Statistics by subject – Business performance and ownership

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All (20) (20 of 20 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050128972
    Description:

    A profile of the fastest-growing sector in wholesale trade.

    Release date: 2005-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2005009
    Description:

    This paper examines two potential benefits of foreign-controlled plants in the Canadian manufacturing sector: the superior performance of foreign-controlled plants and their productivity spillovers to domestic plants. The paper finds that foreign-controlled plants are more productive, more innovative, more technology intensive, pay higher wages and use more skilled workers. This foreign-ownership advantage is found to be a multinational advantage. What matters for economic performance is whether plants belong to multinational enterprises (MNEs) rather than ownership per se. Canadian multinationals are as productive as foreign multinationals. We also find that MNEs have accounted for a disproportionately large share of productivity growth in the last two decades. Finally, we find robust evidence for productivity spillovers from foreign-controlled plants to domestic-controlled plants arising from increased competition and greater use of new technologies among domestic plants.

    Release date: 2005-12-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2005008
    Description:

    This paper outlines broad changes in foreign ownership in Canada over the last forty years. It makes use of several different but complementary data sources that are produced by Statistics Canada to analyze the importance of foreign ownership in Canada. Over the last four decades, foreign multinationals that are operating in Canada have experienced first, a retrenchment and then, a resurgence in their activities. This retrenchment occurred during the period when foreign investment was tightly regulated and could be found across most industries, but was particularly evident in the energy and mining sector. The resurgence that has occurred subsequent to the introduction of a more liberal regulatory regime was also relatively widespread, though there are several sectors like the science-based and energy industries where this has not occurred.

    Release date: 2005-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005036
    Description:

    Burkart and Ellingsen (2004) develop a model of trade credit and bank credit rationing which predicts that trade credit will be used by medium-wealth and low-wealth firms to help ease bank credit rationing. This paper tests this and other predictions of the Burkart and Ellingsen model using a large sample of more than 28,000 Canadian firms. The author uses an endogenous method to divide the firms into the appropriate wealth categories rather than arbitrarily selecting firms likely to be credit-rationed. The data support the main predictions of the model quite well. The author finds that medium-wealth firms substitute trade credit for bank credit consistent with using it to alleviate bank credit rationing. The low-wealth firms use trade credit but it is positively linked to bank credit, suggesting those firms are constrained in both bank credit and trade credit markets, and so cannot use trade credit to adjust as much to negative shocks. The findings also suggest that there are very few unconstrained, high-wealth Canadian firms. The author also finds low-wealth, declining and distressed firms supply proportionally more trade credit than firms with healthier balance sheets.

    Release date: 2005-11-04

  • Technical products: 11F0024M
    Description:

    This product contains presentations done at Statistics Canada's annual Economic Conference which provides a forum for the exchange of empirical research among the business, government, research and labour communities. The conference is also a means to promote economic and socio-economic analysis while subjecting existing data to critical assessment as part of an ongoing process of statistical development and review.

    Release date: 2005-10-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2005032
    Description:

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of retail trade growth nationally and provincially, and explores the underlying socio-economic-demographic forces since the turn of the millennium. The automotive retail sector is given a closer look because of its ability to dictate retail sales growth during the period. This study uses data from a fleet of Statistics Canada surveys, including Monthly Retail Trade Survey, Provincial Economic Accounts, New Motor Vehicle Sales, Canadian Vehicle Survey, Motor Vehicle Registration, and 2002 Homeowner Repairs and Renovations Survey.

    Release date: 2005-10-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050098623
    Description:

    Cycles in business investment are a key determinant of overall growth, as they are longer-lasting and stronger than in other sectors. Canada is currently in the early stages of an upturn in investment, driven by the revival of the resource sector.

    Release date: 2005-09-15

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050088449
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse geographic income disparities in Canada from the perspective of provinces and especially urban and rural areas. In particular, it looks at how per capita incomes vary across the urban-rural continuum - that is, how per capita incomes in large cities like Toronto and Montreal compare with medium sized cities like Halifax and Victoria, small cities like Brandon and Drummondville and with rural areas.

    Release date: 2005-08-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2005012
    Description:

    This paper describes per capita employment income disparities across provinces and across the urban-rural continuum, from larger to small cities and between cities and rural areas. Its first objective is to compare the degree of income disparities across provinces to income disparities across the urban-rural continuum. Its second objective is to determine the extent to which provincial disparities can be tied to the urban-rural composition of provinces. The paper also seeks to determine whether urban-rural disparities in per capita employment income stem from poorer labour market conditions in smaller cities and rural areas compared to large cities.

    Release date: 2005-07-21

  • Articles and reports: 63-018-X20050018435
    Description:

    Examines small-and mid-sized Internet service providers, and probes the differences between faster growing Internet service providers and their slower-growing counterparts between 2000 and 2002.

    Release date: 2005-07-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005256
    Description:

    We investigate whether trade liberalization affects profitability and financial leverage, using Canadian data from the period following implementation of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. We find that falling domestic tariffs are associated with declining profits and increasing leverage for import-competing firms, while falling foreign tariffs are associated with increasing profits and decreasing leverage for firms in export-oriented industries. This pattern is consistent with the "pecking order" theory of capital structure.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005257
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: Trade liberalization, profitability, and financial leverage. Changes in international trade policy may influence financial leverage, the relative importance of debt as opposed to equity in financing the firm, expressed by a debt-to-asset ratio. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate empirically whether trade liberalization has an impact on leverage. The second is to estimate the effect of trade liberalization on profitability. Changes in trade policy are a major part of the international business environment, and our theoretical formulation suggests that trade liberalization influences leverage largely through its effect on profits. Therefore, testing the link between liberalization and profits is a central test of our overall theoretical structure. The paper is divided into the following sections: four testable hypotheses regarding the possible effect of trade liberalization on profits and leverage; a description of the data set; empirical results and analysis; and concluding remarks.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005034
    Description:

    This paper examines head office employment in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It focuses on the characteristics that are related to the creation of a head office and the amount of employment in that head office. Among the characteristics investigated are firm size, number of plants, industrial diversity, geographical location, industry and nationality. The paper finds that foreign-owned firms are more likely to create a head office and to create more employment in their head offices than are domestic-controlled firms, after controlling for firm characteristics. It also finds that head office creation and employment levels are associated with a firm's level of complexity (e.g., its size) and how it organises its production geographically.

    Release date: 2005-06-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005033
    Description:

    Plant deaths arise from failure when firms exit an industry. Plant deaths are also associated with renewal when incumbent firms close down plants and modernize their production facilities and start-up new plants.

    The rate of plant deaths affects the amount of change that occurs in labour and capital markets. Plant deaths result in job losses and incur significant human costs as employees are forced to seek other work. The death process also gives rise to capital losses - to the loss of earlier investments that the industrial system had made in productive capacity. This paper makes use of the plant-death date to provide new information on the likely length of life of capital invested in plants.

    This paper measures the death rate over a forty year period for new plants in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It develops a profile of the death rate for entrants as they age. On average, 14% of new plants die in their first year. Over half of new plants die by the age of six. By the age of 15, less than 20% are still alive.

    As a result, manufacturing plants have relatively short lives. The average new plant lives only nine years (17 years if the average is employment-weighted). These rates vary by industry. The longest length of life (13 years) can be found in two industries -primary metals and paper and allied products. The shortest average length of life (less than 8 years) occurs in wood industries.

    Release date: 2005-05-04

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005031
    Description:

    This paper studies the impact that a small country joining a regional trade agreement, but particularly a small country, might be expected to gain from the exploitation of scale economies. It makes use of the experience of Canada when it entered into the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in the early 1990s.

    It finds that there was a general increase in the pace of plant commodity specialization around the time of implementation of the Free Trade Agreement. At the time of the treaty, plant diversity was found to be higher in larger plants and in industries with assets that are associated with scope economies. Diversity was also higher in industries that had higher rates of tariff protection.

    Over the 1980s and 1990s, plant diversity decreased with reductions in both U.S. and Canadian tariffs. And the decline was greater during the post FTA era than before, thereby suggesting that this treaty had an impact above and beyond that just engendered by the tariff reductions that were associated with it. The study also found that foreign-controlled plants tended to adjust more over the entire period.

    Release date: 2005-03-24

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2005021
    Description:

    This article analyses Canadian direct investment abroad in 'Offshore Financial Centers' between 1990 and 2003. It provides an analysis of the distribution of Canadian direct investment assets in these countries and elsewhere in the world by industry. Lastly, it measures and analyses these countries' contribution to the growth of assets held abroad by Canadian companies during the period.

    Release date: 2005-03-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005030
    Description:

    This paper examines the course of profitability of large Canadian-resident enterprises over the period 1990-98. It focuses first on the differences in the profitability of Canadian-controlled and U.S.-controlled enterprises and asks whether there are differences in trends in profitability by country of ownership over the business cycle experienced in the 1990s. It uses micro-economic data on the profitability of large non-integrated firms to investigate the role played by market share in determining profitability in each group and the extent to which profits that deviate from the mean are forced quickly or slowly back to their long-run equilibrium values. Both facets of profit behaviour are related to the nature of competition in the markets served by firms. Finally, it examines the role played by changes in the Canada-U.S. exchange rate in determining profitability in order to understand the extent to which each group uses these changes to adjust their foreign prices and thus to affect reported Canadian profits.

    Release date: 2005-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2005010
    Description:

    This paper tracks the growth and decline of information and communications technology (ICT) industries that were synonymous with the so-called new economy boom of the late-1990s and its subsequent bust period in the early 2000s. The analysis focuses on the question of whether the ICT bust has been accompanied by a structural shift illustrated by less firm turnover. It shows that to date there is little evidence of a structural shift. Entry rates of new establishments within the ICT sector were above those of other sectors within the economy during both the ICT boom and bust. This is evidence that both firms and entrepreneurs continued to see opportunities to develop new products and markets even during a time of retrenchment. The location of the ICT sector also show little evidence of a change.

    Release date: 2005-03-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005029
    Description:

    This paper uses a detailed industry-level data base of industry prices in the manufacturing sector in Canada and the United States to investigate whether prices are co-integrated in the two countries and whether the relationship between the two sets of prices follows the law of one price. We find that aggregate Canadian price movements track U.S. price movements closely, but not perfectly, in the long run. But there are substantial deviations from the law of one price in the short run. Moreover, many individual industries deviate from the law of one price. These deviations are related to the degree of tariff protection and to the degree of product differentiation at the industry level.

    Release date: 2005-02-15

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2005004
    Description:

    Knowledge management practices were more important to the success of innovative business units in selected service industries than was the case for non-innovative business units. Innovative business units were those that introduced new or significantly improved products or processes between 2001 and 2003. The knowledge management practices that were important to their success included knowledge sharing, knowledge codification, knowledge development and knowledge acquisition and retention practices.

    Release date: 2005-02-09

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Analysis (18)

Analysis (18) (18 of 18 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050128972
    Description:

    A profile of the fastest-growing sector in wholesale trade.

    Release date: 2005-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2005009
    Description:

    This paper examines two potential benefits of foreign-controlled plants in the Canadian manufacturing sector: the superior performance of foreign-controlled plants and their productivity spillovers to domestic plants. The paper finds that foreign-controlled plants are more productive, more innovative, more technology intensive, pay higher wages and use more skilled workers. This foreign-ownership advantage is found to be a multinational advantage. What matters for economic performance is whether plants belong to multinational enterprises (MNEs) rather than ownership per se. Canadian multinationals are as productive as foreign multinationals. We also find that MNEs have accounted for a disproportionately large share of productivity growth in the last two decades. Finally, we find robust evidence for productivity spillovers from foreign-controlled plants to domestic-controlled plants arising from increased competition and greater use of new technologies among domestic plants.

    Release date: 2005-12-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2005008
    Description:

    This paper outlines broad changes in foreign ownership in Canada over the last forty years. It makes use of several different but complementary data sources that are produced by Statistics Canada to analyze the importance of foreign ownership in Canada. Over the last four decades, foreign multinationals that are operating in Canada have experienced first, a retrenchment and then, a resurgence in their activities. This retrenchment occurred during the period when foreign investment was tightly regulated and could be found across most industries, but was particularly evident in the energy and mining sector. The resurgence that has occurred subsequent to the introduction of a more liberal regulatory regime was also relatively widespread, though there are several sectors like the science-based and energy industries where this has not occurred.

    Release date: 2005-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005036
    Description:

    Burkart and Ellingsen (2004) develop a model of trade credit and bank credit rationing which predicts that trade credit will be used by medium-wealth and low-wealth firms to help ease bank credit rationing. This paper tests this and other predictions of the Burkart and Ellingsen model using a large sample of more than 28,000 Canadian firms. The author uses an endogenous method to divide the firms into the appropriate wealth categories rather than arbitrarily selecting firms likely to be credit-rationed. The data support the main predictions of the model quite well. The author finds that medium-wealth firms substitute trade credit for bank credit consistent with using it to alleviate bank credit rationing. The low-wealth firms use trade credit but it is positively linked to bank credit, suggesting those firms are constrained in both bank credit and trade credit markets, and so cannot use trade credit to adjust as much to negative shocks. The findings also suggest that there are very few unconstrained, high-wealth Canadian firms. The author also finds low-wealth, declining and distressed firms supply proportionally more trade credit than firms with healthier balance sheets.

    Release date: 2005-11-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2005032
    Description:

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of retail trade growth nationally and provincially, and explores the underlying socio-economic-demographic forces since the turn of the millennium. The automotive retail sector is given a closer look because of its ability to dictate retail sales growth during the period. This study uses data from a fleet of Statistics Canada surveys, including Monthly Retail Trade Survey, Provincial Economic Accounts, New Motor Vehicle Sales, Canadian Vehicle Survey, Motor Vehicle Registration, and 2002 Homeowner Repairs and Renovations Survey.

    Release date: 2005-10-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050098623
    Description:

    Cycles in business investment are a key determinant of overall growth, as they are longer-lasting and stronger than in other sectors. Canada is currently in the early stages of an upturn in investment, driven by the revival of the resource sector.

    Release date: 2005-09-15

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050088449
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse geographic income disparities in Canada from the perspective of provinces and especially urban and rural areas. In particular, it looks at how per capita incomes vary across the urban-rural continuum - that is, how per capita incomes in large cities like Toronto and Montreal compare with medium sized cities like Halifax and Victoria, small cities like Brandon and Drummondville and with rural areas.

    Release date: 2005-08-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2005012
    Description:

    This paper describes per capita employment income disparities across provinces and across the urban-rural continuum, from larger to small cities and between cities and rural areas. Its first objective is to compare the degree of income disparities across provinces to income disparities across the urban-rural continuum. Its second objective is to determine the extent to which provincial disparities can be tied to the urban-rural composition of provinces. The paper also seeks to determine whether urban-rural disparities in per capita employment income stem from poorer labour market conditions in smaller cities and rural areas compared to large cities.

    Release date: 2005-07-21

  • Articles and reports: 63-018-X20050018435
    Description:

    Examines small-and mid-sized Internet service providers, and probes the differences between faster growing Internet service providers and their slower-growing counterparts between 2000 and 2002.

    Release date: 2005-07-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005256
    Description:

    We investigate whether trade liberalization affects profitability and financial leverage, using Canadian data from the period following implementation of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. We find that falling domestic tariffs are associated with declining profits and increasing leverage for import-competing firms, while falling foreign tariffs are associated with increasing profits and decreasing leverage for firms in export-oriented industries. This pattern is consistent with the "pecking order" theory of capital structure.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005257
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: Trade liberalization, profitability, and financial leverage. Changes in international trade policy may influence financial leverage, the relative importance of debt as opposed to equity in financing the firm, expressed by a debt-to-asset ratio. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate empirically whether trade liberalization has an impact on leverage. The second is to estimate the effect of trade liberalization on profitability. Changes in trade policy are a major part of the international business environment, and our theoretical formulation suggests that trade liberalization influences leverage largely through its effect on profits. Therefore, testing the link between liberalization and profits is a central test of our overall theoretical structure. The paper is divided into the following sections: four testable hypotheses regarding the possible effect of trade liberalization on profits and leverage; a description of the data set; empirical results and analysis; and concluding remarks.

    Release date: 2005-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005034
    Description:

    This paper examines head office employment in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It focuses on the characteristics that are related to the creation of a head office and the amount of employment in that head office. Among the characteristics investigated are firm size, number of plants, industrial diversity, geographical location, industry and nationality. The paper finds that foreign-owned firms are more likely to create a head office and to create more employment in their head offices than are domestic-controlled firms, after controlling for firm characteristics. It also finds that head office creation and employment levels are associated with a firm's level of complexity (e.g., its size) and how it organises its production geographically.

    Release date: 2005-06-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005033
    Description:

    Plant deaths arise from failure when firms exit an industry. Plant deaths are also associated with renewal when incumbent firms close down plants and modernize their production facilities and start-up new plants.

    The rate of plant deaths affects the amount of change that occurs in labour and capital markets. Plant deaths result in job losses and incur significant human costs as employees are forced to seek other work. The death process also gives rise to capital losses - to the loss of earlier investments that the industrial system had made in productive capacity. This paper makes use of the plant-death date to provide new information on the likely length of life of capital invested in plants.

    This paper measures the death rate over a forty year period for new plants in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It develops a profile of the death rate for entrants as they age. On average, 14% of new plants die in their first year. Over half of new plants die by the age of six. By the age of 15, less than 20% are still alive.

    As a result, manufacturing plants have relatively short lives. The average new plant lives only nine years (17 years if the average is employment-weighted). These rates vary by industry. The longest length of life (13 years) can be found in two industries -primary metals and paper and allied products. The shortest average length of life (less than 8 years) occurs in wood industries.

    Release date: 2005-05-04

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005031
    Description:

    This paper studies the impact that a small country joining a regional trade agreement, but particularly a small country, might be expected to gain from the exploitation of scale economies. It makes use of the experience of Canada when it entered into the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in the early 1990s.

    It finds that there was a general increase in the pace of plant commodity specialization around the time of implementation of the Free Trade Agreement. At the time of the treaty, plant diversity was found to be higher in larger plants and in industries with assets that are associated with scope economies. Diversity was also higher in industries that had higher rates of tariff protection.

    Over the 1980s and 1990s, plant diversity decreased with reductions in both U.S. and Canadian tariffs. And the decline was greater during the post FTA era than before, thereby suggesting that this treaty had an impact above and beyond that just engendered by the tariff reductions that were associated with it. The study also found that foreign-controlled plants tended to adjust more over the entire period.

    Release date: 2005-03-24

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2005021
    Description:

    This article analyses Canadian direct investment abroad in 'Offshore Financial Centers' between 1990 and 2003. It provides an analysis of the distribution of Canadian direct investment assets in these countries and elsewhere in the world by industry. Lastly, it measures and analyses these countries' contribution to the growth of assets held abroad by Canadian companies during the period.

    Release date: 2005-03-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005030
    Description:

    This paper examines the course of profitability of large Canadian-resident enterprises over the period 1990-98. It focuses first on the differences in the profitability of Canadian-controlled and U.S.-controlled enterprises and asks whether there are differences in trends in profitability by country of ownership over the business cycle experienced in the 1990s. It uses micro-economic data on the profitability of large non-integrated firms to investigate the role played by market share in determining profitability in each group and the extent to which profits that deviate from the mean are forced quickly or slowly back to their long-run equilibrium values. Both facets of profit behaviour are related to the nature of competition in the markets served by firms. Finally, it examines the role played by changes in the Canada-U.S. exchange rate in determining profitability in order to understand the extent to which each group uses these changes to adjust their foreign prices and thus to affect reported Canadian profits.

    Release date: 2005-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2005010
    Description:

    This paper tracks the growth and decline of information and communications technology (ICT) industries that were synonymous with the so-called new economy boom of the late-1990s and its subsequent bust period in the early 2000s. The analysis focuses on the question of whether the ICT bust has been accompanied by a structural shift illustrated by less firm turnover. It shows that to date there is little evidence of a structural shift. Entry rates of new establishments within the ICT sector were above those of other sectors within the economy during both the ICT boom and bust. This is evidence that both firms and entrepreneurs continued to see opportunities to develop new products and markets even during a time of retrenchment. The location of the ICT sector also show little evidence of a change.

    Release date: 2005-03-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005029
    Description:

    This paper uses a detailed industry-level data base of industry prices in the manufacturing sector in Canada and the United States to investigate whether prices are co-integrated in the two countries and whether the relationship between the two sets of prices follows the law of one price. We find that aggregate Canadian price movements track U.S. price movements closely, but not perfectly, in the long run. But there are substantial deviations from the law of one price in the short run. Moreover, many individual industries deviate from the law of one price. These deviations are related to the degree of tariff protection and to the degree of product differentiation at the industry level.

    Release date: 2005-02-15

Reference (2)

Reference (2) (2 results)

  • Technical products: 11F0024M
    Description:

    This product contains presentations done at Statistics Canada's annual Economic Conference which provides a forum for the exchange of empirical research among the business, government, research and labour communities. The conference is also a means to promote economic and socio-economic analysis while subjecting existing data to critical assessment as part of an ongoing process of statistical development and review.

    Release date: 2005-10-20

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2005004
    Description:

    Knowledge management practices were more important to the success of innovative business units in selected service industries than was the case for non-innovative business units. Innovative business units were those that introduced new or significantly improved products or processes between 2001 and 2003. The knowledge management practices that were important to their success included knowledge sharing, knowledge codification, knowledge development and knowledge acquisition and retention practices.

    Release date: 2005-02-09

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