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All (32) (25 of 32 results)

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008022
    Description:

    Many historical comparisons of international productivity use measures of labour productivity (output per worker). Differences in labour productivity can be caused by differences in technical efficiency or differences in capital intensity. Moving to measures of total factor productivity allows international comparisons to ascertain whether differences in labour productivity arise from differences in efficiency or differences in factors utilized in the production process.

    This paper examines differences in output per worker in the manufacturing sectors of Canada and the United States in 1929 and the extent to which it arises from efficiency differences. It makes corrections for differences in capital and materials intensity per worker in order to derive a measure of total factor efficiency of Canada relative to the United States, using detailed industry data. It finds that while output per worker in Canada was only about 75% of the United States productivity level, the total factor productivity measure of Canada was about the same as the United States level - that is, there was very little difference in technical efficiency in the two countries. Canada's lower output per worker was the result of the use of less capital and materials per worker than the United States.

    Release date: 2008-12-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2008022
    Description:

    This paper examines Ontario's and Quebec's adjustments to the resource boom. Higher commodity prices, an appreciating dollar, and increased foreign competition between 2002 and 2007 led to a restructuring of the Central Canadian economies. The restructuring manifested itself in all areas of the economy: manufacturing employment and output declined, while services and construction rose; within manufacturing there were declines across most industries in Ontario, and a shift away from consumer products towards capital products in Quebec; purchasing power increased in Ontario and Quebec as export and import prices adjusted.

    Release date: 2008-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200801210765
    Description:

    This paper examines Ontario's and Quebec's adjustments to the resource boom. Higher commodity prices, an appreciating dollar, and increased foreign competition between 2002 and 2007 led to a restructuring of the Central Canadian economies. The restructuring manifested itself in all areas of the economy: manufacturing employment and output declined, while services and construction rose; within manufacturing there were declines across most industries in Ontario, and a shift away from consumer products towards capital products in Quebec; purchasing power increased in Ontario and Quebec as export and import prices adjusted.

    Release date: 2008-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008053
    Description:

    This paper examines firm turnover and productivity growth in the Canadian retail trade sector. Firm turnover occurs as the competitive process shifts market share from exiting firms and existing firms that contracted to entering firms and existing firms that expanded. There is considerably more firm turnover in the retail sector than in the manufacturing sector and more of it comes from entry and exit. Moreover, contrary to the manufacturing sector where only part of overall productivity growth comes from firm turnover and the re-allocation of resources from the less to the more productive, all of the aggregate productivity growth comes from this source in the retail sector. This suggests that the much-discussed Wal-Mart effect on retail sector productivity mainly comes from the Wal-Mart-created competitive pressure that shifts market share from exitors and declining incumbents to entrants and growing incumbents. Foreign-controlled firms contributed 30% of labour productivity growth and 45% of multifactor productivity growth in the retail trade sector in the period from 1984 to 1996, which are mainly due to the entry of foreign-controlled firms and expansion of more productive foreign-controlled existing firms.

    Release date: 2008-12-08

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008020
    Description:

    This paper compares the productivity growth of a set of Canadian and U.S. regulated industries. Using data from Statistics Canada's KLEMS database and the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the paper examines productivity growth in transportation services (which includes air and rail), broadcasting and telecommunications, and financial services (which includes financial intermediation and insurance), over the period from 1977 to 2003. The majority of these provide the foundational networks on which other industries rely. These sectors were quite heavily regulated in Canada at the beginning of the period of study (1977), experienced partial deregulation during the period and still faced various types of regulation at the end (2003). Deregulation also occurred in the United States, but regulation has generally been less restrictive there over most of the period.

    The evidence shows that many of the Canadian industries that underwent deregulation experienced faster labour productivity growth and multifactor productivity growth than did the aggregate Canadian business sector and had similar or higher productivity growth than did their counterparts in the United States over the 1977-to-2003 period. Those industries include rail transportation, broadcasting and telecommunications, financial intermediation and insurance carriers. The airline industry had slower productivity growth in Canada than in the United States over the 1977-to-2003 period.

    Release date: 2008-11-26

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2008021
    Description:

    The present study illustrates the differential impact on regional economies of relative price changes stemming from commodity price movements, exchange rate changes and changes in international manufactured goods prices. It focuses on Canadian provinces, which are a large, geographically distributed federation of regional economies with widely differing economic bases. In this regard, the study illuminates an important method for examining regional economic performance that is particularly well suited to federations such as Russia or the European Monetary Union, or to large countries such as the United States.

    Release date: 2008-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200801110733
    Description:

    The post-2002 boom in natural resource prices has been a dominant factor in sectors such as exports, investment and the stock market. However, they have had little direct impact on real output or employment, but indirectly have lifted domestic spending.

    Release date: 2008-11-13

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2008060
    Description:

    This publication presents estimates of government revenues attributable to tourism for the years 2000 to 2007. Estimates of the revenue attributable to tourism spending by non-residents (i.e. tourism exports) and by residents (i.e. tourism domestic demand) are also included for the first time. The main data sources are the Canadian Tourism Satellite Account, National Tourism Indicators, the Income and Expenditure Accounts, the Input-Output tables and T4 tax remittance files.

    Government revenue covers receipts from taxes on incomes (i.e., on employment earnings, corporate profits, net income of unincorporated business and government business enterprises), contributions to social insurance plans (i.e., premiums for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan, Employment Insurance and workers compensation), taxes on production and products (such as sales and property taxes), and from sales of government goods and services. These revenues are broken down into parts that can be attributed to tourism spending, tourism domestic demand and tourism exports for government as a whole and for the three levels of government (federal, provincial/territorial and municipal) separately. Estimates of the government revenue generated per $100 of tourism spending overall and by residents and non-residents are reported as well. The publication contains several charts and summary tables showing revenues attributable to tourism by level of government and by source of revenue. It also contains a discussion of the concepts, definitions, data sources and methods used in the study.

    Release date: 2008-11-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200801010713
    Description:

    While factory jobs have declined in recent years, this has been outweighed by gains elsewhere, often in high-paying occupations.

    Release date: 2008-10-16

  • Technical products: 12-589-X
    Description:

    This free publication presents the concepts and criteria utilized to determine the entities that comprise the public sector of Canada.

    The resulting statistical universe provides the framework to observe the extent of governments' involvement in the production of goods and services and the associated resource allocation process in the Canadian economy.

    The concepts and criteria contained in the guide are consistent with two internationally accepted classification standards: the System of National Accounts (SNA 2008) guide; and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001.

    As well, the guide delineates the various public sector components that are used in compiling and aggregating public sector data. This structure also enables comparisons of Canadian government finance data with international macroeconomic statistical systems.

    Release date: 2008-09-26

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008019
    Description:

    This paper has three main objectives. First, it examines the level of multifactor productivity (MFP) in Canada relative to that of the United States for the 1994-to-2003 period. Second, it examines the relative importance of differences in capital intensity and MFP in accounting for the labour productivity differences between the two countries. Third, it traces the overall MFP difference between Canada and the United States to its industry origins and estimates the contributions of the goods, services and engineering sectors to the overall MFP gap.

    Our main findings are as follows. First, the overall capital intensity is as high in Canada as in the United States; but there are considerable differences in Canada's capital intensity across asset classes. Canada has considerably less machinery and equipment, about the same amount of buildings and considerably more engineering construction. Second, most of the differences in labour productivity between Canada and the United States are due to the differences in MFP. Third, our industry results show that the levels of labour productivity and MFP in the goods and the engineering sectors are closer to those of the United States. But, the level of labour and multifactor productivity in the services sector is much lower in Canada. The lower levels of labour productivity and MFP in the Canadian services sector account for most of the overall productivity level difference between the two countries.

    Release date: 2008-07-21

  • Table: 68-213-X
    Description:

    This annual publication is a comprehensive, consistent and efficient source of government statistics. It contains data on the sources of revenue and the main purposes of spending of governments, of educational, and of health and social institutions, as well as complete balance sheets and debt statistics for all levels of government. The publication also contains revenue, expenditures and balance sheet statistics for government business enterprises and the public sector employment, wages and salaries statistics.

    Release date: 2008-07-14

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008018
    Description:

    Official data from statistical agencies are not always ideal for cross-country comparisons because of differences in data sources and methodology. Analysts who engage in cross-country comparisons need to carefully choose among alternatives and sometimes adapt data especially for their purposes. This paper develops comparable capital stock estimates to examine the relative capital intensity of Canada and the United States.

    To do so, the paper applies common depreciation rates to Canadian and U.S. assets to come up with comparable capital stock estimates by assets and by industry between the two countries. Based on common depreciation rates, it finds that capital intensity is higher in the Canadian business sector than in the U.S. business sector. This is the net result of quite different ratios at the individual asset level. Canada has as higher intensity of engineering infrastructure assets per dollar of gross domestic product produced. Canada has a lower intensity of information and communications technology (ICT) machinery and equipment (M&E). Non-ICT M&E and building assets intensities are more alike in the two countries.

    However, these results do not control for the fact that different asset-specific capital intensities between Canada and the United States may be the result of a different industrial structure. When both assets and industry structure are taken into account, the overall picture changes somewhat. Canada's business sector continues to have a higher intensity of engineering infrastructure and about the same intensity of building assets; however, it has a deficit in M&E that goes beyond ICT assets.

    Release date: 2008-07-10

  • Index and guides: 13-017-X2008001
    Release date: 2008-06-30

  • Index and guides: 13-017-X
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the Income and Expenditure Accounts. It provides an overview, an outline of the concepts and definitions, an explanation of the sources of information and statistical methods, a glossary of terms, and a broad compilation of other facts about the accounts.

    Release date: 2008-06-30

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X200800210641
    Description:

    There has been growing interest in the state of the pension system in Canada, particularly as the baby-boom generation enters retirement age. Pension assets comprise a large portion of personal net worth. In response to the demand for more detailed information on this issue, Statistics Canada has developed a Pension Satellite Account (PSA). The Pension Satellite Account covers the entire universe of the retirement regime in Canada which includes government-sponsored social security, employer-sponsored pension plans and voluntary individual retirement savings plans. In this preliminary release, a time series of pension assets by type from 1990 to 2007 is published as a supplement to the National Balance Sheet.

    Release date: 2008-06-24

  • Table: 63-202-X
    Description:

    This publication analyzes the sales of alcoholic beverages in Canada. The report also sets out, in detail, government revenue derived from the control and sale of alcoholic beverages. Analytical text, tables and charts are featured as well as information on imports and exports of spirits, wines and beer. Historical data are included. The publication is an excellent source of information on sales patterns of alcoholic beverages in Canada.

    This publication is temporarily suspended until 2012. However, the data will continue to be produced and released through CANSIM tables 183-0006 and in 183-0015 to 183-0020. Data Tables on sales of alcoholic beverages are also available free of charge from the National economic accounts module of our website.

    Release date: 2008-06-12

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2007056
    Description:

    This paper highlights the newly constructed Research and Development Satellite Account (RDSA) developed by Statistics Canada. The RDSA provides an analysis for the capitalization of research and development (R&D) as proposed by international guidelines for the System of National Accounts. The account calculates several methods to measure the impact on Gross Domestic Product of R&D expenditures. This paper presents the results of the RDSA for the years 1997 to 2004.

    Release date: 2008-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X200800110602
    Description:

    Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts covering the period 2004 to 2007 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2008. The current revisions to GDP resulted from the inclusion of the most current estimates from data sources, including survey results, administrative data and public accounts.

    Release date: 2008-05-30

  • Table: 65-508-X2007002
    Description:

    This issue provides a snapshot of the past ten years of Canada's trade with Russia. Canadian exports and imports have increased at a steady pace since 1996, reaching record highs for each by the end of 2005. Overall, Canada recorded a trade deficit with Russia of $1.2 billion in 2005.

    Release date: 2008-05-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200800510592
    Description:

    In recent years, the resource boom has brought unprecedented growth to Saskatchewan and Newfoundland. Besides boosting the economy, this growth has reversed the long-term outflow of their population.

    Release date: 2008-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2008059
    Description:

    This paper reports on the update to 2006 of the Human Resource Module (HRM) of the Tourism Satellite Account developed by Statistics Canada. The HRM provides detailed information on employment related to tourism. Information on wages and salaries, number of jobs and hours worked by occupation are included. The data are also disaggregated by age, gender and immigration status. This study provides a resource for training and planning for tourism.

    Release date: 2008-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008050
    Description:

    This paper examines whether or not the long-term government bond rate could reasonably be employed as the rate of return on public capital when calculating public sector gross domestic product. It finds that the rate of return on public capital is lower than often reported and is roughly consistent with the rate of return on private capital. Given that there is a range of estimates that are plausible, the paper concludes that the long-run government bond rate could be used as a conservative estimate for the rate of return for public infrastructure.

    Previous studies have shown that production function estimates tend to find rates of return that are implausibly large, while cost function estimates appear more reasonable. This paper shows that public capital and total factor productivity (TFP) growth behave similarly, and argues that production function estimates for the impact of public capital overstate its impact as a result, catching part of what belongs in estimates of TFP. It also shows that the similarity between the growth in public capital and TFP leads to a large confidence interval around public capital elasticity estimates derived from the production function framework. The paper then proceeds by generating a confidence interval from the production function estimated first with and then without TFP growth. It then uses a cost function to pinpoint more precisely estimates for the marginal cost savings from public capital. Importantly, the estimate derived from the cost function is found in the lower part of the confidence interval derived from the production function. The rate of return associated with the overlapping estimates is then shown to cover a range that extends from the average long-run government bond rate to the rate of return on private capital.

    Release date: 2008-04-15

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200800410559
    Description:

    Despite the turmoil in financial markets and a slowdown in the US, Canada's growth was remarkably steady in 2007. This reflects the ongoing boom in the resource sector and the boost the rising loonie gave to domestic spending.

    Release date: 2008-04-10

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008016
    Description:

    This paper focuses on the role of investments in infrastructure in Canada. The size of infrastructure investments relative to other capital stock sets this country apart from most other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The paper reviews the approaches taken by other researchers to define infrastructure. It then outlines a taxonomy to define those assets that should be considered as infrastructure and that can be used to assess the importance of different types of capital investments. It briefly considers how to define the portion of infrastructure that should be considered 'public'. The final two parts of the paper apply the proposed classification system to data on Canada's capital stock, and ask the following questions: how much infrastructure does Canada have and in which sectors of the economy is this infrastructure located? Finally, the paper investigates how Canada's infrastructure has evolved over the last four decades, both in the commercial and non-commercial sectors, and compares these trends with the pattern that can be found in the United States.

    Release date: 2008-03-12

Data (4)

Data (4) (4 of 4 results)

  • Table: 68-213-X
    Description:

    This annual publication is a comprehensive, consistent and efficient source of government statistics. It contains data on the sources of revenue and the main purposes of spending of governments, of educational, and of health and social institutions, as well as complete balance sheets and debt statistics for all levels of government. The publication also contains revenue, expenditures and balance sheet statistics for government business enterprises and the public sector employment, wages and salaries statistics.

    Release date: 2008-07-14

  • Table: 63-202-X
    Description:

    This publication analyzes the sales of alcoholic beverages in Canada. The report also sets out, in detail, government revenue derived from the control and sale of alcoholic beverages. Analytical text, tables and charts are featured as well as information on imports and exports of spirits, wines and beer. Historical data are included. The publication is an excellent source of information on sales patterns of alcoholic beverages in Canada.

    This publication is temporarily suspended until 2012. However, the data will continue to be produced and released through CANSIM tables 183-0006 and in 183-0015 to 183-0020. Data Tables on sales of alcoholic beverages are also available free of charge from the National economic accounts module of our website.

    Release date: 2008-06-12

  • Table: 65-508-X2007002
    Description:

    This issue provides a snapshot of the past ten years of Canada's trade with Russia. Canadian exports and imports have increased at a steady pace since 1996, reaching record highs for each by the end of 2005. Overall, Canada recorded a trade deficit with Russia of $1.2 billion in 2005.

    Release date: 2008-05-21

Analysis (19)

Analysis (19) (19 of 19 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2008022
    Description:

    This paper examines Ontario's and Quebec's adjustments to the resource boom. Higher commodity prices, an appreciating dollar, and increased foreign competition between 2002 and 2007 led to a restructuring of the Central Canadian economies. The restructuring manifested itself in all areas of the economy: manufacturing employment and output declined, while services and construction rose; within manufacturing there were declines across most industries in Ontario, and a shift away from consumer products towards capital products in Quebec; purchasing power increased in Ontario and Quebec as export and import prices adjusted.

    Release date: 2008-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200801210765
    Description:

    This paper examines Ontario's and Quebec's adjustments to the resource boom. Higher commodity prices, an appreciating dollar, and increased foreign competition between 2002 and 2007 led to a restructuring of the Central Canadian economies. The restructuring manifested itself in all areas of the economy: manufacturing employment and output declined, while services and construction rose; within manufacturing there were declines across most industries in Ontario, and a shift away from consumer products towards capital products in Quebec; purchasing power increased in Ontario and Quebec as export and import prices adjusted.

    Release date: 2008-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008053
    Description:

    This paper examines firm turnover and productivity growth in the Canadian retail trade sector. Firm turnover occurs as the competitive process shifts market share from exiting firms and existing firms that contracted to entering firms and existing firms that expanded. There is considerably more firm turnover in the retail sector than in the manufacturing sector and more of it comes from entry and exit. Moreover, contrary to the manufacturing sector where only part of overall productivity growth comes from firm turnover and the re-allocation of resources from the less to the more productive, all of the aggregate productivity growth comes from this source in the retail sector. This suggests that the much-discussed Wal-Mart effect on retail sector productivity mainly comes from the Wal-Mart-created competitive pressure that shifts market share from exitors and declining incumbents to entrants and growing incumbents. Foreign-controlled firms contributed 30% of labour productivity growth and 45% of multifactor productivity growth in the retail trade sector in the period from 1984 to 1996, which are mainly due to the entry of foreign-controlled firms and expansion of more productive foreign-controlled existing firms.

    Release date: 2008-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2008021
    Description:

    The present study illustrates the differential impact on regional economies of relative price changes stemming from commodity price movements, exchange rate changes and changes in international manufactured goods prices. It focuses on Canadian provinces, which are a large, geographically distributed federation of regional economies with widely differing economic bases. In this regard, the study illuminates an important method for examining regional economic performance that is particularly well suited to federations such as Russia or the European Monetary Union, or to large countries such as the United States.

    Release date: 2008-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200801110733
    Description:

    The post-2002 boom in natural resource prices has been a dominant factor in sectors such as exports, investment and the stock market. However, they have had little direct impact on real output or employment, but indirectly have lifted domestic spending.

    Release date: 2008-11-13

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2008060
    Description:

    This publication presents estimates of government revenues attributable to tourism for the years 2000 to 2007. Estimates of the revenue attributable to tourism spending by non-residents (i.e. tourism exports) and by residents (i.e. tourism domestic demand) are also included for the first time. The main data sources are the Canadian Tourism Satellite Account, National Tourism Indicators, the Income and Expenditure Accounts, the Input-Output tables and T4 tax remittance files.

    Government revenue covers receipts from taxes on incomes (i.e., on employment earnings, corporate profits, net income of unincorporated business and government business enterprises), contributions to social insurance plans (i.e., premiums for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan, Employment Insurance and workers compensation), taxes on production and products (such as sales and property taxes), and from sales of government goods and services. These revenues are broken down into parts that can be attributed to tourism spending, tourism domestic demand and tourism exports for government as a whole and for the three levels of government (federal, provincial/territorial and municipal) separately. Estimates of the government revenue generated per $100 of tourism spending overall and by residents and non-residents are reported as well. The publication contains several charts and summary tables showing revenues attributable to tourism by level of government and by source of revenue. It also contains a discussion of the concepts, definitions, data sources and methods used in the study.

    Release date: 2008-11-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200801010713
    Description:

    While factory jobs have declined in recent years, this has been outweighed by gains elsewhere, often in high-paying occupations.

    Release date: 2008-10-16

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X200800210641
    Description:

    There has been growing interest in the state of the pension system in Canada, particularly as the baby-boom generation enters retirement age. Pension assets comprise a large portion of personal net worth. In response to the demand for more detailed information on this issue, Statistics Canada has developed a Pension Satellite Account (PSA). The Pension Satellite Account covers the entire universe of the retirement regime in Canada which includes government-sponsored social security, employer-sponsored pension plans and voluntary individual retirement savings plans. In this preliminary release, a time series of pension assets by type from 1990 to 2007 is published as a supplement to the National Balance Sheet.

    Release date: 2008-06-24

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2007056
    Description:

    This paper highlights the newly constructed Research and Development Satellite Account (RDSA) developed by Statistics Canada. The RDSA provides an analysis for the capitalization of research and development (R&D) as proposed by international guidelines for the System of National Accounts. The account calculates several methods to measure the impact on Gross Domestic Product of R&D expenditures. This paper presents the results of the RDSA for the years 1997 to 2004.

    Release date: 2008-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X200800110602
    Description:

    Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts covering the period 2004 to 2007 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2008. The current revisions to GDP resulted from the inclusion of the most current estimates from data sources, including survey results, administrative data and public accounts.

    Release date: 2008-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200800510592
    Description:

    In recent years, the resource boom has brought unprecedented growth to Saskatchewan and Newfoundland. Besides boosting the economy, this growth has reversed the long-term outflow of their population.

    Release date: 2008-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2008059
    Description:

    This paper reports on the update to 2006 of the Human Resource Module (HRM) of the Tourism Satellite Account developed by Statistics Canada. The HRM provides detailed information on employment related to tourism. Information on wages and salaries, number of jobs and hours worked by occupation are included. The data are also disaggregated by age, gender and immigration status. This study provides a resource for training and planning for tourism.

    Release date: 2008-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008050
    Description:

    This paper examines whether or not the long-term government bond rate could reasonably be employed as the rate of return on public capital when calculating public sector gross domestic product. It finds that the rate of return on public capital is lower than often reported and is roughly consistent with the rate of return on private capital. Given that there is a range of estimates that are plausible, the paper concludes that the long-run government bond rate could be used as a conservative estimate for the rate of return for public infrastructure.

    Previous studies have shown that production function estimates tend to find rates of return that are implausibly large, while cost function estimates appear more reasonable. This paper shows that public capital and total factor productivity (TFP) growth behave similarly, and argues that production function estimates for the impact of public capital overstate its impact as a result, catching part of what belongs in estimates of TFP. It also shows that the similarity between the growth in public capital and TFP leads to a large confidence interval around public capital elasticity estimates derived from the production function framework. The paper then proceeds by generating a confidence interval from the production function estimated first with and then without TFP growth. It then uses a cost function to pinpoint more precisely estimates for the marginal cost savings from public capital. Importantly, the estimate derived from the cost function is found in the lower part of the confidence interval derived from the production function. The rate of return associated with the overlapping estimates is then shown to cover a range that extends from the average long-run government bond rate to the rate of return on private capital.

    Release date: 2008-04-15

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200800410559
    Description:

    Despite the turmoil in financial markets and a slowdown in the US, Canada's growth was remarkably steady in 2007. This reflects the ongoing boom in the resource sector and the boost the rising loonie gave to domestic spending.

    Release date: 2008-04-10

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2008067
    Description:

    Trends in average age of public infrastructure in Canada and the provinces are examined for five key assets from 1961 to 2007. Average ages of assets are compared with their estimated useful service life and are presented along with their corresponding gross capital stock.

    Release date: 2008-02-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008049
    Description:

    Productivity and wages tend to be higher in cities. This is typically explained by agglomeration economies, which increase the returns associated with urban locations. Competing arguments of specialization and diversity undergird these claims. Empirical research has long sought to confirm the existence of agglomeration economies and to adjudicate between the models of Marshall, Arrow and Romer (MAR) that suggest the benefits of proximity are largely confined to individual industries, and the claims of Jacobs (1969) that such benefits derive from a general increase in the density of economic activity in a particular place and are shared by all occupants of that location. The primary goal of this paper is to identify the main sources of urban increasing returns, after Marshall (1920). A secondary goal is to examine the geographical distance across which externalities flow between businesses in the same industry. We bring to bear on these questions plant-level data organized in the form of a panel across the years 1989 and 1999. The panel data overcome selection bias resulting from unobserved plant-level heterogeneity that is constant over time. Plant-level production functions are estimated across the Canadian manufacturing sector as a whole and for five broad industry groups, each characterized by the nature of their output. Results provide strong support for Marshall's (1920) claims about the importance of buyer-supplier networks, labour market pooling and spillovers. The data show spillovers enhance plant productivity within industries rather than between them and that these spillovers tend to be more spatially extensive than previous studies have found.

    Release date: 2008-02-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2008018
    Description:

    This paper examines the presence of knowledge spillovers that affect the adoption of advanced technologies in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It examines whether plants that adopt advanced technologies are more likely to do so when there are other nearby plants that do so within a model of technology adoption.

    Release date: 2008-02-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2008018
    Description:

    This paper empirically illustrates the impact of ongoing changes to Canada's terms of trade. It provides a discussion of how the terms of trade are measured and how to interpret terms of trade shifts. Examples of two major factors affecting Canada's terms of trade are provided, followed by an empirical analysis of how the terms of trade improvements that began in early 2003 have affected consumption, investment and import activity. The paper concludes by illustrating why final domestic demand growth has outpaced real GDP growth since 2003.

    Release date: 2008-01-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X200800110510
    Description:

    This paper empirically illustrates the impact of ongoing changes to Canada's terms of trade. It provides a discussion of how the terms of trade are measured and how to interpret terms of trade shifts. Examples of two major factors affecting Canada's terms of trade are provided, followed by an empirical analysis of how the terms of trade improvements that began in early 2003 have affected consumption, investment and import activity. The paper concludes by illustrating why final domestic demand growth has outpaced real GDP growth since 2003.

    Release date: 2008-01-17

Reference (9)

Reference (9) (9 of 9 results)

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008022
    Description:

    Many historical comparisons of international productivity use measures of labour productivity (output per worker). Differences in labour productivity can be caused by differences in technical efficiency or differences in capital intensity. Moving to measures of total factor productivity allows international comparisons to ascertain whether differences in labour productivity arise from differences in efficiency or differences in factors utilized in the production process.

    This paper examines differences in output per worker in the manufacturing sectors of Canada and the United States in 1929 and the extent to which it arises from efficiency differences. It makes corrections for differences in capital and materials intensity per worker in order to derive a measure of total factor efficiency of Canada relative to the United States, using detailed industry data. It finds that while output per worker in Canada was only about 75% of the United States productivity level, the total factor productivity measure of Canada was about the same as the United States level - that is, there was very little difference in technical efficiency in the two countries. Canada's lower output per worker was the result of the use of less capital and materials per worker than the United States.

    Release date: 2008-12-23

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008020
    Description:

    This paper compares the productivity growth of a set of Canadian and U.S. regulated industries. Using data from Statistics Canada's KLEMS database and the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the paper examines productivity growth in transportation services (which includes air and rail), broadcasting and telecommunications, and financial services (which includes financial intermediation and insurance), over the period from 1977 to 2003. The majority of these provide the foundational networks on which other industries rely. These sectors were quite heavily regulated in Canada at the beginning of the period of study (1977), experienced partial deregulation during the period and still faced various types of regulation at the end (2003). Deregulation also occurred in the United States, but regulation has generally been less restrictive there over most of the period.

    The evidence shows that many of the Canadian industries that underwent deregulation experienced faster labour productivity growth and multifactor productivity growth than did the aggregate Canadian business sector and had similar or higher productivity growth than did their counterparts in the United States over the 1977-to-2003 period. Those industries include rail transportation, broadcasting and telecommunications, financial intermediation and insurance carriers. The airline industry had slower productivity growth in Canada than in the United States over the 1977-to-2003 period.

    Release date: 2008-11-26

  • Technical products: 12-589-X
    Description:

    This free publication presents the concepts and criteria utilized to determine the entities that comprise the public sector of Canada.

    The resulting statistical universe provides the framework to observe the extent of governments' involvement in the production of goods and services and the associated resource allocation process in the Canadian economy.

    The concepts and criteria contained in the guide are consistent with two internationally accepted classification standards: the System of National Accounts (SNA 2008) guide; and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001.

    As well, the guide delineates the various public sector components that are used in compiling and aggregating public sector data. This structure also enables comparisons of Canadian government finance data with international macroeconomic statistical systems.

    Release date: 2008-09-26

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008019
    Description:

    This paper has three main objectives. First, it examines the level of multifactor productivity (MFP) in Canada relative to that of the United States for the 1994-to-2003 period. Second, it examines the relative importance of differences in capital intensity and MFP in accounting for the labour productivity differences between the two countries. Third, it traces the overall MFP difference between Canada and the United States to its industry origins and estimates the contributions of the goods, services and engineering sectors to the overall MFP gap.

    Our main findings are as follows. First, the overall capital intensity is as high in Canada as in the United States; but there are considerable differences in Canada's capital intensity across asset classes. Canada has considerably less machinery and equipment, about the same amount of buildings and considerably more engineering construction. Second, most of the differences in labour productivity between Canada and the United States are due to the differences in MFP. Third, our industry results show that the levels of labour productivity and MFP in the goods and the engineering sectors are closer to those of the United States. But, the level of labour and multifactor productivity in the services sector is much lower in Canada. The lower levels of labour productivity and MFP in the Canadian services sector account for most of the overall productivity level difference between the two countries.

    Release date: 2008-07-21

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008018
    Description:

    Official data from statistical agencies are not always ideal for cross-country comparisons because of differences in data sources and methodology. Analysts who engage in cross-country comparisons need to carefully choose among alternatives and sometimes adapt data especially for their purposes. This paper develops comparable capital stock estimates to examine the relative capital intensity of Canada and the United States.

    To do so, the paper applies common depreciation rates to Canadian and U.S. assets to come up with comparable capital stock estimates by assets and by industry between the two countries. Based on common depreciation rates, it finds that capital intensity is higher in the Canadian business sector than in the U.S. business sector. This is the net result of quite different ratios at the individual asset level. Canada has as higher intensity of engineering infrastructure assets per dollar of gross domestic product produced. Canada has a lower intensity of information and communications technology (ICT) machinery and equipment (M&E). Non-ICT M&E and building assets intensities are more alike in the two countries.

    However, these results do not control for the fact that different asset-specific capital intensities between Canada and the United States may be the result of a different industrial structure. When both assets and industry structure are taken into account, the overall picture changes somewhat. Canada's business sector continues to have a higher intensity of engineering infrastructure and about the same intensity of building assets; however, it has a deficit in M&E that goes beyond ICT assets.

    Release date: 2008-07-10

  • Index and guides: 13-017-X2008001
    Release date: 2008-06-30

  • Index and guides: 13-017-X
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the Income and Expenditure Accounts. It provides an overview, an outline of the concepts and definitions, an explanation of the sources of information and statistical methods, a glossary of terms, and a broad compilation of other facts about the accounts.

    Release date: 2008-06-30

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008016
    Description:

    This paper focuses on the role of investments in infrastructure in Canada. The size of infrastructure investments relative to other capital stock sets this country apart from most other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The paper reviews the approaches taken by other researchers to define infrastructure. It then outlines a taxonomy to define those assets that should be considered as infrastructure and that can be used to assess the importance of different types of capital investments. It briefly considers how to define the portion of infrastructure that should be considered 'public'. The final two parts of the paper apply the proposed classification system to data on Canada's capital stock, and ask the following questions: how much infrastructure does Canada have and in which sectors of the economy is this infrastructure located? Finally, the paper investigates how Canada's infrastructure has evolved over the last four decades, both in the commercial and non-commercial sectors, and compares these trends with the pattern that can be found in the United States.

    Release date: 2008-03-12

  • Technical products: 15-206-X2008017
    Description:

    This paper provides an overview of the productivity program at Statistics Canada and a brief description of Canada's productivity performance. The paper defines productivity and the various measures that are used to investigate different aspects of productivity growth. It describes the difference between partial productivity measures (such as labour productivity) and a more complete measure (multifactor productivity) and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The paper explains why productivity is important. It outlines how productivity growth fits into the growth accounting framework and how this framework is used to examine the various sources of economic growth. The paper briefly discusses the challenges that face statisticians in measuring productivity growth. It also provides an overview of Canada's long-term productivity performance and compares Canada to the United States - both in terms of productivity levels and productivity growth rates.

    Release date: 2008-02-25

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