Statistics by subject – Low income families

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All (21) (21 of 21 results)

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016002
    Description:

    Statistics Canada currently measures low-income using three low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs), and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). This publication provides a description of the methods used to arrive at each of these thresholds. It also explains how low-income status and various low-income statistics are determined. Tables presenting thresholds and low-income statistics are available on CANSIM.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    This update presents revised LIMs for 2006 to 2011 resulting from the reweighting of SLID data. This reweighting makes it possible to compare results from CIS to earlier years.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015001
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2015-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2014002
    Description:

    Statistics that depict the movements in the bottom end of the income distribution, such as the proportion of low-income persons exiting low income from one year to the next, provide important information for developing policy on poverty and income inequality. Since the mid 1990s, these statistics have been generated using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). The longitudinal component of the SLID was discontinued in 2010. This paper examines new and alternative time series on low income dynamics that can be created using the Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD).

    Release date: 2014-12-19

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2014003
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2014-12-10

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2013002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2013-06-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2012-06-18

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012001
    Description:

    This study examines low income in Canada over a 34-year period from 1976 to 2009 with a multi-line, multi-index approach using data from the Survey of Consumer Finance (1976 to 1995) and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (1996 to 2009). Three different low income lines are used: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs); the Low Income Measure (LIM) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). In addition, three indexes are used to measure the incidence, depth and severity of low income in the study.

    We first examine the evolution of low-income at the national level. This is followed by an investigation of the low income experiences of children, seniors, lone-parents, unattached non-elderly individuals, recent immigrants, off-reserve aboriginals and persons with activity limitations. Next, we compare low incomes across the ten provinces as well as seven Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA). Finally, we study low income mobility in Canada during the 1993-to-2009 period.

    Release date: 2012-03-07

  • Articles and reports: 81-599-X2009004
    Description:

    This fact sheet provides information on the proportion of the school-age population - defined as children and youth aged 5 to 24 - living in low-income circumstances, including the duration of low-income spells, using data from Statistics Canada's Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). The percentage of children in low-income is calculated based on Statistics Canada's low income cut-offs (LICOs), using data on family income after government benefits are received and after federal and provincial taxes are paid.

    Release date: 2009-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2007004
    Description:

    The objective of this paper is to document the characteristics of the rural and urban working poor specifically, those individuals living in a low-income economic family unit in 2003, who were not full-time students and who worked for pay for at least one hour in 2003. We then present some of the factors associated with their situation.

    Release date: 2008-01-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007295
    Description:

    In this study, I use new Canadian data containing detailed information on academic abilities, parental influences, financial constraints, and other socio-economic background characteristics of youth to try to account for the large gap in university attendance across the income distribution. I find that 96% of the total gap in university attendance between youth from the top and bottom income quartiles can be accounted for by differences in observable characteristics. Differences in long-term factors such as standardized test scores in reading obtained at age 15, school marks reported at age 15, parental influences, and high-school quality account for 84% of the gap. In contrast, only 12% of the gap is related to financial constraints. Similar results hold across different income quartiles and when I use standardized test scores in mathematics and science. However, reading scores account for a larger proportion of the gap than other test scores.

    Release date: 2007-02-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001171
    Description:

    A framework for thinking about intergenerational mobility as it relates to the relationship between parent and child incomes as well as evidence on the degree and sources of intergenerational mobility in Canada is reviewed. The major conclusion is that Canadian society is characterized by a good deal of intergenerational mobility, and the available evidence suggests that being raised in low-income does not pre-ordain children to low-income in adulthood. Canada compares well in this regard to many other countries, being characterized on average by more mobility than the U.S. or U.K. and on a par with some of the most mobile nations. The sources for this pattern have to do with access to high quality education, and high quality non-monetary investments in children. However, there is no clear evidence linking the level of family income to the nature of these investments.

    Release date: 2001-10-25

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X20000005748
    Description:

    Several different analyses have considered the impact of family and demographic change on the economic conditions affecting children (Dooley, 1988, 1991; McQuillan, 1992; Picot and Myles, 1996). The present study updates this reserach to 1997, while shifting the emphasis to families with very young children.

    Release date: 2001-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19990014701
    Description:

    This article examines the influences of neighbourhood and family socio-economic characteristics on children's readiness to start school. It uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY).

    Release date: 1999-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1995082
    Description:

    Our aim in this paper is to resolve a paradox. Since the 1970s, there has been a downward secular trend in the average real and relative earnings of young adults under the age of 35. Despite the fact that most young children live in households headed by adults under 35, there has been no corresponding secular rise in the incidence of low income among children. Rather child poverty has followed the usual fluctuations of the business cycle.

    We show that the relative stability in child poverty rates in the face of declining labour market earnings is a result of two factors. First, the decline in market income in young households with children has been offset by rising transfers. Since the 1970s, social transfers have replaced earnings as the main source of income among low income families with children.

    Second, changes in the fertility behaviour and labour market characteristics of young adults have sharply reduced the risk of young children growing up in low income households. Today's young parents are better educated, working more hours, having fewer children, and postponing child-birth until later ages when earnings are higher. Although more children do find themselves in single parent families, this change has been swamped by other changes in family patterns and labour market behaviour that have reduced the risk of child poverty.

    Thus, the upward pressure on low income among children stemming from the labour market has been offset by social transfers, on the one hand, and by changes in family formation and the labour market behaviour of young adults, on the other. Except for cyclical variations, the result has been relative stability in the incidence of low income among children over the 1980s and early 1990s. Whether these offsetting patterns will continue in the last half of the 1990s remains to be seen.

    Release date: 1995-09-30

Data (6)

Data (6) (6 of 6 results)

Analysis (7)

Analysis (7) (7 of 7 results)

  • Articles and reports: 81-599-X2009004
    Description:

    This fact sheet provides information on the proportion of the school-age population - defined as children and youth aged 5 to 24 - living in low-income circumstances, including the duration of low-income spells, using data from Statistics Canada's Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). The percentage of children in low-income is calculated based on Statistics Canada's low income cut-offs (LICOs), using data on family income after government benefits are received and after federal and provincial taxes are paid.

    Release date: 2009-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2007004
    Description:

    The objective of this paper is to document the characteristics of the rural and urban working poor specifically, those individuals living in a low-income economic family unit in 2003, who were not full-time students and who worked for pay for at least one hour in 2003. We then present some of the factors associated with their situation.

    Release date: 2008-01-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007295
    Description:

    In this study, I use new Canadian data containing detailed information on academic abilities, parental influences, financial constraints, and other socio-economic background characteristics of youth to try to account for the large gap in university attendance across the income distribution. I find that 96% of the total gap in university attendance between youth from the top and bottom income quartiles can be accounted for by differences in observable characteristics. Differences in long-term factors such as standardized test scores in reading obtained at age 15, school marks reported at age 15, parental influences, and high-school quality account for 84% of the gap. In contrast, only 12% of the gap is related to financial constraints. Similar results hold across different income quartiles and when I use standardized test scores in mathematics and science. However, reading scores account for a larger proportion of the gap than other test scores.

    Release date: 2007-02-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001171
    Description:

    A framework for thinking about intergenerational mobility as it relates to the relationship between parent and child incomes as well as evidence on the degree and sources of intergenerational mobility in Canada is reviewed. The major conclusion is that Canadian society is characterized by a good deal of intergenerational mobility, and the available evidence suggests that being raised in low-income does not pre-ordain children to low-income in adulthood. Canada compares well in this regard to many other countries, being characterized on average by more mobility than the U.S. or U.K. and on a par with some of the most mobile nations. The sources for this pattern have to do with access to high quality education, and high quality non-monetary investments in children. However, there is no clear evidence linking the level of family income to the nature of these investments.

    Release date: 2001-10-25

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X20000005748
    Description:

    Several different analyses have considered the impact of family and demographic change on the economic conditions affecting children (Dooley, 1988, 1991; McQuillan, 1992; Picot and Myles, 1996). The present study updates this reserach to 1997, while shifting the emphasis to families with very young children.

    Release date: 2001-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19990014701
    Description:

    This article examines the influences of neighbourhood and family socio-economic characteristics on children's readiness to start school. It uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY).

    Release date: 1999-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1995082
    Description:

    Our aim in this paper is to resolve a paradox. Since the 1970s, there has been a downward secular trend in the average real and relative earnings of young adults under the age of 35. Despite the fact that most young children live in households headed by adults under 35, there has been no corresponding secular rise in the incidence of low income among children. Rather child poverty has followed the usual fluctuations of the business cycle.

    We show that the relative stability in child poverty rates in the face of declining labour market earnings is a result of two factors. First, the decline in market income in young households with children has been offset by rising transfers. Since the 1970s, social transfers have replaced earnings as the main source of income among low income families with children.

    Second, changes in the fertility behaviour and labour market characteristics of young adults have sharply reduced the risk of young children growing up in low income households. Today's young parents are better educated, working more hours, having fewer children, and postponing child-birth until later ages when earnings are higher. Although more children do find themselves in single parent families, this change has been swamped by other changes in family patterns and labour market behaviour that have reduced the risk of child poverty.

    Thus, the upward pressure on low income among children stemming from the labour market has been offset by social transfers, on the one hand, and by changes in family formation and the labour market behaviour of young adults, on the other. Except for cyclical variations, the result has been relative stability in the incidence of low income among children over the 1980s and early 1990s. Whether these offsetting patterns will continue in the last half of the 1990s remains to be seen.

    Release date: 1995-09-30

Reference (8)

Reference (8) (8 of 8 results)

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016002
    Description:

    Statistics Canada currently measures low-income using three low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs), and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). This publication provides a description of the methods used to arrive at each of these thresholds. It also explains how low-income status and various low-income statistics are determined. Tables presenting thresholds and low-income statistics are available on CANSIM.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    This update presents revised LIMs for 2006 to 2011 resulting from the reweighting of SLID data. This reweighting makes it possible to compare results from CIS to earlier years.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015001
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2015-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2014002
    Description:

    Statistics that depict the movements in the bottom end of the income distribution, such as the proportion of low-income persons exiting low income from one year to the next, provide important information for developing policy on poverty and income inequality. Since the mid 1990s, these statistics have been generated using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). The longitudinal component of the SLID was discontinued in 2010. This paper examines new and alternative time series on low income dynamics that can be created using the Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD).

    Release date: 2014-12-19

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2014003
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2014-12-10

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2013002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2013-06-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2012-06-18

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012001
    Description:

    This study examines low income in Canada over a 34-year period from 1976 to 2009 with a multi-line, multi-index approach using data from the Survey of Consumer Finance (1976 to 1995) and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (1996 to 2009). Three different low income lines are used: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs); the Low Income Measure (LIM) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). In addition, three indexes are used to measure the incidence, depth and severity of low income in the study.

    We first examine the evolution of low-income at the national level. This is followed by an investigation of the low income experiences of children, seniors, lone-parents, unattached non-elderly individuals, recent immigrants, off-reserve aboriginals and persons with activity limitations. Next, we compare low incomes across the ten provinces as well as seven Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA). Finally, we study low income mobility in Canada during the 1993-to-2009 period.

    Release date: 2012-03-07

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