Statistics by subject – Productivity accounts

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  • Journals and periodicals: 11-626-X
    Description:

    Articles in the Economic Insights series highlight issues related to the growth and development of Canada's economy. In some cases, these articles synthesize the results of previous research carried out by Statistics Canada; in others, they provide contextual information that accompanies the release of new data. The Economic Insights series features concise examinations of economic events, trends, and important structural changes in the economy.

    Release date: 2017-10-19

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-09-06

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-05-19

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-04-18

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-03-16

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-02-15

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-02-10

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016373
    Description:

    This paper examines how much of the slowdown in productivity growth observed in Canada’s business sector between the 1990s (1990 to 1999) and the 2000s (2000 to 2014) was due to weaker productivity growth within industries and how much was due to structural adjustment. The analysis makes use of a decomposition method that differs from many of the standard labour productivity decomposition approaches commonly found in the literature and allows the contributions of changes in the importance of individual industries to be calculated.

    Release date: 2016-06-13

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015372
    Description:

    This paper presents a growth accounting framework in which subsoil mineral and energy resources are recognized as natural capital input into the production process. It is the first study of its kind in Canada. Firstly, the income attributable to subsoil resources, or resource rent, is estimated as a surplus value after all extraction costs and normal returns on produced capital have been accounted for. The value of a resource reserve is then estimated as the present value of the future resource rents generated from the efficient extraction of the reserve. Lastly, with extraction as the observed service flows of natural capital, multifactor productivity (MFP) growth and the other sources of economic growth can be reassessed by updating the income shares of all inputs, and then, by estimating the contribution to growth coming from changes in the value of natural capital input. This framework is then applied to the Canadian oil and gas extraction sector.

    Release date: 2015-12-14

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-10-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2015031
    Description:

    Canada has a large group of unincorporated self-employed businesses that play a critical role in the early lifecycle of firms. This study presents summary statistics on the importance of a particular group of the self-employed: those whose primary source of income from employment comes from an unincorporated business.

    The unincorporated self-employed measured in this study are those who file the Canada Revenue Agency’s income tax return (the T1 form) and report self-employed income as the primary source of their income. The study spans the period from 1989 to 2010.

    Release date: 2015-10-08

  • Journals and periodicals: 11F0027M
    Description:

    The Economic Analysis Research Paper Series provides the circulation of research conducted by the staff of National Accounts and Analytical Studies, visiting fellows and academic associates. The research paper series is meant to stimulate discussion on a range of topics including the impact of the new economy; productivity issues; firm profitability; technology usage; the effect of financing on firm growth; depreciation functions; the use of satellite accounts; savings rates; leasing; firm dynamics; hedonic estimations; diversification patterns; investment patterns; the differences in the performance of small and large, or domestic and multinational firms; and purchasing power parity estimates. Readers of the series are encouraged to contact the authors with comments, criticisms and suggestions.

    The primary distribution medium for the papers is the Internet. These papers can be downloaded from the Internet at www.statcan.gc.ca for free. Papers in the series are distributed to Statistics Canada Regional Offices and provincial statistical focal points.

    All papers in the Economic Analysis Series go through institutional and peer review to ensure that they conform to Statistics Canada's mandate as a government statistical agency and adhere to generally accepted standards of good professional practice.

    The papers in the series often include results derived from multivariate analysis or other statistical techniques. It should be recognized that the results of these analyses are subject to uncertainty in the reported estimates.

    The level of uncertainty will depend on several factors: the nature of the functional form used in the multivariate analysis; the type of econometric technique employed; the appropriateness of the statistical assumptions embedded in the model or technique; the comprehensiveness of the variables included in the analysis; and the accuracy of the data that are utilized. The peer group review process is meant to ensure that the papers in the series have followed accepted standards to minimize problems in each of these areas.

    Release date: 2015-07-24

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2015048
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series reports on the capital expenditure estimates for 2014 and the expenditure intentions for 2015, released by Statistics Canada on July 6th 2015. The article examines changes in the pace and composition of non-residential capital spending, highlighting key movements in the data for these reference years.

    Release date: 2015-07-06

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2015098
    Description:

    Two sources of industry productivity growth are firm productivity improvements and the reallocation of productive resources from less productive to more productive firms. This paper studies the role of offshoring in improving industry productivity through these two channels, using a new Canadian manufacturing data base that links the Annual Survey of Manufactures and the Importer Register database at the commodity level. The database provides information on direct imports of intermediate inputs by firms. This allows us to estimate offshoring intensity in Canada at the firm level, and to differentiate those imports by region of origin.

    Release date: 2015-06-22

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-01-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014095
    Description:

    This paper examines the investment performance of Canada and the United States, exploring similarities and differences in investments in fixed assets over the 1990-to-2011 period. This is a period when the two countries experienced different shocks. The United States suffered from a major decline in its housing markets after 2007 that did not hit Canada. The world-resource boom in the post-2000 period had a greater impact on Canada than it did on the United States. The Canada–United States exchange rate appreciated dramatically after 2003 thereby making imported machinery and equipment relatively less expensive in Canada.

    The comparison is primarily based on investment intensity, measured as the ratio of nominal dollar investment to nominal gross domestic product (GDP), but rates of growth of the volume of investment relative to the volume of GDP are also compared.

    Release date: 2014-10-21

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-09-09

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014092
    Description:

    Using data from the Provincial KLEMS database, this paper asks whether provincial economies have undergone structural change in their business sectors since 2000. It does so by applying a measure of industrial change (the dissimilarity index) using measures of output (real GDP) and hours worked. The paper also develops a statistical methodology to test whether the shifts in the industrial composition of output and hours worked over the period are due to random year-over-year changes in industrial structure or long-term systematic change in the structure of provincial economies. The paper is designed to inform discussion and analysis of recent changes in industrial composition at the national level, notably, the decline in manufacturing output and the concomitant rise of resource industries, and the implications of this change for provincial economies.

    Release date: 2014-05-07

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-04-23

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-03-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014090
    Description:

    The paper examines whether the integration of Canadian manufacturing firms into a global value chain (GVC) improves their productivity. To control for the self-selection effect (more productive firms self-select to join a GVC), propensity-score matching and difference-in-difference methods are used. Becoming part of a GVC can enhance firms' productivity, both immediately and over time. The magnitude and timing of the effects vary by industrial sector, internationalization process, and import source/export destination country in a way that suggests the most substantial advantages of GVC participation are derived from technological improvements.

    Release date: 2014-03-17

Reference (51)

Reference (51) (25 of 51 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5042
    Release date: 2017-09-06

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5103
    Release date: 2017-05-19

  • Technical products: 15-206-X
    Description:

    This reference publication on productivity in Canada shows how productivity trends affect Canadian living standards and measures the relative productivity performance of Canada and other countries. Its articles cover productivity and related issues, and it illuminates the sources underlying economic growth in Canada.

    Release date: 2015-01-26

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2015039
    Description:

    This paper generates updated estimates of depreciation rates to be used in the Canadian Productivity Accounts for the calculation of capital stock and the user cost of capital. Estimates are derived of depreciation profiles for a diverse set of assets, based on patterns of resale prices and retirement ages.

    A maximum likelihood technique is used to jointly estimate changes in the valuation of assets over the course of their service life, as well as the nature of the discard process used to dispose of assets to generate depreciation rates. This method is more efficient than others in producing estimates with less bias and higher efficiency.

    The earlier estimates that were derived for the period from 1985 to 2001 are compared with those for the latest period, from 2002 to 2010.

    Release date: 2015-01-26

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2014038
    Description:

    This paper provides an overview of the productivity program at Statistics Canada and a brief description of Canada’s productivity performance. The paper defines productivity and the various measures that are used to investigate different aspects of productivity growth. It describes the difference between partial productivity measures (such as labour productivity) and a more complete measure (multifactor productivity) and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The paper explains why productivity is important. It outlines how productivity growth fits into the growth accounting framework and how this framework is used to examine the various sources of economic growth. The paper briefly discusses the challenges that face statisticians in measuring productivity growth. It also provides an overview of Canada’s long-term productivity performance and compares Canada to the United States—both in terms of productivity levels and productivity growth rates.

    Release date: 2014-09-15

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2014037
    Description:

    This paper presents estimates of effective multifactor productivity (MFP) growth for Canada, the United States, Australia, Japan and selected European Union (EU) countries, based on the EU KLEMS productivity database and the World Input-Output Tables. Effective MFP growth captures the impact of the productivity gains in upstream industries on the productivity growth and international competitiveness of domestic industries, thereby providing an appropriate measure of productivity growth and international competitiveness in the production of final demand products such as consumption, investment and export products. A substantial portion of MFP growth, especially for small, open economies such as Canada’s, is attributable to gains in the production of intermediate inputs in foreign countries. Productivity growth tends to be higher in investment and export products than for the production of consumption products. Technical progress and productivity growth in foreign countries have made a larger contribution to production growth in investment and export products than in consumption products. The analysis provides empirical evidence consistent with the hypothesis that effective MFP growth is a more informative relevant indicator of international competitiveness than is standard MFP growth.

    Release date: 2014-09-09

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2014036
    Description:

    Leasing is an important means of gaining access to assets, of obtaining finance, and of reducing a lessee’s exposure to the risks inherent to asset ownership. A lease can be either a financial lease (capital lease) or an operating lease (capital rental). A financial lease is one where the legal owner of an asset (lessor) passes the economic ownership to the user of the asset (lessee), who then accepts the operating risks and receives the economic benefits from using the asset in a productive activity. Under an operating lease, the lessor is both the legal owner and the economic owner of the asset leased (rented), bearing the operating risks and receiving the economic benefits from the asset. The lessor transfers only the right to use the asset to the lessee.

    Leasing offers firms the possibility to acquire the right to use capital assets under terms that differ from those prevailing through other financial instruments. The recording of leased assets in the Canadian System of National Accounts is ownership-based rather than user-based. The separation of capital ownership, in particular legal ownership, from the use of capital assets poses challenges to productivity measurement. To obtain consistent productivity measures at an industry level, leased and rented capital assets must be reallocated from owners’ accounts to users’ accounts. By using the General Index of Financial Information (GIFI) corporate balance sheets and detailed input-output tables, this paper tests the robustness of existing practices of data collection on leased and rented capital.

    Release date: 2014-07-22

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2014035
    Description:

    This paper highlights revisions to multifactor productivity (MFP) growth and related variables in the business sector and in individual industries, which resulted from the historical revision of the Canadian System of National Accounts (CSNA) released October 1, 2012, revisions to the labour productivity accounts released October 12, 2012, and changes in the estimation of capital input that were made in order to improve its consistency in industry MFP growth estimates.

    The multifactor productivity program produces indexes of MFP and related measures (output, capital input, labour input and intermediate inputs) for the business sector, broad economic sub-sectors, and their constituent industries. The MFP program divides growth in labour productivity into its key determinants: capital intensity (changes in capital per hour worked), investment in human capital, and MFP, which includes technological change, organizational innovation and economies of scale.

    Release date: 2014-07-08

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2014033
    Description:

    This paper examines and compares labour productivity in Canada and the United States for small and large firms over the period from 2002 to 2008. It quantifies the relative importance of small and large firms in Canada and the United States and measures the relative productivity levels of small versus large firms.

    Small firms are relatively more important in the Canadian economy. Small firms are less productive than large firms in both countries. But the productivity disadvantage of small relative to large firms was higher in Canada.

    The paper provides an estimate of the impact that these differences have on the gap in productivity levels between Canada and the United States. It first estimates the changes that would occur in Canadian aggregate labour productivity if the share of hours worked of large firms in Canada was increased to the U.S. level. It then quantifies the impact of increasing the relative productivity of small to large firms in Canada up to the relative productivity ratio of small firms to large firms that existed in the United States.

    Together, decreasing the relative importance of small firms in the economy and increasing their relative productivity compared to large firms accounts for most of the gap in productivity levels between Canada and the United States in 2002. However, changes in the economy that occurred between 2002 and 2008 reduced the contribution of the small-firm sector to the gap in productivity levels.

    Release date: 2014-01-08

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2013032
    Description:

    This paper examines differences in labour productivity across small, medium- and large-sized enterprises in Canada.

    In 2008, the level of labour productivity, as measured by nominal gross domestic product per hour worked, in large businesses was greater than that for medium-sized and small businesses. This gap between large businesses relative to small and medium-sized businesses narrowed slightly during the post-2000 period. The paper also examines the impact of changes in industrial structure on labour productivity.

    Release date: 2013-08-26

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2013031
    Description:

    This paper describes the evolution of the Multifactor Productivity Program launched at Statistics Canada in 1987 and the improvements made in multifactor productivity measurement since then. The improvements were made in response to developments in the economic literature, better data sources, and the needs of the user community. The paper also summarizes research that uses alternate data and methodologies to assess the accuracy of the Multifactor Productivity Program and to provide insights into areas that traditional international multifactor productivity programs omit. Finally, the paper outlines future directions that are being contemplated to further improve the measurement of productivity at Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 2013-05-28

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2013030
    Description:

    This paper provides a provincial perspective on the slowdown in productivity and economic growth in the total business sector in Canada between 2000 and 2010 compared to the late 1990s. It uses the most recent provincial multifactor productivity database.

    Release date: 2013-04-17

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2012029
    Description:

    Intangible capital consists of investments that do not take on the solid, physical characteristics of machinery and equipment or buildings. Nevertheless, such investments have some of the properties of other types of investments in that they yield long-lasting benefits as a result of expenditures that are made today. In the National Accounts, these expenditures need to be capitalized rather than expensed as intermediate materials for purposes of estimating gross domestic product (GDP).

    Recent papers have considered issues surrounding the measurement of intangibles. Baldwin et al. (2005) discussed issues surrounding research and development (R&D). They noted that R&D is only one of the components of innovation expenditures. Baldwin et al. (2009) extended the measurement of intangible investments beyond that of just R&D. At the heart of intangible investments, of course, are software and R&D. However, intangible investments also consist of purchased science services, own-account scientific services, exploration expenses in the resource sector, and advertising expenditures, because these create an intangible asset and yield long-term benefits.

    This paper extends the authors' previous work in three ways. First, it expands it into several new areas--what are referred to as economic competencies. These involve primarily investments in human capital--via management and training investments as well as management consulting services. This not only provides broader coverage; it also allows cross-country comparisons of Canada to the United States.

    Second, this paper moves from just measuring investment to also developing capital stock estimates. This requires assumptions about depreciation rates. In both instances, the paper adopts assumptions similar to those used elsewhere in developing estimates for the United States, in order to ensure comparability.

    Third, the paper incorporates the estimates of intangible capital into the growth-accounting framework so as to understand how it is related to productivity growth. A comparison of Canada and the United States in this regard is also provided.

    Release date: 2012-06-01

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2010028
    Description:

    This study uses new GDP estimates for the unincorporated sector in order to examine labour productivity in the unincorporated sector and to compare it to that in the corporate sector over the period 1987 to 2005. The level of nominal GDP per hour worked is significantly lower for unincorporated enterprises ($23.20 in 2005) than it is for corporations ($43.40 in 2005). In 2005, GDP per hour worked in the unincorporated sector was just 53% of GDP per hour worked in the corporate sector.

    Release date: 2010-10-18

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2010027
    Description:

    Measures of productivity are derived by comparing outputs and inputs. The System of National Accounts (SNA) in Canada provides a useful framework for organizing the information required for comparisons of this type. Integrated systems of economic accounts provide coherent, consistent alternate estimates of the various concepts that can be used to measure productivity.

    Release date: 2010-06-29

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2009025
    Description:

    Baldwin and Gu (2008) provide an overview of the productivity program at Statistics Canada and a brief description of Canada's productivity performance. This paper provides an update of Canada's productivity performance in more recent years and analyses the sources of weak productivity performance in Canada since 2000.

    Release date: 2009-08-04

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2009024
    Description:

    This paper uses plant-level data on productivity growth and changes in market share over different periods during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s to investigate whether plants with declining market shares obtain productivity spillovers from more successful producers and whether the impact of spillovers is affected by the distance between plants. We are primarily interested in the extent to which productivity externalities moderate the centrifugal forces that separate growing plants from declining rivals because of the productivity advantages enjoyed by the former.

    The paper focuses on the productivity performance of plants with declining market shares as potential receivers of productivity spillovers. Two possible sources for these spillovers are examined rival plants operating at the technological frontier and rivals that are actively gaining market share. The analysis advances a model of the externality process in which the productivity of declining plants is influenced by (1) the economic distance of the declining plant from its technological frontier at the beginning of any period, (2) contemporaneous productivity gains in rival plants that are actively wresting market share away from decliners, and (3) the distance between rival plants.

    We evaluate the existence and magnitude of these sources of spillovers frontier plants and market-share gainers because of what they reveal about the types of productive information that struggling plants may be able to assimilate from rivals. Spillovers from the plants at the existing frontier are likely to reflect the established best practices of industry leaders; spillovers coming from market-share gainers involve new sources of productive knowledge that emerge as the frontier is actively being re-established. Our model also incorporates geographic information on the proximity of declining plants to both frontier plants and market-share gainers to test whether productivity spillovers are spatially circumscribed. The results provide evidence that productivity improvements in more successful plants benefit their struggling rivals and that these benefits are inversely related to distance; however, the magnitude of spillovers from growing plants to decliners is relatively small. Spillovers do not offer much of a safety net for producers that are losing the productivity race. The paper also shows that declining plants that start out behind the technological frontier are likely to fall further behind, after the impact of mean reversion is taken into account.

    Release date: 2009-05-19

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2009023
    Description:

    This paper examines the impact of the revisions to labour productivity estimates and related variables covering the revision cycle of the National Accounts from 2004 to 2007 for Canada and from 2005 to 2007 for the United States.

    Release date: 2009-03-11

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008021
    Description:

    This paper makes use of a growth accounting framework to examine the importance of public capital for private sector productivity growth. Most measures of multifactor productivity consider only the inputs of the business sector. This paper produces an alternate measure of multifactor productivity for the business sector that incorporates the impact of public capital. It uses the estimate of the elasticity of business sector output with respect to public capital derived from Macdonald (2008). Over the period, the conventional estimate of MFP growth averages 0.4% per year. About half of this growth is attributable to public capital.

    Release date: 2009-01-14

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008022
    Description:

    Many historical comparisons of international productivity use measures of labour productivity (output per worker). Differences in labour productivity can be caused by differences in technical efficiency or differences in capital intensity. Moving to measures of total factor productivity allows international comparisons to ascertain whether differences in labour productivity arise from differences in efficiency or differences in factors utilized in the production process.

    This paper examines differences in output per worker in the manufacturing sectors of Canada and the United States in 1929 and the extent to which it arises from efficiency differences. It makes corrections for differences in capital and materials intensity per worker in order to derive a measure of total factor efficiency of Canada relative to the United States, using detailed industry data. It finds that while output per worker in Canada was only about 75% of the United States productivity level, the total factor productivity measure of Canada was about the same as the United States level - that is, there was very little difference in technical efficiency in the two countries. Canada's lower output per worker was the result of the use of less capital and materials per worker than the United States.

    Release date: 2008-12-23

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008020
    Description:

    This paper compares the productivity growth of a set of Canadian and U.S. regulated industries. Using data from Statistics Canada's KLEMS database and the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the paper examines productivity growth in transportation services (which includes air and rail), broadcasting and telecommunications, and financial services (which includes financial intermediation and insurance), over the period from 1977 to 2003. The majority of these provide the foundational networks on which other industries rely. These sectors were quite heavily regulated in Canada at the beginning of the period of study (1977), experienced partial deregulation during the period and still faced various types of regulation at the end (2003). Deregulation also occurred in the United States, but regulation has generally been less restrictive there over most of the period.

    The evidence shows that many of the Canadian industries that underwent deregulation experienced faster labour productivity growth and multifactor productivity growth than did the aggregate Canadian business sector and had similar or higher productivity growth than did their counterparts in the United States over the 1977-to-2003 period. Those industries include rail transportation, broadcasting and telecommunications, financial intermediation and insurance carriers. The airline industry had slower productivity growth in Canada than in the United States over the 1977-to-2003 period.

    Release date: 2008-11-26

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008019
    Description:

    This paper has three main objectives. First, it examines the level of multifactor productivity (MFP) in Canada relative to that of the United States for the 1994-to-2003 period. Second, it examines the relative importance of differences in capital intensity and MFP in accounting for the labour productivity differences between the two countries. Third, it traces the overall MFP difference between Canada and the United States to its industry origins and estimates the contributions of the goods, services and engineering sectors to the overall MFP gap.

    Our main findings are as follows. First, the overall capital intensity is as high in Canada as in the United States; but there are considerable differences in Canada's capital intensity across asset classes. Canada has considerably less machinery and equipment, about the same amount of buildings and considerably more engineering construction. Second, most of the differences in labour productivity between Canada and the United States are due to the differences in MFP. Third, our industry results show that the levels of labour productivity and MFP in the goods and the engineering sectors are closer to those of the United States. But, the level of labour and multifactor productivity in the services sector is much lower in Canada. The lower levels of labour productivity and MFP in the Canadian services sector account for most of the overall productivity level difference between the two countries.

    Release date: 2008-07-21

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008018
    Description:

    Official data from statistical agencies are not always ideal for cross-country comparisons because of differences in data sources and methodology. Analysts who engage in cross-country comparisons need to carefully choose among alternatives and sometimes adapt data especially for their purposes. This paper develops comparable capital stock estimates to examine the relative capital intensity of Canada and the United States.

    To do so, the paper applies common depreciation rates to Canadian and U.S. assets to come up with comparable capital stock estimates by assets and by industry between the two countries. Based on common depreciation rates, it finds that capital intensity is higher in the Canadian business sector than in the U.S. business sector. This is the net result of quite different ratios at the individual asset level. Canada has as higher intensity of engineering infrastructure assets per dollar of gross domestic product produced. Canada has a lower intensity of information and communications technology (ICT) machinery and equipment (M&E). Non-ICT M&E and building assets intensities are more alike in the two countries.

    However, these results do not control for the fact that different asset-specific capital intensities between Canada and the United States may be the result of a different industrial structure. When both assets and industry structure are taken into account, the overall picture changes somewhat. Canada's business sector continues to have a higher intensity of engineering infrastructure and about the same intensity of building assets; however, it has a deficit in M&E that goes beyond ICT assets.

    Release date: 2008-07-10

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008016
    Description:

    This paper focuses on the role of investments in infrastructure in Canada. The size of infrastructure investments relative to other capital stock sets this country apart from most other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The paper reviews the approaches taken by other researchers to define infrastructure. It then outlines a taxonomy to define those assets that should be considered as infrastructure and that can be used to assess the importance of different types of capital investments. It briefly considers how to define the portion of infrastructure that should be considered 'public'. The final two parts of the paper apply the proposed classification system to data on Canada's capital stock, and ask the following questions: how much infrastructure does Canada have and in which sectors of the economy is this infrastructure located? Finally, the paper investigates how Canada's infrastructure has evolved over the last four decades, both in the commercial and non-commercial sectors, and compares these trends with the pattern that can be found in the United States.

    Release date: 2008-03-12

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