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All (14) (14 of 14 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001180
    Description:

    This study examines provincial differences in productivity (GDP per job) using decomposition and regression analysis. In the first stage of the study, the relative size of productivity differences across provinces is examined. Then, these differences are decomposed into two components - the first is the portion of the difference that arises from industry-mix, and the second is due to "real" productivity differences at the industry level. The paper also examines the contributions of the "new" and "old" economy sectors to differences in provincial productivity. Finally, regression analysis is performed in order to determine the statistical significance of interprovincial productivity differences. The paper finds that British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec do not differ significantly from another in terms of GDP per job after differences in industry mix are considered. Manitoba and the Atlantic Provinces lag behind the others. Most of the difference in the latter two cases stems from "real" differences at the industry level rather than from the effect of differences in industry mix. The Natural Resources sector plays an important role in bolstering the performance of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    Release date: 2001-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001177
    Description:

    Recent research has suggested that investment has shifted from urban areas to more rural locales. However, Canadian manufacturing remains predominantly an urban activity with more than 40% of manufacturing employment located in Canada's three largest urban regions. This paper examines the changing manufacturing landscapes of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver and outlines the shifts in industry mix, employment, and wage levels that have taken place over the period between 1976 and 1997. The analysis uses a longitudinal plant-level database based upon the Annual Survey of Manufactures conducted by Statistics Canada.

    Toronto and Vancouver both experience growth in the manufacturing sector, while Montreal experiences decline driven by differences in their industrial structure. Manufacturing activity has increased in a number of sectors of Toronto's economy, but has been particularly influenced by the growing automotive sector that ties the city to a large North American market. Montreal has experienced declines across most of the manufacturing industries. A heavy concentration of employment in labour intensive industries such as textiles and clothing, which have experienced severe declines across Canada, has amplified the level of decline in Montreal. However, Montreal has seen some growth in science-based industries. While Vancouver's manufacturing economy is much smaller in absolute terms, maintaining slightly less than a 5% share of national manufacturing employment, it has exhibited higher levels of long-run growth and restructuring than its eastern counterparts.

    A second focus of the paper is to explore the relationship between economic volatility and diversity in the manufacturing sector using a number of statistical measures. Toronto and Montreal have diverse industrial structures, although each has become slightly more concentrated over the study period. In Montreal, this is due to the increasing importance of other industries, as the clothing and textiles industry declines. In Toronto, this can be attributed to the increased importance of the food and transportation equipment industries. Vancouver has become increasingly diversified over the study period, reflecting the growth and dynamism of this sector. The mature manufacturing economies of Toronto and Montreal exhibit lower levels of volatility than their western counterpart.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001169
    Description:

    This paper documents the changing geography of the Canadian manufacturing sector over a twenty-two year period (1976-1997). It does so by looking at the shifts in employment, as well as other measures of industrial change, across different levels of the rural/urban hierarchy - central cities, adjacent suburbs, medium and small cities, and rural areas.

    The analysis demonstrates that the most dramatic shifts in manufacturing employment were from the central cities of large metropolitan regions to their suburbs. Paralleling trends in the United States, rural regions of Canada have increased their share of manufacturing employment. Rising rural employment shares were due to declining employment shares of small cities and, to lesser degree, large urban regions. Increasing rural employment was particularly prominent in Quebec, where employment shifted away from the Montreal region. By way of contrast, Ontario's rural regions only maintained their share of employment and the Toronto region increased its share of provincial employment over the period. The changing fortunes of rural and urban areas was not the result of across-the-board shifts in manufacturing employment, but was the net outcome of differing locational patterns across industries.

    Change across the rural/urban hierarchy is also measured in terms of wage and productivity levels, diversity, and volatility. In contrast to the United States, wages and productivity in Canada do not consistently decline moving down the rural/urban hierarchy from the largest cities to the most rural parts of the country. Only after controlling for the types of manufacturing industries found in rural and urban regions is it apparent that wages and productivity decline with the size of place. The analysis also demonstrates that over time most rural and urban regions are diversifying across a wider variety of manufacturing industries and that shifts in employment shares across industries - a measure of economic instability - has for some rural/urban classifications increased modestly.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 63-016-X20010025947
    Description:

    This article examines evidence of consolidation in the Canadian P&C insurance industry since 1988.

    Release date: 2001-10-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001174
    Description:

    This paper investigates the evolution of the industrial structure in the Canadian manufacturing sector and its relationship to technological change by examining the take-up of advanced technologies and how it is related to the stochastic growth process in the plant population. Its framework is grounded in the view that growth is a stochastic process that involves learning. Experimentation with new technologies rewards some firms with superior growth and profitability. Examining how growth is associated with the choice of different technology strategies indicates which of these is being rewarded.

    The evolution of this process is studied by examining the relationship between the uptake of advanced technologies and the performance of plants in the manufacturing sector. This is done by using cross-sectional data on advanced technology use and by combining it with longitudinal panel data on plant performance. In particular, the paper examines the relationship between the use of information and communications technology (ICT) and the growth in a plant's market share and its relative productivity.

    The study finds that a considerable amount of market share is transferred from declining firms to growing firms over a decade. At the same time, the growers increase their productivity relative to the losers. Those technology users that were using communications technologies or that combined technologies from different classes increased their relative productivity the most. In turn, gains in relative productivity were accompanied by gains in market share. Other factors that were associated with gains in market share were the presence of R&D facilities and other innovative activities.

    Release date: 2001-10-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001149
    Description:

    This paper extends earlier work by updating the structure and policy parameters of payroll taxes in Canada. Drawing from a newly available dataset, it also reports trends on the level, growth and role of each component of these taxes in recent years. Finally, it compares Canadian payroll taxes to those of the world's leading developed countries. The following highlights the main findings.

    Payroll taxes in Canada have grown considerably since the early 1980s, constituting an increasingly important source of revenues for both the federal and provincial governments. However, the rapid expansion observed in earlier years has in large part slowed down in the early 1990s. Payroll tax revenues collected from employees and employers in the country have stabilized at around 5.7% of GDP or 14.0% of total federal and provincial government revenues since 1992; the effective total payroll tax rate has levelled off at around $12.20 for every $100 of wages and salaries since 1994.

    The structure, level, growth, and role of each component of payroll taxes vary considerably from one province to another. Yet, EI premiums have remarkably been the largest component of these taxes in every province in both the 1980s and the 1990s, regardless of whether there are provincial payroll taxes; rising EI premiums have also consistently been the leading contributor to the expansion of total payroll taxes during this period.

    Despite rapid growth in the 1980s and early 1990s, Canadian payroll taxes remain one of the lowest in the world's major developed economies. According to data compiled by the OECD, total payroll tax revenues in Canada amounted to 6.0% of GDP in 1996 --- that is 14% lower than that of the United States (at 7.0% of GDP); the lowest in the G7 nations; and the 9th lowest among the 29 OECD member states.

    Release date: 2001-09-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20010015610
    Description:

    This article provides an overview of changes between 1980 and 1997 in various taxes in the G-7 and OECD countries.

    Release date: 2001-03-23

  • Table: 61F0090X
    Description:

    The Survey of Usage by Businesses of the Social Insurance Number was conducted during June and July 2000 on behalf of Human Resources Development Canada. The survey asked companies with two or more employees how they used the Social Insurance Number of their employees, contract workers and clients, and how they used the SIN card. This electronic publication presents 7 selected detailed tables in support of The daily (cat. no. 11-001-XIE) release February 15, along with methods and concepts pertaining to the release.

    Release date: 2001-02-15

  • Table: 15-204-X19990005495
    Description:

    This chapter examines productivity growth in manufacturing by size of establishment and by whether it is Canadian- or foreign-owned.

    Release date: 2001-02-14

Data (7)

Data (7) (7 of 7 results)

Analysis (7)

Analysis (7) (7 of 7 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001180
    Description:

    This study examines provincial differences in productivity (GDP per job) using decomposition and regression analysis. In the first stage of the study, the relative size of productivity differences across provinces is examined. Then, these differences are decomposed into two components - the first is the portion of the difference that arises from industry-mix, and the second is due to "real" productivity differences at the industry level. The paper also examines the contributions of the "new" and "old" economy sectors to differences in provincial productivity. Finally, regression analysis is performed in order to determine the statistical significance of interprovincial productivity differences. The paper finds that British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec do not differ significantly from another in terms of GDP per job after differences in industry mix are considered. Manitoba and the Atlantic Provinces lag behind the others. Most of the difference in the latter two cases stems from "real" differences at the industry level rather than from the effect of differences in industry mix. The Natural Resources sector plays an important role in bolstering the performance of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    Release date: 2001-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001177
    Description:

    Recent research has suggested that investment has shifted from urban areas to more rural locales. However, Canadian manufacturing remains predominantly an urban activity with more than 40% of manufacturing employment located in Canada's three largest urban regions. This paper examines the changing manufacturing landscapes of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver and outlines the shifts in industry mix, employment, and wage levels that have taken place over the period between 1976 and 1997. The analysis uses a longitudinal plant-level database based upon the Annual Survey of Manufactures conducted by Statistics Canada.

    Toronto and Vancouver both experience growth in the manufacturing sector, while Montreal experiences decline driven by differences in their industrial structure. Manufacturing activity has increased in a number of sectors of Toronto's economy, but has been particularly influenced by the growing automotive sector that ties the city to a large North American market. Montreal has experienced declines across most of the manufacturing industries. A heavy concentration of employment in labour intensive industries such as textiles and clothing, which have experienced severe declines across Canada, has amplified the level of decline in Montreal. However, Montreal has seen some growth in science-based industries. While Vancouver's manufacturing economy is much smaller in absolute terms, maintaining slightly less than a 5% share of national manufacturing employment, it has exhibited higher levels of long-run growth and restructuring than its eastern counterparts.

    A second focus of the paper is to explore the relationship between economic volatility and diversity in the manufacturing sector using a number of statistical measures. Toronto and Montreal have diverse industrial structures, although each has become slightly more concentrated over the study period. In Montreal, this is due to the increasing importance of other industries, as the clothing and textiles industry declines. In Toronto, this can be attributed to the increased importance of the food and transportation equipment industries. Vancouver has become increasingly diversified over the study period, reflecting the growth and dynamism of this sector. The mature manufacturing economies of Toronto and Montreal exhibit lower levels of volatility than their western counterpart.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001169
    Description:

    This paper documents the changing geography of the Canadian manufacturing sector over a twenty-two year period (1976-1997). It does so by looking at the shifts in employment, as well as other measures of industrial change, across different levels of the rural/urban hierarchy - central cities, adjacent suburbs, medium and small cities, and rural areas.

    The analysis demonstrates that the most dramatic shifts in manufacturing employment were from the central cities of large metropolitan regions to their suburbs. Paralleling trends in the United States, rural regions of Canada have increased their share of manufacturing employment. Rising rural employment shares were due to declining employment shares of small cities and, to lesser degree, large urban regions. Increasing rural employment was particularly prominent in Quebec, where employment shifted away from the Montreal region. By way of contrast, Ontario's rural regions only maintained their share of employment and the Toronto region increased its share of provincial employment over the period. The changing fortunes of rural and urban areas was not the result of across-the-board shifts in manufacturing employment, but was the net outcome of differing locational patterns across industries.

    Change across the rural/urban hierarchy is also measured in terms of wage and productivity levels, diversity, and volatility. In contrast to the United States, wages and productivity in Canada do not consistently decline moving down the rural/urban hierarchy from the largest cities to the most rural parts of the country. Only after controlling for the types of manufacturing industries found in rural and urban regions is it apparent that wages and productivity decline with the size of place. The analysis also demonstrates that over time most rural and urban regions are diversifying across a wider variety of manufacturing industries and that shifts in employment shares across industries - a measure of economic instability - has for some rural/urban classifications increased modestly.

    Release date: 2001-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 63-016-X20010025947
    Description:

    This article examines evidence of consolidation in the Canadian P&C insurance industry since 1988.

    Release date: 2001-10-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001174
    Description:

    This paper investigates the evolution of the industrial structure in the Canadian manufacturing sector and its relationship to technological change by examining the take-up of advanced technologies and how it is related to the stochastic growth process in the plant population. Its framework is grounded in the view that growth is a stochastic process that involves learning. Experimentation with new technologies rewards some firms with superior growth and profitability. Examining how growth is associated with the choice of different technology strategies indicates which of these is being rewarded.

    The evolution of this process is studied by examining the relationship between the uptake of advanced technologies and the performance of plants in the manufacturing sector. This is done by using cross-sectional data on advanced technology use and by combining it with longitudinal panel data on plant performance. In particular, the paper examines the relationship between the use of information and communications technology (ICT) and the growth in a plant's market share and its relative productivity.

    The study finds that a considerable amount of market share is transferred from declining firms to growing firms over a decade. At the same time, the growers increase their productivity relative to the losers. Those technology users that were using communications technologies or that combined technologies from different classes increased their relative productivity the most. In turn, gains in relative productivity were accompanied by gains in market share. Other factors that were associated with gains in market share were the presence of R&D facilities and other innovative activities.

    Release date: 2001-10-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001149
    Description:

    This paper extends earlier work by updating the structure and policy parameters of payroll taxes in Canada. Drawing from a newly available dataset, it also reports trends on the level, growth and role of each component of these taxes in recent years. Finally, it compares Canadian payroll taxes to those of the world's leading developed countries. The following highlights the main findings.

    Payroll taxes in Canada have grown considerably since the early 1980s, constituting an increasingly important source of revenues for both the federal and provincial governments. However, the rapid expansion observed in earlier years has in large part slowed down in the early 1990s. Payroll tax revenues collected from employees and employers in the country have stabilized at around 5.7% of GDP or 14.0% of total federal and provincial government revenues since 1992; the effective total payroll tax rate has levelled off at around $12.20 for every $100 of wages and salaries since 1994.

    The structure, level, growth, and role of each component of payroll taxes vary considerably from one province to another. Yet, EI premiums have remarkably been the largest component of these taxes in every province in both the 1980s and the 1990s, regardless of whether there are provincial payroll taxes; rising EI premiums have also consistently been the leading contributor to the expansion of total payroll taxes during this period.

    Despite rapid growth in the 1980s and early 1990s, Canadian payroll taxes remain one of the lowest in the world's major developed economies. According to data compiled by the OECD, total payroll tax revenues in Canada amounted to 6.0% of GDP in 1996 --- that is 14% lower than that of the United States (at 7.0% of GDP); the lowest in the G7 nations; and the 9th lowest among the 29 OECD member states.

    Release date: 2001-09-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20010015610
    Description:

    This article provides an overview of changes between 1980 and 1997 in various taxes in the G-7 and OECD countries.

    Release date: 2001-03-23

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