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All (28) (25 of 28 results)

  • Table: Summary table
    Release date: 2017-09-25

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2012-10-09

  • Journals and periodicals: 85-561-M
    Description:

    The Crime and Justice research paper series was initiated to explore a wide range of topics covering criminal victimization, youth and adult offending, the administration of justice, and the perception of the justice system and crime in Canadian communities. Staff at the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, visiting fellows and academic associates provide the analyses. The research papers are intended to stimulate discussion. Readers are encouraged to contact the authors with comments, criticisms and suggestions.

    Release date: 2011-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2011022
    Description:

    This study explores the spatial distribution of police-reported youth crime in Toronto. It examines how youth crime is geographically distributed in Toronto and endeavours to shed light on the links between police-reported youth crime and the neighbourhood characteristics that are most strongly associated with it. This report represents the second phase of the spatial analysis of police-reported crime data for Toronto which builds on the research paper, Neighbourhood Characteristics and the Distribution of Police-reported Crime in the City of Toronto.

    Release date: 2011-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2010021
    Description:

    While trafficking in persons has become a worldwide concern, current data collection activities reveal that data are limited in scope, incomparable and insufficient to ascertain the true extent of the problem in Canada. This study was conducted by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics and funded by Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada to examine the feasibility of developing a national data collection framework to measure trafficking in persons in Canada. Consultations were undertaken with key stakeholders from provincial and federal government departments, the police community, non-government organizations and academics. This report identifies a number of data collection and research strategies that could contribute to a better understanding of the nature and scope of human trafficking in Canada.

    Release date: 2010-06-10

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2010020
    Description:

    This research paper focuses on police-reported crime in Inuit Nunangat. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2006 to 2008 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the 2006 Census of Population. Additional data come from the Homicide Survey from 2000 to 2008. Results show that crime rates are higher in Inuit Nunangat than in the rest of Canada. The impact of socioeconomic and demographic contexts on these differences is explored. In addition, results show that crime rates are lower in communities in Inuit Nunangat where alcohol is prohibited.

    Release date: 2010-05-20

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2010019
    Description:

    This study examines the relationship between parental monitoring and youth violent delinquency, as well as the extent to which this relationship may be influenced by the school context. The study is based on data from the International Youth Survey (2006) which gathered information from a sample of students in grades 7, 8 and 9 attending Toronto schools. Findings indicate that a low level of parental monitoring is associated with a higher likelihood of youth violent delinquency, and this effect is stronger when youth attend schools where the prevalence of delinquency among the student population is high. This finding supports the hypothesis that the negative influence of low parental monitoring is magnified when youth are also exposed to a pool of delinquent peers, and further suggests that the effectiveness of particular parenting strategies may vary depending on the environments to which youth are exposed.

    Release date: 2010-01-12

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2009018
    Description:

    This research paper focuses on the spatial analysis of crime and neighbourhood characteristics in Toronto. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2006 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the 2006 Census of Population.

    Release date: 2009-09-24

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2009017
    Description:

    This study examined the influence of school, neighbourhood and student characteristics on the likelihood of students committing violent delinquency. Based on data from the International Youth Survey (2006), findings indicated that there was significant variation in violent delinquency across Toronto schools. In part, this variation was explained by the school climate, or the perceived atmosphere in the school. In particular, a higher level of school capital (positive feeling toward the school) reduced students' chances of committing violent behaviour over and above any of their own risk factors. In contrast, the findings did not support the contention that the level of crime and/or socioeconomic disadvantage in the neighbourhoods surrounding schools had an influence on students' violent behaviour.

    Release date: 2009-09-15

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2009016
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of issues on mental health and the criminal justice system, as well as the feasibility of collecting data on individuals with mental illness in the criminal justice system. While there have been pockets of studies and data collection activities trying to quantify the issue at the police, courts and corrections levels, there is presently a lack of data to understand the extent of the problem to inform decision-making regarding policy and action, and to measure outcomes of current initiatives and processes.

    The first part of the report describes issues with regard to mental illness and the criminal justice system, including definitional challenges, criminal justice system processes, previous studies on the prevalence of individuals with mental illness in the criminal justice system, and the relationship between individuals with mental illness and criminal justice involvement.

    The second part presents the results from consultations with over 100 stakeholders, including law enforcement, courts, Review Boards, correctional services, mental health organizations, academics and researchers and non-governmental organizations. It also proposes options for collecting data on persons with mental health issues in the criminal justice system.

    Release date: 2009-03-17

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008015
    Description:

    This paper summarizes the major trends in the series on the spatial analysis of crime conducted by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) using geographic information system technology in Canadian cities. The main purpose of this analytical series was to explore the relationships between the distribution of crime and the demographic, socio economic and functional characteristics of neighbourhoods. Questions addressed include: How are police reported criminal incidents distributed across city neighbourhoods? Is the crime rate in a neighbourhood associated with factors that are specific to that neighbourhood, such as its demographic, socio-economic, housing and land use characteristics? Is the crime rate in a neighbourhood influenced by nearby neighbourhoods? These questions were explored using data from the 2001 Census of Population, the Incident-Based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2), and land use data provided by the various cities.

    Release date: 2008-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008014
    Description:

    This research paper explores youth delinquency using data from the International Youth Survey as self-reported by Toronto youth in 2006. In particular, the study examines how the associations between youth delinquency and age, sex, family composition and generational status are affected by factors related to school, victimization and family and friends. Detailed findings are presented for both property and violent delinquency.

    Release date: 2008-09-16

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008013
    Description:

    The purpose of this research paper was to examine whether the chances of experiencing fear of crime varied across Canadian urban neighbourhoods, and whether factors associated with individuals and their neighbourhoods explained this variation. In addition, the study aimed to understand how Canadians' perceptions of neighbourhood crime and disorder influenced their chances of experiencing fear. Analyses were based on data from the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization and the 2001 Census. Multilevel regression modelling techniques were employed in order to address the statistical complications that arise when individuals are clustered within larger units such as neighbourhoods. The results showed that while the characteristics and perceptions of individuals were most important in explaining differences in fear among urban Canadians; a statistically significant portion of the variation in fear was attributable to the neighbourhood environment.

    Release date: 2008-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008012
    Description:

    This research paper focuses on the spatial analysis of crime and neighbourhood characteristics in Saskatoon. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the 2001 Census of Population.

    Release date: 2008-07-03

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008011
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of youth crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics on the Island of Montréal. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the 2001 Census of Population, and the Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal land-use data.

    Release date: 2008-06-12

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008010
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics in Edmonton, Halifax and Thunder Bay. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the 2001 Census of Population, and Halifax and Thunder Bay land-use data.

    Release date: 2008-03-26

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2007009
    Description:

    This report examines the development over childhood and adolescence of the recorded criminal activity of two cohorts of Canadians, born in 1987 and 1990. The data are drawn from the Incident-Based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2) for 1995 to 2005. During that period, the UCR2 received information on crime and offenders from police services in six provinces, which provided policing services to about half of the population of Canada. This is the first large-scale developmental study of delinquency in Canada based on police-reported data.

    Release date: 2007-11-06

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2006008
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics in the City of Regina. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 1999, 2001, and 2003 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2), the 2001 Census of Population, 1999 and 2003 Small Area and Administrative data from tax filers, and City of Regina zoning and land-use data.

    Release date: 2006-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2006007
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics on the Island of Montréal. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the 2001 Census of Population, and Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal land-use data.

    Release date: 2006-06-08

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2005006
    Description:

    This is the first quasi-national Canadian study of the criminal careers of a birth cohort. It uses linked data from the Youth Court Survey and Adult Criminal Court Survey to describe the court careers up to the 22nd birthday of Canadians born in 1979/80. The study includes six provinces - Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta - accounting for approximately 78% of the population of Canada.

    Eighteen per 100 members of the cohort were referred to court for a criminal offence allegedly committed before their 22nd birthday. Thirteen were found guilty of at least one offence, and ten received a sentence which put them under the supervision of correctional or probation authorities. The peak age of referral to court is 18 years. On average, between the ages of 12 and 21 inclusive, alleged offenders were referred to court in connection with 3.1 criminal incidents' or 2.4, if administrative offences are excluded. Just over half of alleged offenders had only one incident in their court career. Seventeen percent of alleged offenders were classified as chronic offenders, who were responsible for 58% of all alleged criminal incidents.

    Individuals whose contact with the court system begins later in adolescence tend to be involved in fewer criminal incidents. The lengths of court careers vary widely, but the mean and median lengths are 20 months and 13 months respectively. Age-specific annual rates of alleged offending are similar for accused males and females, and peak at 15 years of age. There is no particular tendency to escalation, de-escalation, or stability in the seriousness of repeated court referrals: all three patterns occur frequently. Thirty-seven percent of individuals with multiple court referrals have adolescent-limited careers (i.e. no incidents after the 18th birthday which resulted in court referral), 43% have adult-onset careers (no incidents before the 18th birthday), and 20% are persistent offenders (with incidents both as youths and as adults). The latter have many more criminal incidents in their careers and are much more likely than the others to have been referred to court for an offence against the person; however, the incidents in their careers are not more serious on average, and they are not more likely to have had an early onset of contact with the court system.

    The file from which these results were derived could support much more detailed analyses of the topics which are touched on by this report, as well as other topics which have not been addressed, such as the timing of incidents during the career, the processing of cases through the courts, the sequence of case outcomes and sentences, and the interactions between sentencing and future offending, including the impact on careers of incapacitation. As additional years of court data become available, future research should follow court careers past the 22nd birthday. This will result in a more complete picture of the court careers of chronic, persistent offenders, as well as a more thorough investigation of the court careers of "adult-onset " offenders, who had no contact with the court system during adolescence.

    Release date: 2005-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2005005
    Description:

    This research paper provides an overview of patterns in crime data between 1962 and 2003, with a particular focus on the decline in recorded crime throughout the 1990s. This paper also explores the statistical relationship between selected crime patterns (homicide, robbery, break and enter and motor vehicle theft) and various macro-level demographic and economic changes. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Consumer Price Index, Labour Force Survey and institution data on the control and sale of alcoholic beverages in Canada.

    In general, bivariate results indicate that throughout the 1990s the greatest gains in reducing crime rates were made in property crimes, especially among young offenders. Significant declines were also noted for robberies and homicides involving firearms as well as homicides overall.

    Multivariate results indicate that, at the macro-level, different types of crime are influenced by different social and economic factors. Specifically, shifts in inflation were found to be associated with changes in the level of all financially motivated crimes examined (robbery, break and enter, motor vehicle theft). Shifts in the age composition of the population, on the other hand, were found to be correlated with shifts in rates of break and enter and were not statistically significant for the other types of crimes studied. Finally, shifts in alcohol consumption and unemployment rates were found to be correlated with shifts in homicide rates.

    Release date: 2005-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2004004
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics in Winnipeg. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the 2001 Census of Population, and City of Winnipeg land-use data.

    Release date: 2004-09-16

Data (4)

Data (4) (4 of 4 results)

Analysis (24)

Analysis (24) (24 of 24 results)

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2012-10-09

  • Journals and periodicals: 85-561-M
    Description:

    The Crime and Justice research paper series was initiated to explore a wide range of topics covering criminal victimization, youth and adult offending, the administration of justice, and the perception of the justice system and crime in Canadian communities. Staff at the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, visiting fellows and academic associates provide the analyses. The research papers are intended to stimulate discussion. Readers are encouraged to contact the authors with comments, criticisms and suggestions.

    Release date: 2011-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2011022
    Description:

    This study explores the spatial distribution of police-reported youth crime in Toronto. It examines how youth crime is geographically distributed in Toronto and endeavours to shed light on the links between police-reported youth crime and the neighbourhood characteristics that are most strongly associated with it. This report represents the second phase of the spatial analysis of police-reported crime data for Toronto which builds on the research paper, Neighbourhood Characteristics and the Distribution of Police-reported Crime in the City of Toronto.

    Release date: 2011-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2010021
    Description:

    While trafficking in persons has become a worldwide concern, current data collection activities reveal that data are limited in scope, incomparable and insufficient to ascertain the true extent of the problem in Canada. This study was conducted by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics and funded by Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada to examine the feasibility of developing a national data collection framework to measure trafficking in persons in Canada. Consultations were undertaken with key stakeholders from provincial and federal government departments, the police community, non-government organizations and academics. This report identifies a number of data collection and research strategies that could contribute to a better understanding of the nature and scope of human trafficking in Canada.

    Release date: 2010-06-10

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2010020
    Description:

    This research paper focuses on police-reported crime in Inuit Nunangat. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2006 to 2008 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the 2006 Census of Population. Additional data come from the Homicide Survey from 2000 to 2008. Results show that crime rates are higher in Inuit Nunangat than in the rest of Canada. The impact of socioeconomic and demographic contexts on these differences is explored. In addition, results show that crime rates are lower in communities in Inuit Nunangat where alcohol is prohibited.

    Release date: 2010-05-20

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2010019
    Description:

    This study examines the relationship between parental monitoring and youth violent delinquency, as well as the extent to which this relationship may be influenced by the school context. The study is based on data from the International Youth Survey (2006) which gathered information from a sample of students in grades 7, 8 and 9 attending Toronto schools. Findings indicate that a low level of parental monitoring is associated with a higher likelihood of youth violent delinquency, and this effect is stronger when youth attend schools where the prevalence of delinquency among the student population is high. This finding supports the hypothesis that the negative influence of low parental monitoring is magnified when youth are also exposed to a pool of delinquent peers, and further suggests that the effectiveness of particular parenting strategies may vary depending on the environments to which youth are exposed.

    Release date: 2010-01-12

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2009018
    Description:

    This research paper focuses on the spatial analysis of crime and neighbourhood characteristics in Toronto. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2006 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the 2006 Census of Population.

    Release date: 2009-09-24

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2009017
    Description:

    This study examined the influence of school, neighbourhood and student characteristics on the likelihood of students committing violent delinquency. Based on data from the International Youth Survey (2006), findings indicated that there was significant variation in violent delinquency across Toronto schools. In part, this variation was explained by the school climate, or the perceived atmosphere in the school. In particular, a higher level of school capital (positive feeling toward the school) reduced students' chances of committing violent behaviour over and above any of their own risk factors. In contrast, the findings did not support the contention that the level of crime and/or socioeconomic disadvantage in the neighbourhoods surrounding schools had an influence on students' violent behaviour.

    Release date: 2009-09-15

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2009016
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of issues on mental health and the criminal justice system, as well as the feasibility of collecting data on individuals with mental illness in the criminal justice system. While there have been pockets of studies and data collection activities trying to quantify the issue at the police, courts and corrections levels, there is presently a lack of data to understand the extent of the problem to inform decision-making regarding policy and action, and to measure outcomes of current initiatives and processes.

    The first part of the report describes issues with regard to mental illness and the criminal justice system, including definitional challenges, criminal justice system processes, previous studies on the prevalence of individuals with mental illness in the criminal justice system, and the relationship between individuals with mental illness and criminal justice involvement.

    The second part presents the results from consultations with over 100 stakeholders, including law enforcement, courts, Review Boards, correctional services, mental health organizations, academics and researchers and non-governmental organizations. It also proposes options for collecting data on persons with mental health issues in the criminal justice system.

    Release date: 2009-03-17

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008015
    Description:

    This paper summarizes the major trends in the series on the spatial analysis of crime conducted by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) using geographic information system technology in Canadian cities. The main purpose of this analytical series was to explore the relationships between the distribution of crime and the demographic, socio economic and functional characteristics of neighbourhoods. Questions addressed include: How are police reported criminal incidents distributed across city neighbourhoods? Is the crime rate in a neighbourhood associated with factors that are specific to that neighbourhood, such as its demographic, socio-economic, housing and land use characteristics? Is the crime rate in a neighbourhood influenced by nearby neighbourhoods? These questions were explored using data from the 2001 Census of Population, the Incident-Based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2), and land use data provided by the various cities.

    Release date: 2008-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008014
    Description:

    This research paper explores youth delinquency using data from the International Youth Survey as self-reported by Toronto youth in 2006. In particular, the study examines how the associations between youth delinquency and age, sex, family composition and generational status are affected by factors related to school, victimization and family and friends. Detailed findings are presented for both property and violent delinquency.

    Release date: 2008-09-16

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008013
    Description:

    The purpose of this research paper was to examine whether the chances of experiencing fear of crime varied across Canadian urban neighbourhoods, and whether factors associated with individuals and their neighbourhoods explained this variation. In addition, the study aimed to understand how Canadians' perceptions of neighbourhood crime and disorder influenced their chances of experiencing fear. Analyses were based on data from the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization and the 2001 Census. Multilevel regression modelling techniques were employed in order to address the statistical complications that arise when individuals are clustered within larger units such as neighbourhoods. The results showed that while the characteristics and perceptions of individuals were most important in explaining differences in fear among urban Canadians; a statistically significant portion of the variation in fear was attributable to the neighbourhood environment.

    Release date: 2008-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008012
    Description:

    This research paper focuses on the spatial analysis of crime and neighbourhood characteristics in Saskatoon. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the 2001 Census of Population.

    Release date: 2008-07-03

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008011
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of youth crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics on the Island of Montréal. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the 2001 Census of Population, and the Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal land-use data.

    Release date: 2008-06-12

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2008010
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics in Edmonton, Halifax and Thunder Bay. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the 2001 Census of Population, and Halifax and Thunder Bay land-use data.

    Release date: 2008-03-26

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2007009
    Description:

    This report examines the development over childhood and adolescence of the recorded criminal activity of two cohorts of Canadians, born in 1987 and 1990. The data are drawn from the Incident-Based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2) for 1995 to 2005. During that period, the UCR2 received information on crime and offenders from police services in six provinces, which provided policing services to about half of the population of Canada. This is the first large-scale developmental study of delinquency in Canada based on police-reported data.

    Release date: 2007-11-06

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2006008
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics in the City of Regina. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 1999, 2001, and 2003 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2), the 2001 Census of Population, 1999 and 2003 Small Area and Administrative data from tax filers, and City of Regina zoning and land-use data.

    Release date: 2006-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2006007
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics on the Island of Montréal. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the 2001 Census of Population, and Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal land-use data.

    Release date: 2006-06-08

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2005006
    Description:

    This is the first quasi-national Canadian study of the criminal careers of a birth cohort. It uses linked data from the Youth Court Survey and Adult Criminal Court Survey to describe the court careers up to the 22nd birthday of Canadians born in 1979/80. The study includes six provinces - Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta - accounting for approximately 78% of the population of Canada.

    Eighteen per 100 members of the cohort were referred to court for a criminal offence allegedly committed before their 22nd birthday. Thirteen were found guilty of at least one offence, and ten received a sentence which put them under the supervision of correctional or probation authorities. The peak age of referral to court is 18 years. On average, between the ages of 12 and 21 inclusive, alleged offenders were referred to court in connection with 3.1 criminal incidents' or 2.4, if administrative offences are excluded. Just over half of alleged offenders had only one incident in their court career. Seventeen percent of alleged offenders were classified as chronic offenders, who were responsible for 58% of all alleged criminal incidents.

    Individuals whose contact with the court system begins later in adolescence tend to be involved in fewer criminal incidents. The lengths of court careers vary widely, but the mean and median lengths are 20 months and 13 months respectively. Age-specific annual rates of alleged offending are similar for accused males and females, and peak at 15 years of age. There is no particular tendency to escalation, de-escalation, or stability in the seriousness of repeated court referrals: all three patterns occur frequently. Thirty-seven percent of individuals with multiple court referrals have adolescent-limited careers (i.e. no incidents after the 18th birthday which resulted in court referral), 43% have adult-onset careers (no incidents before the 18th birthday), and 20% are persistent offenders (with incidents both as youths and as adults). The latter have many more criminal incidents in their careers and are much more likely than the others to have been referred to court for an offence against the person; however, the incidents in their careers are not more serious on average, and they are not more likely to have had an early onset of contact with the court system.

    The file from which these results were derived could support much more detailed analyses of the topics which are touched on by this report, as well as other topics which have not been addressed, such as the timing of incidents during the career, the processing of cases through the courts, the sequence of case outcomes and sentences, and the interactions between sentencing and future offending, including the impact on careers of incapacitation. As additional years of court data become available, future research should follow court careers past the 22nd birthday. This will result in a more complete picture of the court careers of chronic, persistent offenders, as well as a more thorough investigation of the court careers of "adult-onset " offenders, who had no contact with the court system during adolescence.

    Release date: 2005-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2005005
    Description:

    This research paper provides an overview of patterns in crime data between 1962 and 2003, with a particular focus on the decline in recorded crime throughout the 1990s. This paper also explores the statistical relationship between selected crime patterns (homicide, robbery, break and enter and motor vehicle theft) and various macro-level demographic and economic changes. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Consumer Price Index, Labour Force Survey and institution data on the control and sale of alcoholic beverages in Canada.

    In general, bivariate results indicate that throughout the 1990s the greatest gains in reducing crime rates were made in property crimes, especially among young offenders. Significant declines were also noted for robberies and homicides involving firearms as well as homicides overall.

    Multivariate results indicate that, at the macro-level, different types of crime are influenced by different social and economic factors. Specifically, shifts in inflation were found to be associated with changes in the level of all financially motivated crimes examined (robbery, break and enter, motor vehicle theft). Shifts in the age composition of the population, on the other hand, were found to be correlated with shifts in rates of break and enter and were not statistically significant for the other types of crimes studied. Finally, shifts in alcohol consumption and unemployment rates were found to be correlated with shifts in homicide rates.

    Release date: 2005-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2004004
    Description:

    This research paper explores the spatial distribution of crime and various social, economic and physical neighbourhood characteristics in Winnipeg. Analysis is based on police-reported crime data from the 2001 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the 2001 Census of Population, and City of Winnipeg land-use data.

    Release date: 2004-09-16

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2004003
    Description:

    This multivariate statistical analysis, which captures the number of prior police contacts of young people apprehended by the police, uses longitudinally linked records from the Incident-Based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey for 1995 to 2001.

    Release date: 2004-09-14

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2003001
    Description:

    This research paper examines factors associated with delinquent behaviour among a sample of 12- to 15-year-olds. It investigates whether sex differences exist when various factors associated with delinquency are considered, especially the youth's level of commitment to school and experience of victimization.

    Release date: 2003-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 85-561-M2003002
    Description:

    This research paper explores the effect of witnessing violence in the home on aggressive behaviour among children, controlling for other important influences such as parenting practices, community and social support available to the parent and child, child emotional problems, and other socio-demographic factors.

    Release date: 2003-06-19

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