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  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2011001
    Description:

    This Economic Insight looks at commonly-used measures that are employed to compare the relative economic performance of Canada and the United States. It is based on research undertaken at Statistics Canada aimed at improving information about how and why Canadian and U.S. economic progress differs.

    Release date: 2011-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011075
    Description:

    Labour productivity growth in the Canadian business sector slowed substantially after 2000. Most of the slowdown occurred in the manufacturing sector. This paper examines how this slowdown was associated with the restructuring that occurred in manufacturing as a result of the increase in excess capacity, the dramatic increase in the Canada-U.S. exchange rate and a slowdown in export growth.

    Release date: 2011-12-12

  • Table: 13-018-X
    Description:

    These data tables provide a provincial and territorial perspective on Canadian economic developments. They include statistical tables organized in a manner similar to those in the Income and Expenditure Accounts, for each of the provinces and territories. The focus is on gross domestic product, final domestic demand, personal disposable income and government sector accounts. The tables include data beginning in 1981.

    Release date: 2011-11-08

  • Table: Summary table
    Release date: 2011-11-08

  • Articles and reports: 16-002-X201100311549
    Description:

    Canada is endowed with substantial reserves of natural resources, from energy and minerals in the ground to accessible stands of timber in forests. This article provides a brief overview of recent trends in Canada's natural resource wealth, which reflects the current dollar value of selected natural resource reserves.

    Release date: 2011-09-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011072
    Description:

    The nature of the competitive process that causes a reallocation of market shares within an industry contributes to aggregate productivity growth. This paper extends our understanding of industry differences in the competitive process by examining firm turnover and productivity growth in various services industries in Canada and situating them relative to retailing and manufacturing, two industries which have been the focus of these studies in the past. Seven industries in the services sector, namely wholesale trade, transportation and warehousing, air transportation, truck transportation, broadcasting and telecommunications, business services and financial services, are examined.

    Release date: 2011-08-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011071
    Description:

    This paper asks how the performance of self-employed unincorporated businesses affects the size of the gap in labour productivity between Canada and the United States. To do so, the business sector in each country is divided into unincorporated and corporate businesses, and estimates of labour productivity are generated for each sector.

    The productivity performance of the unincorporated sector relative to the corporate sector is much lower in Canada than in the United States. As a result, when the unincorporated sector is removed from the estimates for the business sector in each country and only the corporate sectors for the two countries are compared, the gap in the level of productivity between Canada and the United States is reduced.

    The unincorporated sector consists of both sole proprietorships and partnerships. This paper also investigates the impact of just sole proprietorships on the Canada-United States productivity gap. Sole proprietorships in the two countries more closely resemble one another than do partnerships, as U.S. partnerships are much larger than their Canadian counterparts.

    When sole proprietorships are removed from the business-sector estimates of each country (allowing a comparison of sole proprietorships to the rest of the business sector, which consists of partnerships and the corporate sector), the gap in labour productivity between Canada and the United States also declines but by only about half as much as when both sole proprietorships and partnerships are removed.

    The lower productivity of the unincorporated sector (both sole proprietorships and partnerships) accounted for almost the entire productivity gap between Canada and the United States in 1998. Since then, the productivity of the corporate sector in Canada has fallen relative to that of the corporate sector in the United States and the unincorporated sector no longer accounts for the entire gap.

    Release date: 2011-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011068
    Description:

    This paper makes use of both output and income statistics derived from the System of National Accounts to examine performance in the three North American countries. In doing so, the paper follows recommendations contained in the System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA 1993) for calculating aggregate real income statistics such as gross national income (GNI) and gross national disposable income (GNDI) rather than aggregate real gross domestic product (GDP), in order to demonstrate the utility of alternate measures for analyzing aggregate economic performance and the standard of living. To move from estimates of GDP to estimates of GNI and GNDI, adjustments are made for changes in relative prices, referred to as a "trading gain" (the combined effect of changes to the terms of trade and changes in the ratio of traded goods prices to non-traded goods prices), and for current account entries other than the trade balance.

    The paper compares real output and income measures for Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Differences between the GDP and GNDI estimates illustrate the extent to which non-production factors, such as relative price changes, can influence the economic performance of a nation, either as compared to that of other nations or in terms of a nation's ability to purchase the goods and services its citizens consume. They also illustrate the benefit of using more than one measure when comparing economic performance across countries.

    Release date: 2011-07-11

  • Articles and reports: 16-201-X201100011438
    Description:

    This analytical article "Economy and the environment", provides information on the relationship between Canada's economy and environment. The report starts with a discussion of how the economy and the environment can be linked in conceptual terms (Section 2). It then presents Canada's environment in the international context (Section 3). Sections 4, 5 and 6 highlight Canada's endowment of natural resources and underlines their role in our economy with statistics on timber, energy, minerals, land and fresh water. Section 7 focuses on the flow of materials and energy between the economy and the environment with statistics on the intensity of energy use and resulting greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, Section 8 presents a selection of statistics on what households, businesses and governments are doing to reduce their impact on the environment.

    Release date: 2011-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100311491
    Description:

    This paper provides a preview of the comprehensive (historical) revision of the Canadian System National Accounts to be released beginning in June 2012. The last revision of this scope took place in 1997. The paper highlights the changes resulting from the adoption of SNA2008 which is the revised international standard for national accounting, along with statistical revisions arising from new and improved source data and methodologies. Updates to the classification systems used in the Canadian System of National Accounts are also presented along with a list of changes planned for 2014.

    Release date: 2011-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100311492
    Description:

    This note provides a brief explanation of the impact that the transition from reporting financial statements under Canadian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (CGAAP) to the new, internationally unified financial accounting framework of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) will have on the Canadian Financial Flow Accounts and the National Balance Sheet Accounts estimates.

    Release date: 2011-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X201100611501
    Description:

    A detailed exposition of how the pattern of quarterly growth affects the average annual growth rate, including the relative importance of these quarters in determining growth These basic principles are applied to monthly and quarterly growth.

    Release date: 2011-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011070
    Description:

    Adopting the methodology used to produce estimates of gross domestic product (GDP) by size for the United States, this paper estimates GDP for small and medium-sized businesses versus large businesses for the Canadian non-agricultural business sector in 2005. In the entire non-agricultural business sector, small and medium-sized businesses with less than 500 employees account for 54.2% of GDP in Canada and for 50.7% of GDP in the United States. When two industries with heavy government ownership in Canada (health and education) are excluded, the results are 52.9% and 50.3%, respectively.

    Release date: 2011-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2011069
    Description:

    This paper reports on the Human Resource Module of the Tourism Satellite Account, 2010 developed by Statistics Canada. This study provides detailed information on employment related to tourism in Canada. Information on wages and salaries, number of jobs and hours worked by occupation are included. The data are also disaggregated by age, gender and immigration status. This study provides a resource for training and planning for tourism in Canada. This study was prepared by Diane Lake of the Research and Development Projects and Analysis Section, Income and Expenditure Accounts Division, Statistics Canada. The study was funded through a partnership agreement with the Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council.

    Release date: 2011-06-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011069
    Description:

    The paper estimates the contributions to gross domestic product (GDP) made by small, medium-sized and large businesses in the Canadian business sector for 2005. The contribution of large businesses with 500 or more employees to business-sector GDP was 45.7%. Small and medium-sized businesses, including unincorporated businesses, accounted for the other 54.3%.

    Release date: 2011-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100211470
    Description:

    Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts covering the period 2008 to 2010 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2011. The current revisions to GDP resulted from the inclusion of the most current estimates from data sources, including survey results, administrative data and public accounts.

    Release date: 2011-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100211471
    Description:

    This paper presents the background, methodological change and implementation of the revised real import and export adjustments that account for exchange rate fluctuations.

    Release date: 2011-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010065
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the authors provide a detailed social accounting matrix (SAM), which incorporates the income and financial flows into the standard input-output matrix, for the Canadian economy for 2004. Second, they use the SAM to assess the strength of the real-financial linkages by calculating and comparing real SAM multipliers and financial social accounting matrix (FSAM) multipliers. For FSAM multipliers, financial flows are endogenous, whereas for real SAM multipliers they are not. The results show that taking into account financial flows increases the impact of a final demand shock on Canadian output. Financial flows also play an important role in determining the cumulative effect of an income shock or the availability of investment funds. Between 2008 and the first half of 2009, financial institutions shifted their investments toward government bonds, short-term paper, and foreign investments. This shift together with the fact that non-financial institutions were unwilling or unable to increase their financial liabilities, led to estimated declines in all GDP multipliers between 2008 and the first half of 2009 (2009H1). The main advantage of using the extended input-output analysis is that it provides a simple framework, with very few assumptions, which allows the assessment of the strength of real-financial linkages by means of multipliers. However, the methodology is subject to the Lucas critique, that as shocks shift prices, agents cannot adjust. Such a framework is, nevertheless, appropriate in short-term impact analysis such as this study.

    Release date: 2011-05-20

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100111414
    Description:

    This article discusses the revision policy of the Canadian System of National Accounts

    Release date: 2011-05-18

  • Table: 61-232-X
    Description:

    Foreign and Domestic Investment in Canada contains capital investment data for construction, machinery and equipment, by country of control. The data were compiled from the Surveys of Capital Expenditures, which also produce the Private and Public Investment Series. Data are available at the two-digit NAICS level for Canada, United States, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland.

    Release date: 2011-05-06

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X201100411434
    Description:

    As the recovery matured during the year, some economic trends closely resembled the performance of the economy before the recession. This was most evident in commodity prices, the stock market and the exchange rate. However, the pattern of net lending and borrowing showed a fundamental shift occurred during the recession and into the recovery.

    Release date: 2011-04-14

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2011068
    Description:

    This paper provides some background information on revisions within the Income and Expenditure Accounts as well as a detailed revisions analysis of the quarterly real growth rate of GDP. The analysis of revisions strives to ascertain if preliminary estimates have been significantly different from the final estimate, thereby indicating reliability needs to be improved. The revisions analysis presented here looks at the behaviour of the revisions to quarterly real GDP growth rate for the period 1981 to 2007 with the objective of determining if a significant bias exists.

    Release date: 2011-03-31

Data (10)

Data (10) (10 of 10 results)

Analysis (21)

Analysis (21) (21 of 21 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2011001
    Description:

    This Economic Insight looks at commonly-used measures that are employed to compare the relative economic performance of Canada and the United States. It is based on research undertaken at Statistics Canada aimed at improving information about how and why Canadian and U.S. economic progress differs.

    Release date: 2011-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011075
    Description:

    Labour productivity growth in the Canadian business sector slowed substantially after 2000. Most of the slowdown occurred in the manufacturing sector. This paper examines how this slowdown was associated with the restructuring that occurred in manufacturing as a result of the increase in excess capacity, the dramatic increase in the Canada-U.S. exchange rate and a slowdown in export growth.

    Release date: 2011-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 16-002-X201100311549
    Description:

    Canada is endowed with substantial reserves of natural resources, from energy and minerals in the ground to accessible stands of timber in forests. This article provides a brief overview of recent trends in Canada's natural resource wealth, which reflects the current dollar value of selected natural resource reserves.

    Release date: 2011-09-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011072
    Description:

    The nature of the competitive process that causes a reallocation of market shares within an industry contributes to aggregate productivity growth. This paper extends our understanding of industry differences in the competitive process by examining firm turnover and productivity growth in various services industries in Canada and situating them relative to retailing and manufacturing, two industries which have been the focus of these studies in the past. Seven industries in the services sector, namely wholesale trade, transportation and warehousing, air transportation, truck transportation, broadcasting and telecommunications, business services and financial services, are examined.

    Release date: 2011-08-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011071
    Description:

    This paper asks how the performance of self-employed unincorporated businesses affects the size of the gap in labour productivity between Canada and the United States. To do so, the business sector in each country is divided into unincorporated and corporate businesses, and estimates of labour productivity are generated for each sector.

    The productivity performance of the unincorporated sector relative to the corporate sector is much lower in Canada than in the United States. As a result, when the unincorporated sector is removed from the estimates for the business sector in each country and only the corporate sectors for the two countries are compared, the gap in the level of productivity between Canada and the United States is reduced.

    The unincorporated sector consists of both sole proprietorships and partnerships. This paper also investigates the impact of just sole proprietorships on the Canada-United States productivity gap. Sole proprietorships in the two countries more closely resemble one another than do partnerships, as U.S. partnerships are much larger than their Canadian counterparts.

    When sole proprietorships are removed from the business-sector estimates of each country (allowing a comparison of sole proprietorships to the rest of the business sector, which consists of partnerships and the corporate sector), the gap in labour productivity between Canada and the United States also declines but by only about half as much as when both sole proprietorships and partnerships are removed.

    The lower productivity of the unincorporated sector (both sole proprietorships and partnerships) accounted for almost the entire productivity gap between Canada and the United States in 1998. Since then, the productivity of the corporate sector in Canada has fallen relative to that of the corporate sector in the United States and the unincorporated sector no longer accounts for the entire gap.

    Release date: 2011-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011068
    Description:

    This paper makes use of both output and income statistics derived from the System of National Accounts to examine performance in the three North American countries. In doing so, the paper follows recommendations contained in the System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA 1993) for calculating aggregate real income statistics such as gross national income (GNI) and gross national disposable income (GNDI) rather than aggregate real gross domestic product (GDP), in order to demonstrate the utility of alternate measures for analyzing aggregate economic performance and the standard of living. To move from estimates of GDP to estimates of GNI and GNDI, adjustments are made for changes in relative prices, referred to as a "trading gain" (the combined effect of changes to the terms of trade and changes in the ratio of traded goods prices to non-traded goods prices), and for current account entries other than the trade balance.

    The paper compares real output and income measures for Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Differences between the GDP and GNDI estimates illustrate the extent to which non-production factors, such as relative price changes, can influence the economic performance of a nation, either as compared to that of other nations or in terms of a nation's ability to purchase the goods and services its citizens consume. They also illustrate the benefit of using more than one measure when comparing economic performance across countries.

    Release date: 2011-07-11

  • Articles and reports: 16-201-X201100011438
    Description:

    This analytical article "Economy and the environment", provides information on the relationship between Canada's economy and environment. The report starts with a discussion of how the economy and the environment can be linked in conceptual terms (Section 2). It then presents Canada's environment in the international context (Section 3). Sections 4, 5 and 6 highlight Canada's endowment of natural resources and underlines their role in our economy with statistics on timber, energy, minerals, land and fresh water. Section 7 focuses on the flow of materials and energy between the economy and the environment with statistics on the intensity of energy use and resulting greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, Section 8 presents a selection of statistics on what households, businesses and governments are doing to reduce their impact on the environment.

    Release date: 2011-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100311491
    Description:

    This paper provides a preview of the comprehensive (historical) revision of the Canadian System National Accounts to be released beginning in June 2012. The last revision of this scope took place in 1997. The paper highlights the changes resulting from the adoption of SNA2008 which is the revised international standard for national accounting, along with statistical revisions arising from new and improved source data and methodologies. Updates to the classification systems used in the Canadian System of National Accounts are also presented along with a list of changes planned for 2014.

    Release date: 2011-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100311492
    Description:

    This note provides a brief explanation of the impact that the transition from reporting financial statements under Canadian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (CGAAP) to the new, internationally unified financial accounting framework of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) will have on the Canadian Financial Flow Accounts and the National Balance Sheet Accounts estimates.

    Release date: 2011-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X201100611501
    Description:

    A detailed exposition of how the pattern of quarterly growth affects the average annual growth rate, including the relative importance of these quarters in determining growth These basic principles are applied to monthly and quarterly growth.

    Release date: 2011-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011070
    Description:

    Adopting the methodology used to produce estimates of gross domestic product (GDP) by size for the United States, this paper estimates GDP for small and medium-sized businesses versus large businesses for the Canadian non-agricultural business sector in 2005. In the entire non-agricultural business sector, small and medium-sized businesses with less than 500 employees account for 54.2% of GDP in Canada and for 50.7% of GDP in the United States. When two industries with heavy government ownership in Canada (health and education) are excluded, the results are 52.9% and 50.3%, respectively.

    Release date: 2011-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2011069
    Description:

    This paper reports on the Human Resource Module of the Tourism Satellite Account, 2010 developed by Statistics Canada. This study provides detailed information on employment related to tourism in Canada. Information on wages and salaries, number of jobs and hours worked by occupation are included. The data are also disaggregated by age, gender and immigration status. This study provides a resource for training and planning for tourism in Canada. This study was prepared by Diane Lake of the Research and Development Projects and Analysis Section, Income and Expenditure Accounts Division, Statistics Canada. The study was funded through a partnership agreement with the Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council.

    Release date: 2011-06-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011069
    Description:

    The paper estimates the contributions to gross domestic product (GDP) made by small, medium-sized and large businesses in the Canadian business sector for 2005. The contribution of large businesses with 500 or more employees to business-sector GDP was 45.7%. Small and medium-sized businesses, including unincorporated businesses, accounted for the other 54.3%.

    Release date: 2011-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100211470
    Description:

    Revised estimates of the Income and Expenditure Accounts covering the period 2008 to 2010 have been released along with those for the first quarter of 2011. The current revisions to GDP resulted from the inclusion of the most current estimates from data sources, including survey results, administrative data and public accounts.

    Release date: 2011-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100211471
    Description:

    This paper presents the background, methodological change and implementation of the revised real import and export adjustments that account for exchange rate fluctuations.

    Release date: 2011-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010065
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the authors provide a detailed social accounting matrix (SAM), which incorporates the income and financial flows into the standard input-output matrix, for the Canadian economy for 2004. Second, they use the SAM to assess the strength of the real-financial linkages by calculating and comparing real SAM multipliers and financial social accounting matrix (FSAM) multipliers. For FSAM multipliers, financial flows are endogenous, whereas for real SAM multipliers they are not. The results show that taking into account financial flows increases the impact of a final demand shock on Canadian output. Financial flows also play an important role in determining the cumulative effect of an income shock or the availability of investment funds. Between 2008 and the first half of 2009, financial institutions shifted their investments toward government bonds, short-term paper, and foreign investments. This shift together with the fact that non-financial institutions were unwilling or unable to increase their financial liabilities, led to estimated declines in all GDP multipliers between 2008 and the first half of 2009 (2009H1). The main advantage of using the extended input-output analysis is that it provides a simple framework, with very few assumptions, which allows the assessment of the strength of real-financial linkages by means of multipliers. However, the methodology is subject to the Lucas critique, that as shocks shift prices, agents cannot adjust. Such a framework is, nevertheless, appropriate in short-term impact analysis such as this study.

    Release date: 2011-05-20

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201100111414
    Description:

    This article discusses the revision policy of the Canadian System of National Accounts

    Release date: 2011-05-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X201100411434
    Description:

    As the recovery matured during the year, some economic trends closely resembled the performance of the economy before the recession. This was most evident in commodity prices, the stock market and the exchange rate. However, the pattern of net lending and borrowing showed a fundamental shift occurred during the recession and into the recovery.

    Release date: 2011-04-14

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2011068
    Description:

    This paper provides some background information on revisions within the Income and Expenditure Accounts as well as a detailed revisions analysis of the quarterly real growth rate of GDP. The analysis of revisions strives to ascertain if preliminary estimates have been significantly different from the final estimate, thereby indicating reliability needs to be improved. The revisions analysis presented here looks at the behaviour of the revisions to quarterly real GDP growth rate for the period 1981 to 2007 with the objective of determining if a significant bias exists.

    Release date: 2011-03-31

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2010064
    Description:

    This paper provides the latest annual results for the U.S./Canada purchasing power parities (PPPs) and real expenditure indexes in the U.S. compared with Canada for the period 2002 to 2009. Revisions to previously published data and an update using the most recent US and Canada expenditure data from the National Accounts and in-depth price comparisons for 2005 are incorporated. The paper provides a primer on purchasing power parities and related measures and why they are important in international comparisons of economic performance. It also describes a new projection methodology for total economy measures that are now based on Gross Domestic Income and shows the impact of this change on the data.

    Release date: 2011-01-28

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X201100111401
    Description:

    The 2008-2009 recession was less severe for both output and jobs than the two previous recessions. While the disruption of global financial markets did lead to a record drop in exports and severe cuts in business investment, household demand did not recede as much as in previous downturns and led the recovery. Canada is the only G7 nation to have returned to its pre-recession level, led by private domestic demand.

    Release date: 2011-01-13

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