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All (19)

All (19) (19 of 19 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2006015
    Description:

    This paper provides an overview of the long-run trend in business bankruptcies in Canada, examines the reaction of bankruptcies by region to the stresses associated with fluctuations in the economy and analyses the relation between the incidence of bankruptcies and the economic health of the regions. Over the past 25 years, Canadian businesses have experienced a number of tumultuous periods. After 2 decades of high bankruptcy associated with 2 major recessions and the implementation of 2 free trade agreements in the 1980s and 1990s, bankruptcies have returned by 2005 to levels experienced in the early 1980s. At the same time, the differences between the bankruptcy rates of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia fell as the intensity of bankruptcies in these 3 provinces converged. Throughout the period, bankruptcies in these 3 provinces moved in concert with unemployment rates in most provinces. The exceptions are Alberta and Nova Scotia, which experienced marked increases in bankruptcies in the early 1990s.

    Release date: 2006-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060109500
    Description:

    The number and rate of bankruptcies have fallen steadily since the mid-1990s. However, the liabilities from these failures have trended up, implying that more large firms are going bankrupt. There has been a marked narrowing of regional differences in bankruptcy rates.

    Release date: 2006-10-12

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2006010
    Description:

    It is well-known that small firms are managed differently from large firms, and this paper provides further evidence in support of this idea while suggesting that some small firms are adopting management behaviours of larger firms. Could these small firms be positioning themselves for growth or using organisational innovation as a tool for survival or adopting some formal organization practices early? In 2004, the Survey of Electronic Commerce and Technology provided a list of eight management practices that according to interviews with small and medium-sized firms indicated potential firm growth. The management practices listed were organisational structures; employee feedback surveys; mentoring or coaching programs; and written strategies for marketing; managing growth; commercialisation of intellectual property; succession management; and risk management.

    Release date: 2006-10-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006042
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which productivity growth is the result of firm turnover as output is shifted from one firm to another, driven by the competitive process. Turnover occurs as some firms gain market share and others lose it. Some of the resulting turnover is due to entry and exit. Another part arises from growth and decline in incumbent continuing firms. This paper proposes a method for measuring the impact of firm turnover on productivity growth and shows that it is far more important than many previous empirical studies have concluded. It argues that firm turnover associated with competition is the main source of aggregate labour productivity growth in Canadian manufacturing industries.

    Release date: 2006-09-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2006013
    Description:

    This paper summarizes the findings of a research program aimed at outlining the importance to the firm growth process of competencies that arise from investments in intangible assets. The program has consisted of two parts. First, longitudinal databases have provided a rich set of studies on entry, exit, mergers and other aspects of dynamics related to growth and decline in firm populations. These studies have shown the pervasiveness of growth and decline in the firm population. By themselves, these studies do not demonstrate what strategies differentiate the most successful from the least successful. To do so, we have built a set of firm surveys that allowed profiles to be developed of the type of competencies that stem from investments in organizational capital. In turn, these are linked to administrative data that allow us to classify firms as either growing or declining. We then asked how differences in competencies were related to the performance of firms.

    Release date: 2006-09-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2006014
    Description:

    This paper provides an analysis of trends in business sector head office employment in Canada from 1999 to 2005. It investigates changes in the number of head offices and head office employment over this period. The paper also examines the effect of foreign ownership on head office employment. It asks how much foreign-controlled firms contribute to Canadian head office employment and employment growth and what happens to head office employment when control of a firm changes from domestic to foreign. The paper also looks at the rate at which head offices enter and exit over time with a view to ascertaining whether the loss of a head office is a rare occurrence or a relatively common event. Finally, the paper presents trends in head office employment across metropolitan areas over the past six years.

    Release date: 2006-07-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060079272
    Description:

    Despite continuing concerns that rising levels of foreign investment might lead to the hollowing-out of corporate Canada, there is little evidence that this was occurring. The number of head offices in Canada and their employment continued to rise, led by foreign-controlled firms.

    Release date: 2006-07-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006039
    Description:

    This paper relates to two understudied, but increasingly important concerns: the measurement of regional integration, and the regional benefits to North American economic integration. The objective is to measure Canada's regional integration in manufacturing industries with that of the United States, and examine the regional impact of growing trade integration on productivity growth and select other economic performance variables.

    Our research shows that Canada and each of its regions are becoming more integrated in trade in manufactures with the United States, but Ontario is much more integrated than the rest of Canada. While all regions have benefited through improved productivity performance, higher wages and higher output growth, Ontario has been the principal beneficiary. No evidence was found that increased trade integration in manufactures with the United States caused anything more than short-run adjustment losses in employment. Canada and each of its regions have expanded their share of North American manufacturing which stands in sharp contrast to the supposition that it would be the United States that would experience a growth in North American production share (Krugman, 1980).

    Release date: 2006-05-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006038
    Description:

    This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on plant scale, production-run length and product diversification. We first develop a model of trade in differentiated products with multi-product plants. We then present empirical evidence using a large panel of Canadian manufacturing plants and their experience with the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The model predicts that the bilateral tariff reduction reduces the product diversification of exporting plants, increases the production-run length and has an ambiguous effect on the size of those plants. It also reduces the product diversification and size of non-exporting plants, and has no effect on the production-run length of those plants. The empirical evidence on non-exporting plants provides broad support for the model. The evidence on exporting plants shows that exporters reduce product diversification, and increase production-run length and plant size, but those changes do not appear to be related to tariff cuts. Once in the export markets, plants respond to forces other than tariff cuts. Further tariff cuts have less effect on those plants.

    Release date: 2006-05-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2006012
    Description:

    In recent years, cities have become increasingly interested in their ability to generate, attract and retain human capital. One measure of human capital is employment in science- and engineering-based occupations. This paper provides a comparison of the employment shares of these specialized occupations across Canadian and U.S. cities by using data from the Canadian and the U.S. censuses from 1980-1981 and 2000-2001. The paper, therefore, provides a perspective on how Canadian cities performed relative to their U.S. counterparts over a twenty-year period. It also seeks to evaluate how cities of different sizes have performed, because large cities may be advantaged over smaller cities in terms of factors influencing both the demand for, and supply of, scientists and engineers.

    Release date: 2006-05-11

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2006003
    Description:

    The objective of this study was to continue the investigation into growth factors initiated by the previous project: The characteristics of firms that grow from small to medium size in collaboration with the National Research Council Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP). Twenty five interviews augmented the original 25 with a more heterogeneous mix of Canadian technology-based firms led to the development of a framework for assessing the technology phase of small companies (or business lines in larger companies).

    Release date: 2006-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006041
    Description:

    This study examines the evolution of foreign bank subsidiaries and full-service branches in Canada from 1997 to 2004. It compares them to other types of deposit-taking institutions, including domestic banks and trust companies, and credit unions and caisses populaires. It focuses on trends in the real value of services produced. This study looks at changes in market share overall and by different lines of business. It also examines assets held by Canadian financial institutions abroad.

    Release date: 2006-05-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2006010
    Description:

    Using data on manufacturing plants operating in Canada for the period 1981 to 1997, we estimate the effect of changes in the level of foreign control upon labour productivity in domestically-controlled plants. We distinguish between foreign control in own industry of domestically-controlled plants and foreign control in industries linked by their supply or use of intermediate inputs. We find that foreign control increases productivity growth in domestically-controlled plants in a way that is consistent with the transfer of technology from foreign suppliers to domestically-controlled plants. The positive productivity effects of foreign control are more pronounced for those plants that outsource more intermediates, and who purchase science-based intermediate inputs (i.e., electronics, machinery and equipment, and chemicals).

    Release date: 2006-04-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060049179
    Description:

    After having run deficits for almost 30 years, corporations have emerged with significant surplus positions in the last decade. This has placed the corporate sector in a new role - that of increasingly supplying funds to the rest of the economy.

    Release date: 2006-04-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006038
    Description:

    This study examines market shares for retail sales and gross margins by different store types from 1997 to 2004. It focuses on food and beverage stores and general merchandise stores and on sales of food and beverages. The performance of these two store types in Canada is compared with their counterparts in the United States. This analysis is based on data from the Quarterly Retail Commodity Survey.

    Release date: 2006-04-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2006013
    Description:

    This paper examines the incidence of foreign control in Canadian non-financial industries. It focuses on changes in the share of assets and revenues under foreign control over a long-run period during which Canada's regulatory climate shifted from being more restrictive to more liberal in its treatment of inward foreign direct investment. These regulatory changes coincided with a retrenchment and then a resurgence in the activities of foreign multinationals in Canadian industry. We report aggregate results for non-financial industries, along with specific tabulations for the energy sector. More detailed industry tabulations are presented for the 2000-2003 period.

    Release date: 2006-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2006050
    Description:

    Corporations have been posting record profits over much of the last decade. Meanwhile, business fixed capital investment has been relatively sluggish in recent years. This situation has led to a significant shift in the corporate sectors' net lending/borrowing position - from one of a chronic deficit position to one of sustained surplus. After having run deficits for almost 30 years, corporations have emerged with significant surplus positions in the last decade. This has placed the corporate sector in a new role - that of increasingly supplying funds to the rest of the economy.

    This note looks at this development from a few angles, focusing on non-financial corporations. It identifies the underlying causes for, and the major effects of, the development of an expanding corporate surplus position. In short, non-financial corporations have taken advantage of record profits, historically low interest rates and relatively buoyant stock markets to substantially re-structure their balance sheets. It has reached the point where corporate finances, in aggregate, are the healthiest they have been in the last thirty years.

    Release date: 2006-03-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060039136
    Description:

    Foreign control in our economy has fallen and rebounded largely as a result of regulatory changes, especially in energy.

    Release date: 2006-03-16

  • Table: 61-534-X
    Description:

    This publication describes the evolution of the Canadian business environment in light of economic changes in Canada from 1991 to 2001. The publication shows business and employment dynamics in Canada during this period. It provides (1) statistics that show the direct impact of these changes on business creation (firm births) and business destruction (firm deaths); (2) the relative share and distribution of businesses and employment across various categories of firms (Size - small, medium and large size firms, Industry - low-knowledge, medium-knowledge and high-knowledge industries, as well as goods and services industries and by Geography-Province); and (3) it examines survival rates of newly created businesses (lifespan of new businesses).

    Release date: 2006-03-10

Data (1)

Data (1) (1 result)

  • Table: 61-534-X
    Description:

    This publication describes the evolution of the Canadian business environment in light of economic changes in Canada from 1991 to 2001. The publication shows business and employment dynamics in Canada during this period. It provides (1) statistics that show the direct impact of these changes on business creation (firm births) and business destruction (firm deaths); (2) the relative share and distribution of businesses and employment across various categories of firms (Size - small, medium and large size firms, Industry - low-knowledge, medium-knowledge and high-knowledge industries, as well as goods and services industries and by Geography-Province); and (3) it examines survival rates of newly created businesses (lifespan of new businesses).

    Release date: 2006-03-10

Analysis (16)

Analysis (16) (16 of 16 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2006015
    Description:

    This paper provides an overview of the long-run trend in business bankruptcies in Canada, examines the reaction of bankruptcies by region to the stresses associated with fluctuations in the economy and analyses the relation between the incidence of bankruptcies and the economic health of the regions. Over the past 25 years, Canadian businesses have experienced a number of tumultuous periods. After 2 decades of high bankruptcy associated with 2 major recessions and the implementation of 2 free trade agreements in the 1980s and 1990s, bankruptcies have returned by 2005 to levels experienced in the early 1980s. At the same time, the differences between the bankruptcy rates of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia fell as the intensity of bankruptcies in these 3 provinces converged. Throughout the period, bankruptcies in these 3 provinces moved in concert with unemployment rates in most provinces. The exceptions are Alberta and Nova Scotia, which experienced marked increases in bankruptcies in the early 1990s.

    Release date: 2006-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060109500
    Description:

    The number and rate of bankruptcies have fallen steadily since the mid-1990s. However, the liabilities from these failures have trended up, implying that more large firms are going bankrupt. There has been a marked narrowing of regional differences in bankruptcy rates.

    Release date: 2006-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006042
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which productivity growth is the result of firm turnover as output is shifted from one firm to another, driven by the competitive process. Turnover occurs as some firms gain market share and others lose it. Some of the resulting turnover is due to entry and exit. Another part arises from growth and decline in incumbent continuing firms. This paper proposes a method for measuring the impact of firm turnover on productivity growth and shows that it is far more important than many previous empirical studies have concluded. It argues that firm turnover associated with competition is the main source of aggregate labour productivity growth in Canadian manufacturing industries.

    Release date: 2006-09-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2006013
    Description:

    This paper summarizes the findings of a research program aimed at outlining the importance to the firm growth process of competencies that arise from investments in intangible assets. The program has consisted of two parts. First, longitudinal databases have provided a rich set of studies on entry, exit, mergers and other aspects of dynamics related to growth and decline in firm populations. These studies have shown the pervasiveness of growth and decline in the firm population. By themselves, these studies do not demonstrate what strategies differentiate the most successful from the least successful. To do so, we have built a set of firm surveys that allowed profiles to be developed of the type of competencies that stem from investments in organizational capital. In turn, these are linked to administrative data that allow us to classify firms as either growing or declining. We then asked how differences in competencies were related to the performance of firms.

    Release date: 2006-09-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2006014
    Description:

    This paper provides an analysis of trends in business sector head office employment in Canada from 1999 to 2005. It investigates changes in the number of head offices and head office employment over this period. The paper also examines the effect of foreign ownership on head office employment. It asks how much foreign-controlled firms contribute to Canadian head office employment and employment growth and what happens to head office employment when control of a firm changes from domestic to foreign. The paper also looks at the rate at which head offices enter and exit over time with a view to ascertaining whether the loss of a head office is a rare occurrence or a relatively common event. Finally, the paper presents trends in head office employment across metropolitan areas over the past six years.

    Release date: 2006-07-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060079272
    Description:

    Despite continuing concerns that rising levels of foreign investment might lead to the hollowing-out of corporate Canada, there is little evidence that this was occurring. The number of head offices in Canada and their employment continued to rise, led by foreign-controlled firms.

    Release date: 2006-07-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006039
    Description:

    This paper relates to two understudied, but increasingly important concerns: the measurement of regional integration, and the regional benefits to North American economic integration. The objective is to measure Canada's regional integration in manufacturing industries with that of the United States, and examine the regional impact of growing trade integration on productivity growth and select other economic performance variables.

    Our research shows that Canada and each of its regions are becoming more integrated in trade in manufactures with the United States, but Ontario is much more integrated than the rest of Canada. While all regions have benefited through improved productivity performance, higher wages and higher output growth, Ontario has been the principal beneficiary. No evidence was found that increased trade integration in manufactures with the United States caused anything more than short-run adjustment losses in employment. Canada and each of its regions have expanded their share of North American manufacturing which stands in sharp contrast to the supposition that it would be the United States that would experience a growth in North American production share (Krugman, 1980).

    Release date: 2006-05-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006038
    Description:

    This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on plant scale, production-run length and product diversification. We first develop a model of trade in differentiated products with multi-product plants. We then present empirical evidence using a large panel of Canadian manufacturing plants and their experience with the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The model predicts that the bilateral tariff reduction reduces the product diversification of exporting plants, increases the production-run length and has an ambiguous effect on the size of those plants. It also reduces the product diversification and size of non-exporting plants, and has no effect on the production-run length of those plants. The empirical evidence on non-exporting plants provides broad support for the model. The evidence on exporting plants shows that exporters reduce product diversification, and increase production-run length and plant size, but those changes do not appear to be related to tariff cuts. Once in the export markets, plants respond to forces other than tariff cuts. Further tariff cuts have less effect on those plants.

    Release date: 2006-05-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2006012
    Description:

    In recent years, cities have become increasingly interested in their ability to generate, attract and retain human capital. One measure of human capital is employment in science- and engineering-based occupations. This paper provides a comparison of the employment shares of these specialized occupations across Canadian and U.S. cities by using data from the Canadian and the U.S. censuses from 1980-1981 and 2000-2001. The paper, therefore, provides a perspective on how Canadian cities performed relative to their U.S. counterparts over a twenty-year period. It also seeks to evaluate how cities of different sizes have performed, because large cities may be advantaged over smaller cities in terms of factors influencing both the demand for, and supply of, scientists and engineers.

    Release date: 2006-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006041
    Description:

    This study examines the evolution of foreign bank subsidiaries and full-service branches in Canada from 1997 to 2004. It compares them to other types of deposit-taking institutions, including domestic banks and trust companies, and credit unions and caisses populaires. It focuses on trends in the real value of services produced. This study looks at changes in market share overall and by different lines of business. It also examines assets held by Canadian financial institutions abroad.

    Release date: 2006-05-03

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2006010
    Description:

    Using data on manufacturing plants operating in Canada for the period 1981 to 1997, we estimate the effect of changes in the level of foreign control upon labour productivity in domestically-controlled plants. We distinguish between foreign control in own industry of domestically-controlled plants and foreign control in industries linked by their supply or use of intermediate inputs. We find that foreign control increases productivity growth in domestically-controlled plants in a way that is consistent with the transfer of technology from foreign suppliers to domestically-controlled plants. The positive productivity effects of foreign control are more pronounced for those plants that outsource more intermediates, and who purchase science-based intermediate inputs (i.e., electronics, machinery and equipment, and chemicals).

    Release date: 2006-04-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060049179
    Description:

    After having run deficits for almost 30 years, corporations have emerged with significant surplus positions in the last decade. This has placed the corporate sector in a new role - that of increasingly supplying funds to the rest of the economy.

    Release date: 2006-04-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006038
    Description:

    This study examines market shares for retail sales and gross margins by different store types from 1997 to 2004. It focuses on food and beverage stores and general merchandise stores and on sales of food and beverages. The performance of these two store types in Canada is compared with their counterparts in the United States. This analysis is based on data from the Quarterly Retail Commodity Survey.

    Release date: 2006-04-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2006013
    Description:

    This paper examines the incidence of foreign control in Canadian non-financial industries. It focuses on changes in the share of assets and revenues under foreign control over a long-run period during which Canada's regulatory climate shifted from being more restrictive to more liberal in its treatment of inward foreign direct investment. These regulatory changes coincided with a retrenchment and then a resurgence in the activities of foreign multinationals in Canadian industry. We report aggregate results for non-financial industries, along with specific tabulations for the energy sector. More detailed industry tabulations are presented for the 2000-2003 period.

    Release date: 2006-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2006050
    Description:

    Corporations have been posting record profits over much of the last decade. Meanwhile, business fixed capital investment has been relatively sluggish in recent years. This situation has led to a significant shift in the corporate sectors' net lending/borrowing position - from one of a chronic deficit position to one of sustained surplus. After having run deficits for almost 30 years, corporations have emerged with significant surplus positions in the last decade. This has placed the corporate sector in a new role - that of increasingly supplying funds to the rest of the economy.

    This note looks at this development from a few angles, focusing on non-financial corporations. It identifies the underlying causes for, and the major effects of, the development of an expanding corporate surplus position. In short, non-financial corporations have taken advantage of record profits, historically low interest rates and relatively buoyant stock markets to substantially re-structure their balance sheets. It has reached the point where corporate finances, in aggregate, are the healthiest they have been in the last thirty years.

    Release date: 2006-03-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20060039136
    Description:

    Foreign control in our economy has fallen and rebounded largely as a result of regulatory changes, especially in energy.

    Release date: 2006-03-16

Reference (2)

Reference (2) (2 results)

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2006010
    Description:

    It is well-known that small firms are managed differently from large firms, and this paper provides further evidence in support of this idea while suggesting that some small firms are adopting management behaviours of larger firms. Could these small firms be positioning themselves for growth or using organisational innovation as a tool for survival or adopting some formal organization practices early? In 2004, the Survey of Electronic Commerce and Technology provided a list of eight management practices that according to interviews with small and medium-sized firms indicated potential firm growth. The management practices listed were organisational structures; employee feedback surveys; mentoring or coaching programs; and written strategies for marketing; managing growth; commercialisation of intellectual property; succession management; and risk management.

    Release date: 2006-10-02

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2006003
    Description:

    The objective of this study was to continue the investigation into growth factors initiated by the previous project: The characteristics of firms that grow from small to medium size in collaboration with the National Research Council Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP). Twenty five interviews augmented the original 25 with a more heterogeneous mix of Canadian technology-based firms led to the development of a framework for assessing the technology phase of small companies (or business lines in larger companies).

    Release date: 2006-05-11

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