, scale economies, product differentiation, and the application of scientific knowledge. Neither labour market pooling, buyer-supplier networks nor knowledge spillovers are universally important across all sectors. This paper provides confirmation of the importance of agglomeration, while also providing evidence that external economies are spatially bounded and not universally important across all industries.

    Release date: 2007-06-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006039
    Description:

    This paper relates to two understudied, but increasingly important concerns: the measurement of regional integration, and the regional benefits to North American economic integration. The objective is to measure Canada's regional integration in manufacturing industries with that of the United States, and examine the regional impact of growing trade integration on productivity growth and select other economic performance variables.

    Our research shows that Canada and each of its regions are becoming more integrated in trade in manufactures with the United States, but Ontario is much more integrated than the rest of Canada. While all regions have benefited through improved productivity performance, higher wages and higher output growth, Ontario has been the principal beneficiary. No evidence was found that increased trade integration in manufactures with the United States caused anything more than short-run adjustment losses in employment. Canada and each of its regions have expanded their share of North American manufacturing which stands in sharp contrast to the supposition that it would be the United States that would experience a growth in North American production share (Krugman, 1980).

    Release date: 2006-05-31

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2006012
    Description:

    In recent years, cities have become increasingly interested in their ability to generate, attract and retain human capital. One measure of human capital is employment in science- and engineering-based occupations. This paper provides a comparison of the employment shares of these specialized occupations across Canadian and U.S. cities by using data from the Canadian and the U.S. censuses from 1980-1981 and 2000-2001. The paper, therefore, provides a perspective on how Canadian cities performed relative to their U.S. counterparts over a twenty-year period. It also seeks to evaluate how cities of different sizes have performed, because large cities may be advantaged over smaller cities in terms of factors influencing both the demand for, and supply of, scientists and engineers.

    Release date: 2006-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050088449
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse geographic income disparities in Canada from the perspective of provinces and especially urban and rural areas. In particular, it looks at how per capita incomes vary across the urban-rural continuum - that is, how per capita incomes in large cities like Toronto and Montreal compare with medium sized cities like Halifax and Victoria, small cities like Brandon and Drummondville and with rural areas.

    Release date: 2005-08-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2005012
    Description:

    This paper describes per capita employment income disparities across provinces and across the urban-rural continuum, from larger to small cities and between cities and rural areas. Its first objective is to compare the degree of income disparities across provinces to income disparities across the urban-rural continuum. Its second objective is to determine the extent to which provincial disparities can be tied to the urban-rural composition of provinces. The paper also seeks to determine whether urban-rural disparities in per capita employment income stem from poorer labour market conditions in smaller cities and rural areas compared to large cities.

    Release date: 2005-07-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2004024
    Description:

    This paper compares gross domestic product (GDP) per capita across Canadian provinces for the period 1990 to 2003. It starts by examining relative GDP per capita measured in current dollars across provinces and over time. In the second section, growth in nominal dollar GDP is broken down into a price and a volume component to determine whether growth over the period came from a higher volume of real output or higher prices received for the products being produced. In the third section, the relationship between increases in the volume component (real GDP per capita) and changes in productivity or in labour market conditions (hours worked per employee and the proportion of the working age population employed) is explored.

    Release date: 2004-11-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2003019
    Description:

    This paper examines the migration of head offices to other countries from 1999 to 2002. It uses data from Statistics Canada's Business Register.

    Release date: 2003-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2003003
    Description:

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the levels and trends in the industrial diversity of Canadian cities over the past 10 years (1992 to 2002). Diverse cities are thought to be more stable and provide better environments that lead to stronger economic growth.

    Release date: 2003-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2003003
    Description:

    This report compares employment growth in information and communications technology (ICT) industries and science-based industries across provinces, urban and rural regions and census metropolitan areas (CMAs).

    Release date: 2003-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2003008
    Description:

    This paper analyses the border effect and its relation to tariff-based and non-tariff-based barriers to cross-border trade in North America.

    Release date: 2003-04-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2003005
    Description:

    This paper measures the structural characteristics of regional economies; diversity, growth, plant size and export intensity; increases in export orientation; and other aspects of manufacturing employment in different Canadian regions for the period 1976 to 1997.

    Release date: 2003-04-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001180
    Description:

    This study examines provincial differences in productivity (GDP per job) using decomposition and regression analysis. In the first stage of the study, the relative size of productivity differences across provinces is examined. Then, these differences are decomposed into two components - the first is the portion of the difference that arises from industry-mix, and the second is due to "real" productivity differences at the industry level. The paper also examines the contributions of the "new" and "old" economy sectors to differences in provincial productivity. Finally, regression analysis is performed in order to determine the statistical significance of interprovincial productivity differences. The paper finds that British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec do not differ significantly from another in terms of GDP per job after differences in industry mix are considered. Manitoba and the Atlantic Provinces lag behind the others. Most of the difference in the latter two cases stems from "real" differences at the industry level rather than from the effect of differences in industry mix. The Natural Resources sector plays an important role in bolstering the performance of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    Release date: 2001-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001169
    Description:

    This paper documents the changing geography of the Canadian manufacturing sector over a twenty-two year period (1976-1997). It does so by looking at the shifts in employment, as well as other measures of industrial change, across different levels of the rural/urban hierarchy - central cities, adjacent suburbs, medium and small cities, and rural areas.

    The analysis demonstrates that the most dramatic shifts in manufacturing employment were from the central cities of large metropolitan regions to their suburbs. Paralleling trends in the United States, rural regions of Canada have increased their share of manufacturing employment. Rising rural employment shares were due to declining employment shares of small cities and, to lesser degree, large urban regions. Increasing rural employment was particularly prominent in Quebec, where employment shifted away from the Montreal region. By way of contrast, Ontario's rural regions only maintained their share of employment and the Toronto region increased its share of provincial employment over the period. The changing fortunes of rural and urban areas was not the result of across-the-board shifts in manufacturing employment, but was the net outcome of differing locational patterns across industries.

    Change across the rural/urban hierarchy is also measured in terms of wage and productivity levels, diversity, and volatility. In contrast to the United States, wages and productivity in Canada do not consistently decline moving down the rural/urban hierarchy from the largest cities to the most rural parts of the country. Only after controlling for the types of manufacturing industries found in rural and urban regions is it apparent that wages and productivity decline with the size of place. The analysis also demonstrates that over time most rural and urban regions are diversifying across a wider variety of manufacturing industries and that shifts in employment shares across industries - a measure of economic instability - has for some rural/urban classifications increased modestly.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001177
    Description:

    Recent research has suggested that investment has shifted from urban areas to more rural locales. However, Canadian manufacturing remains predominantly an urban activity with more than 40% of manufacturing employment located in Canada's three largest urban regions. This paper examines the changing manufacturing landscapes of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver and outlines the shifts in industry mix, employment, and wage levels that have taken place over the period between 1976 and 1997. The analysis uses a longitudinal plant-level database based upon the Annual Survey of Manufactures conducted by Statistics Canada.

    Toronto and Vancouver both experience growth in the manufacturing sector, while Montreal experiences decline driven by differences in their industrial structure. Manufacturing activity has increased in a number of sectors of Toronto's economy, but has been particularly influenced by the growing automotive sector that ties the city to a large North American market. Montreal has experienced declines across most of the manufacturing industries. A heavy concentration of employment in labour intensive industries such as textiles and clothing, which have experienced severe declines across Canada, has amplified the level of decline in Montreal. However, Montreal has seen some growth in science-based industries. While Vancouver's manufacturing economy is much smaller in absolute terms, maintaining slightly less than a 5% share of national manufacturing employment, it has exhibited higher levels of long-run growth and restructuring than its eastern counterparts.

    A second focus of the paper is to explore the relationship between economic volatility and diversity in the manufacturing sector using a number of statistical measures. Toronto and Montreal have diverse industrial structures, although each has become slightly more concentrated over the study period. In Montreal, this is due to the increasing importance of other industries, as the clothing and textiles industry declines. In Toronto, this can be attributed to the increased importance of the food and transportation equipment industries. Vancouver has become increasingly diversified over the study period, reflecting the growth and dynamism of this sector. The mature manufacturing economies of Toronto and Montreal exhibit lower levels of volatility than their western counterpart.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X1998004
    Description:

    A defining feature of rural populations is that they are distant from major metropolitan centres. Thus, households in rural areas have different needs than those in urban areas and, therefore, different spending patterns. In 1996, the total expenditure of an average Canadian household was $49,054. Rural households spent an average of $42,620 while urban households had an average spending of $50,283. This article gives an overview of the differences and similarities in the spending patterns of rural and urban households.

    Release date: 1999-03-30

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