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All (79) (25 of 79 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X200700410311
    Description:

    The transition to adulthood is often viewed as a period where young people move by stages into adult roles: completing their schooling, leaving their parents' home, acquiring permanent work, finding a partner or spouse and becoming a parent. In recent years, social scientists have found that the transition to adulthood is taking longer to complete. Using census data to compare young adults in 1971 to those in 2001, it assesses just how lengthy the delay has become.

    Release date: 2007-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2007018
    Description:

    This study examines the distribution of literacy skills in the Canadian economy and the ways in which they are generated. In large part, the generation of literacy skills has to do with formal schooling and parental inputs into their children's education. The nature of literacy generation in the years after individuals have left formal schooling and are in the labour market is also investigated. Once the core facts about literacy in the economy have been established, the study turns to examining the impact of increased literacy on individual earnings. Both the causal impact of literacy on earnings and the joint distribution of literacy and income are explored. The authors argue that the latter provides a more complete measure of how well an individual is able to function in society.

    The study focuses mainly on data from the Canadian component of the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), composed of a sample of over 22,000 respondents. The Canadian component of the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) is also used in order to obtain a more complete picture of how literacy changes with age and across birth cohorts.

    Release date: 2007-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007058
    Description:

    This report applies various assumptions regarding future participation rates in postsecondary education to projected demographic trends to create three scenarios that estimate the potential future population of students in postsecondary institutions in Canada and the provinces. Projections are provided separately for enrolments at the college and the university levels for three age cohorts: 17 to 19 year-olds, 20 to 24 year-olds and 25 to 29 year-olds. Demographic trends and participation rates in college and in university both vary widely across provinces. To reflect these differences, the analysis is presented at both a national level and for each of the ten provinces. At the national level, the sample size is large enough to allow analysis of trends in both full- and part-time enrolment at the national level; at the provincial level, we constrain our enquiry to full-time only. Demographic data on historical and projected population trends for each of the three age cohorts was provided by Demography Division, Statistics Canada, for the 1990 to 2031 period. Historical college and university participation rates were calculated as the ratio of enrolment to population for the three age cohorts as reported by the Labour Force Survey (LFS). We capture enrolments for the academic year through averaging enrolments over the eight-month period between September and April, for the academic years from 1990/1991 to 2005/2006. Because of the coverage of the LFS, the population considered is that of the ten provinces. Projections of possible future enrolment levels are provided based on three sets of assumptions or 'what if' scenarios: Scenario 1: Maintaining the status quo What if college and university participation rates remain at the average level over the 2003/2004 to 2005/2006 period? Scenario 2: Growth in line with historical trends What if national postsecondary participation rates were to maintain historical trends observed over the 1990/1991 to 2005/2006 period until 2016/2017, remaining constant thereafter? Scenario 3: Closing the gender gap What if, in future, male participation rates in postsecondary education matched the higher rates observed for females over the 2002/2003 to 2005/2006 period?

    Release date: 2007-11-21

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007059
    Description:

    The analysis for this report is based on data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS). The survey was designed by Human Resources and Social Development Canada and Statistics Canada. YITS is a longitudinal survey, which collects information on educational and labour market pathways of a sample of young Canadians in the 18 to 20 age group in 1999.

    Respondents were asked to provide a range of information on their education and employment experiences as well as information on their personal characteristics including, for example, their educational aspirations. They were interviewed four times since the implementation of the survey, in 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006. In this report, the data used are from the first four cycles and describe where they stood in their school to work pathway in December 2005 when they were 24 to 26 years of age.

    Previous research on postsecondary participation of Canadian youth found that no one factor can fully account for who goes on to postsecondary education. There was, instead, a wide variety of characteristics which distinguish youth who undertake postsecondary education from those who do not. This report will examine demographic and family characteristics, high school engagement, academic performance, and first year postsecondary experience of those who attended postsecondary education and those who did not or dropped out.

    Chapter 2 looks at the relationship between various demographic, family and school characteristics and youth participation in postsecondary education, with respect to the type of institution attended and the level of program taken in university (bachelors versus graduate studies).

    Chapter 3 analyses the relationship between the same characteristics and youth participation status in postsecondary education, that is graduates, continuers or drop outs.

    Chapter 4, the concluding chapter, synthesizes the findings.

    Release date: 2007-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007054
    Description:

    This study 'maps' the various pathways that young people have taken from high school through to regular participation in the labour market. It links this transition to important background characteristics, in addition to highlighting the pathways that lead to successful transitions to employment.

    The study uses data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) for 2004. YITS is a longitudinal survey that first collected data from two age groups of youth in the first cycle of the survey in 2000. One group began its participation at age 15 (Cohort A) and the other at ages 18 to 20 (Cohort B); the focus of the analysis is on the second group. Both cohorts were asked to provide a range of information on their education and employment experiences as well as information on their personal characteristics including, for example, their educational aspirations.

    The first follow-up interview with the YITS participants took place in early 2002 when youth were interviewed for a second time. At that time, Cohort B participants were between the ages of 20 to 22. The second follow-up interview took place in 2004, for the reference period December 2003, when Cohort B participants were ages 22 to 24.

    This report builds on the basic pathway descriptions of non-students in December 2003 by first determining the major factors that help predict who follows which path. Following this, we turn our attention to studying how these pathways relate to 'success' in the labour market. Specifically, the report is organized as follows:

    Chapter 2 analyzes how background factors predict which school-to-labour market path young adults aged 22 to 24 passed through by December 2003; these background factors are for the most part static categories that do not change (for example, sex, age, ethnicity, parental education, etc.).

    Chapter 3 introduces various 'intervening' factors measured during high school (for example, grade-point average, working in high school, etc.). These factors are thought to be important for possibly mediating the effect of the prior background measures on predicting the school-to-work transitions.

    Chapter 4 shifts the focus of the analysis from looking at predictors of the school-to-work pathways to using the pathways as an indicator of labour market outcomes. In this chapter, we are able to determine whether certain paths are more or less successful for employment, as well as landing respondents 'good' jobs, defined in terms of earnings and level of job satisfaction. We are also able to determine in which occupation they worked during December 2003.

    Chapter 5, the concluding chapter, synthesizes the findings and analysis.

    Release date: 2007-11-01

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2007017
    Description:

    This study provides comparative estimates of participation in adult education and training courses and programmes, duration of studies, engagement in informal learning and sources of direct financial support, based on results of the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), the Canadian component of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills study. It also examines levels of inequality in adult learning and reasons for participating in adult education and training, including the role of labour force status and job and workplace characteristics. Finally, it presents a review of the relationship between actual skill use and participation in both organized and informal forms of adult learning. Comparisons are made between Canadian provinces and territories and three selected countries, namely Norway, Switzerland and the United States.

    Release date: 2007-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X200700210331
    Description:

    Highly qualified human resources in science and technology are vital for innovation and economic growth. Both are dependent on the stock of human capital which supplies the labour market with highly skilled workers and helps in the diffusion of advanced knowledge. This article profiles Canada's highly qualified personnel based on immigrant status and place of birth, field of study, and selected demographic and employment characteristics.

    Release date: 2007-10-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007303
    Description:

    In this study, we use new Canadian data containing detailed information on standardized test scores, school marks, parental and peer influences, and other socio-economic background characteristics of boys and girls to try to account for the large gender gap in university attendance. Among 19-year-old youth in 2003, 38.8% of girls had attended university, compared with only 25.7% of boys. However, young men and women were about equally likely to attend college. We find that differences in observable characteristics between boys and girls account for more than three quarters (76.8%) of the gap in university participation. In order of importance, the main factors are differences in school marks at age 15, standardized test scores in reading at age 15, study habits, parental expectations and the university earnings premium relative to high school. Altogether, the four measures of academic abilities used in the study "overall marks, performance on standardized reading tests, study habits and repeating grade" collectively account for 58.9% of the gender gap in university participation. These results suggest that understanding why girls outperform boys in the classroom may be a key to understanding the gender divide in university participation.

    Release date: 2007-09-20

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007050
    Description:

    This report provides trends on public school enrolments, educators and expenditures. It uses figures provided by provincial and territorial departments of education on public elementary and secondary schools.

    Release date: 2007-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007049
    Description:

    Using current major Statistics Canada data sources related to the education of Canadians, this publication presents some of what we currently know on educating health workers to begin to address some critical questions facing Canadians today: Does Canada have enough interested individuals with the right skills who want to work in health? Does it have the infrastructure, capacity, and effective education system to ensure an adequate supply of health workers to meet future health care demands? As such, the report is primarily comprised of information tables accompanied by some brief analysis intended to highlight broad findings that may guide the reader in interpreting the tables.

    Release date: 2007-08-13

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007052
    Description:

    This bulletin contains salary information for the year 2006-07. Information is provided for institutions that have determined salaries for the period and have responded to the survey by June 2007. This information is collected annually under the 'University and College Academic Staff Survey' and has a reference date of October 1. Therefore, the data reflect employment in universities as of that date. Each university must authorize Statistics Canada to release their information. However, information for institutions that have less than 100 full-time staff (and who responded to the survey by June 2007) are not included in this bulletin but are now available by special request to Client Services (telephone: 1 800 307-3382 or 613-951-7608; fax: 613-951-4441; TTY: 1 800 363-7629; email: educationstats@statcan.ca), Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics, Statistics Canada, 150 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Ottawa ON, K1A 0T6.

    Release date: 2007-08-02

  • Table: 92-597-X
    Description:

    Census Tract (CT) Profiles provide 2006 Census data for census tracts. Census tracts are small, relatively stable geographic areas that are located in census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and larger census agglomerations (CAs) and usually have a population of 2,500 to 8,000.

    These profiles contain free information for all census tracts in Canada. Search capabilities such as by postal code and a mapping application assist the user in finding a census tract of interest. Additional information on data quality indexes and definitions is available.

    Release date: 2007-07-17

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2007016
    Description:

    Recent findings from the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) and the 2003 Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL) suggest that improvements in literacy skill flowing from the initial education system are being eroded by significant levels of literacy skill loss in adulthood. This study uses data from IALS and ALL to explore how Canada's stock of literacy skill evolved over the nine year period from 1994 to 2003. It analyzes net skill change for various demographic groups for Canada and the provinces and explores the individual characteristics that influence whether a particular group has gained or lost skills on average over the nine-year reference period.

    Release date: 2007-07-06

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20070029994
    Description:

    Streaming or tracking of high school students through different sequences of core courses (e.g., english, science, mathematics) has been practised in Canada and other developed countries for decades. The practice has also been vigorously debated. This article examines the extent to which streaming of tenth-grade students was occurring in four provinces - Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia - in 2000, using data obtained from Cycle 1 of Statistics Canada's Youth in Transition (YITS) Survey. It also focuses on the impact of social background as measured by parents' education levels and family income on the course-selection choices made by 15 year-old high school students. In four provinces -- Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia -- the distinctions between the levels of courses taken by 15 year-old students (open PSE options vs college-only options) were clearest. As a result, the analysis reported here is based on data from those four provinces which accounted for about two-thirds of Canadian 15 year-olds in 2000.

    Release date: 2007-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20070029989
    Description:

    Between the ages of 15 and 19, youth have three decisions to make: first, whether or not to graduate from high school; second, whether or not to go to postsecondary education; and finally, the type of institution in which to pursue that postsecondary education. Using data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), this article examines these pathways to see if there are any differences between the provinces in the choices made by boys versus girls and by youth from lower-income backgrounds versus those from higher-income backgrounds. The target population for the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), cohort A includes all 15 year-old students enrolled in an educational institution in Canada on December 31, 1999. Students were initially interviewed in April or May of 2000 and re-interviewed in February to May of 2002 and again, between February and June of 2004. Youth were questioned about their school and work activities for the two-year period directly prior to the interview date. Thus, the high school dropout and postsecondary participation rates presented here refer to the youth's schooling status as of December 2003, the last date for which data were collected. These results are representative of Canadian youth who were 15 years old as of December 1999.

    Release date: 2007-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007301
    Description:

    Young women have gained considerable ground on young men in terms of educational attainment in the 1990s. The objective of this study is to assess the role of rapidly rising educational attainment among young women in raising their relative position in the labour market. The findings suggest that the educational trends have not contributed towards a decline in the full-time employment gap. Nevertheless, they have contributed towards a decline in the gender earnings gap, especially in the 1990s. However, university-educated women have lost ground to university-educated men. This is likely due to the fact that men and women continued to choose traditional disciplines during the 1990s, but only male-dominated disciplines saw improvements in average earnings.

    Release date: 2007-06-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007299
    Description:

    Whether or not relative rates of assortative marriage have been rising in the affluent democracies has been subject to considerable dispute. First, we show how the conflicting empirical findings that have fueled the debate are frequently an artifact of alternative methodological strategies for answering the question. Then, drawing on comparable census data for Canada and the United States, we examine trends in educational homogamy and intermarriage with log-linear models for all marriages among young adults under 35 over three decades. Our results show that educational homogamy, the tendency of like to marry like, has unambiguously risen in both countries since the 1970s, with no sign of the U-turn in levels of intermarriage reported in some earlier comparative studies. Rising levels of marital homogamy were the result of declining intermarriage at both ends of the educational distribution. However, while trends for men and women were quite similar in Canada, they differed significantly in the United States. The overall rise in marital homogamy In the United States was partially offset by an increased tendency of women with some college education to marry 'down' the educational hierarchy. In Canada, the only sign of abatement in the trend toward greater educational homogamy was a slight increase in intermarriage among university-educated men and women during the 1990s.

    Release date: 2007-05-18

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20070019630
    Description:

    Activities in a child's home environment, such as daily reading, high positive parent child interaction, participation in organized sports, as well as lessons in physical activities and the arts are associated with a child's readiness to learn in school at age 5. According to a recent study, children in lower-income households were less likely to have exposure to these activities -- however, those who did were more ready to learn than those who did not. The analysis draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to describe the readiness to learn at school of Canadian children who were 5 years old in 2002-2003.

    Release date: 2007-05-01

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2007002
    Description:

    PhDs are an important and vital asset in Canada's labour force because not only do they represent the highest educational attainment level in a knowledge-based economy, but they are also highly skilled industrial researchers and innovators, teachers and professors, along with being scientists and engineers. The study examines what industries are employing scientists and engineers and in what occupations, along with other labour market characteristics such as income and unemployment, age, gender and geographic location. The report also examines the differences between Canadian born and non-Canadian born scientists and engineers.

    Release date: 2007-04-16

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20050019476
    Description:

    The paper will show how, using data published by Statistics Canada and available from member libraries of the CREPUQ, a linkage approach using postal codes makes it possible to link the data from the outcomes file to a set of contextual variables. These variables could then contribute to producing, on an exploratory basis, a better index to explain the varied outcomes of students from schools. In terms of the impact, the proposed index could show more effectively the limitations of ranking students and schools when this information is not given sufficient weight.

    Release date: 2007-03-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007292
    Description:

    This paper models earnings of male and female Bachelor's graduates in Canada five years after graduation. Using a university fixed-effect approach, the research finds evidence of significant (fixed) variations in earnings among graduates from different universities. Within universities, changes over time in various characteristics are correlated with changes in graduates' earnings. Increases in undergraduate enrollment are associated with declines in subsequent earnings for graduates, suggesting crowding out. For men, but not women, increases in the professor - student ratio are associated with meaningful gains in students' subsequent earnings. Models that do not condition on a student's major show increased effects of changes in a university's characteristics, with estimated effects rising up to almost two-fold. For women in particular, changes in several university characteristics are strongly associated with changes in women's choice of major. Changes in university characteristics are not strongly related to the probability of employment five years after graduation.

    Release date: 2007-02-26

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20060059588
    Description:

    Today, disability is viewed more often as a social construct than a medical one. Educational reforms have changed the way in which children with disabilities are integrated into the school system. With data from the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, this article looks at the prevalence of children with disabilities, whether they attend regular classes and the kind of conditions for which they need special services. It examines the issues about access to educational services needed : which services are most needed and used, and what barriers may get in the way of obtaining such services.

    Release date: 2007-02-26

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20060059589
    Description:

    In an increasingly knowledge-based economy, the key to equity in economic opportunity lies in equity in access to a university education. Attending university is a costly undertaking. One aspect of the costs is distance, for the many who do not live within commuting distance of a university. Using census data, a new study looks at the impact the creation of seven new universities : in British Columbia, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia : in the last 25 years has had on university attendance of local youth. The impact is positive, but not shared equally among all youth.

    Release date: 2007-02-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007295
    Description:

    In this study, I use new Canadian data containing detailed information on academic abilities, parental influences, financial constraints, and other socio-economic background characteristics of youth to try to account for the large gap in university attendance across the income distribution. I find that 96% of the total gap in university attendance between youth from the top and bottom income quartiles can be accounted for by differences in observable characteristics. Differences in long-term factors such as standardized test scores in reading obtained at age 15, school marks reported at age 15, parental influences, and high-school quality account for 84% of the gap. In contrast, only 12% of the gap is related to financial constraints. Similar results hold across different income quartiles and when I use standardized test scores in mathematics and science. However, reading scores account for a larger proportion of the gap than other test scores.

    Release date: 2007-02-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007294
    Description:

    The deteriorating economic outcomes among immigrants entering during the 1980s and 1990s have prompted much public concern and policy debate. In 1993, immigrant selection procedures were further modified to increase immigrants' educational attainment and the share of immigrants in the "skilled" economic class. By 2000, dramatic increases in the educational attainment of entering immigrants and the share in the skilled class were observed. In the face of these and other changes, this research focuses on three issues: (1) whether entering immigrants economic outcomes improved after 2000 (the last date for which we have such information from the census), (2) low-income dynamics among successive cohorts of entering immigrants, including changes in the entry and exit probabilities, and the extent of "chronic" low income among successive cohorts, and, (3) whether rising educational attainment and increasing share in the "skilled" class resulted in improvements in economic outcomes as measured by poverty entry, exit and chronic low income.

    Release date: 2007-01-30

Data (54)

Data (54) (25 of 54 results)

Analysis (23)

Analysis (23) (23 of 23 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X200700410311
    Description:

    The transition to adulthood is often viewed as a period where young people move by stages into adult roles: completing their schooling, leaving their parents' home, acquiring permanent work, finding a partner or spouse and becoming a parent. In recent years, social scientists have found that the transition to adulthood is taking longer to complete. Using census data to compare young adults in 1971 to those in 2001, it assesses just how lengthy the delay has become.

    Release date: 2007-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2007018
    Description:

    This study examines the distribution of literacy skills in the Canadian economy and the ways in which they are generated. In large part, the generation of literacy skills has to do with formal schooling and parental inputs into their children's education. The nature of literacy generation in the years after individuals have left formal schooling and are in the labour market is also investigated. Once the core facts about literacy in the economy have been established, the study turns to examining the impact of increased literacy on individual earnings. Both the causal impact of literacy on earnings and the joint distribution of literacy and income are explored. The authors argue that the latter provides a more complete measure of how well an individual is able to function in society.

    The study focuses mainly on data from the Canadian component of the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), composed of a sample of over 22,000 respondents. The Canadian component of the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) is also used in order to obtain a more complete picture of how literacy changes with age and across birth cohorts.

    Release date: 2007-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007058
    Description:

    This report applies various assumptions regarding future participation rates in postsecondary education to projected demographic trends to create three scenarios that estimate the potential future population of students in postsecondary institutions in Canada and the provinces. Projections are provided separately for enrolments at the college and the university levels for three age cohorts: 17 to 19 year-olds, 20 to 24 year-olds and 25 to 29 year-olds. Demographic trends and participation rates in college and in university both vary widely across provinces. To reflect these differences, the analysis is presented at both a national level and for each of the ten provinces. At the national level, the sample size is large enough to allow analysis of trends in both full- and part-time enrolment at the national level; at the provincial level, we constrain our enquiry to full-time only. Demographic data on historical and projected population trends for each of the three age cohorts was provided by Demography Division, Statistics Canada, for the 1990 to 2031 period. Historical college and university participation rates were calculated as the ratio of enrolment to population for the three age cohorts as reported by the Labour Force Survey (LFS). We capture enrolments for the academic year through averaging enrolments over the eight-month period between September and April, for the academic years from 1990/1991 to 2005/2006. Because of the coverage of the LFS, the population considered is that of the ten provinces. Projections of possible future enrolment levels are provided based on three sets of assumptions or 'what if' scenarios: Scenario 1: Maintaining the status quo What if college and university participation rates remain at the average level over the 2003/2004 to 2005/2006 period? Scenario 2: Growth in line with historical trends What if national postsecondary participation rates were to maintain historical trends observed over the 1990/1991 to 2005/2006 period until 2016/2017, remaining constant thereafter? Scenario 3: Closing the gender gap What if, in future, male participation rates in postsecondary education matched the higher rates observed for females over the 2002/2003 to 2005/2006 period?

    Release date: 2007-11-21

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007059
    Description:

    The analysis for this report is based on data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS). The survey was designed by Human Resources and Social Development Canada and Statistics Canada. YITS is a longitudinal survey, which collects information on educational and labour market pathways of a sample of young Canadians in the 18 to 20 age group in 1999.

    Respondents were asked to provide a range of information on their education and employment experiences as well as information on their personal characteristics including, for example, their educational aspirations. They were interviewed four times since the implementation of the survey, in 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006. In this report, the data used are from the first four cycles and describe where they stood in their school to work pathway in December 2005 when they were 24 to 26 years of age.

    Previous research on postsecondary participation of Canadian youth found that no one factor can fully account for who goes on to postsecondary education. There was, instead, a wide variety of characteristics which distinguish youth who undertake postsecondary education from those who do not. This report will examine demographic and family characteristics, high school engagement, academic performance, and first year postsecondary experience of those who attended postsecondary education and those who did not or dropped out.

    Chapter 2 looks at the relationship between various demographic, family and school characteristics and youth participation in postsecondary education, with respect to the type of institution attended and the level of program taken in university (bachelors versus graduate studies).

    Chapter 3 analyses the relationship between the same characteristics and youth participation status in postsecondary education, that is graduates, continuers or drop outs.

    Chapter 4, the concluding chapter, synthesizes the findings.

    Release date: 2007-11-20

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007054
    Description:

    This study 'maps' the various pathways that young people have taken from high school through to regular participation in the labour market. It links this transition to important background characteristics, in addition to highlighting the pathways that lead to successful transitions to employment.

    The study uses data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) for 2004. YITS is a longitudinal survey that first collected data from two age groups of youth in the first cycle of the survey in 2000. One group began its participation at age 15 (Cohort A) and the other at ages 18 to 20 (Cohort B); the focus of the analysis is on the second group. Both cohorts were asked to provide a range of information on their education and employment experiences as well as information on their personal characteristics including, for example, their educational aspirations.

    The first follow-up interview with the YITS participants took place in early 2002 when youth were interviewed for a second time. At that time, Cohort B participants were between the ages of 20 to 22. The second follow-up interview took place in 2004, for the reference period December 2003, when Cohort B participants were ages 22 to 24.

    This report builds on the basic pathway descriptions of non-students in December 2003 by first determining the major factors that help predict who follows which path. Following this, we turn our attention to studying how these pathways relate to 'success' in the labour market. Specifically, the report is organized as follows:

    Chapter 2 analyzes how background factors predict which school-to-labour market path young adults aged 22 to 24 passed through by December 2003; these background factors are for the most part static categories that do not change (for example, sex, age, ethnicity, parental education, etc.).

    Chapter 3 introduces various 'intervening' factors measured during high school (for example, grade-point average, working in high school, etc.). These factors are thought to be important for possibly mediating the effect of the prior background measures on predicting the school-to-work transitions.

    Chapter 4 shifts the focus of the analysis from looking at predictors of the school-to-work pathways to using the pathways as an indicator of labour market outcomes. In this chapter, we are able to determine whether certain paths are more or less successful for employment, as well as landing respondents 'good' jobs, defined in terms of earnings and level of job satisfaction. We are also able to determine in which occupation they worked during December 2003.

    Chapter 5, the concluding chapter, synthesizes the findings and analysis.

    Release date: 2007-11-01

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2007017
    Description:

    This study provides comparative estimates of participation in adult education and training courses and programmes, duration of studies, engagement in informal learning and sources of direct financial support, based on results of the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), the Canadian component of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills study. It also examines levels of inequality in adult learning and reasons for participating in adult education and training, including the role of labour force status and job and workplace characteristics. Finally, it presents a review of the relationship between actual skill use and participation in both organized and informal forms of adult learning. Comparisons are made between Canadian provinces and territories and three selected countries, namely Norway, Switzerland and the United States.

    Release date: 2007-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X200700210331
    Description:

    Highly qualified human resources in science and technology are vital for innovation and economic growth. Both are dependent on the stock of human capital which supplies the labour market with highly skilled workers and helps in the diffusion of advanced knowledge. This article profiles Canada's highly qualified personnel based on immigrant status and place of birth, field of study, and selected demographic and employment characteristics.

    Release date: 2007-10-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007303
    Description:

    In this study, we use new Canadian data containing detailed information on standardized test scores, school marks, parental and peer influences, and other socio-economic background characteristics of boys and girls to try to account for the large gender gap in university attendance. Among 19-year-old youth in 2003, 38.8% of girls had attended university, compared with only 25.7% of boys. However, young men and women were about equally likely to attend college. We find that differences in observable characteristics between boys and girls account for more than three quarters (76.8%) of the gap in university participation. In order of importance, the main factors are differences in school marks at age 15, standardized test scores in reading at age 15, study habits, parental expectations and the university earnings premium relative to high school. Altogether, the four measures of academic abilities used in the study "overall marks, performance on standardized reading tests, study habits and repeating grade" collectively account for 58.9% of the gender gap in university participation. These results suggest that understanding why girls outperform boys in the classroom may be a key to understanding the gender divide in university participation.

    Release date: 2007-09-20

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007050
    Description:

    This report provides trends on public school enrolments, educators and expenditures. It uses figures provided by provincial and territorial departments of education on public elementary and secondary schools.

    Release date: 2007-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007049
    Description:

    Using current major Statistics Canada data sources related to the education of Canadians, this publication presents some of what we currently know on educating health workers to begin to address some critical questions facing Canadians today: Does Canada have enough interested individuals with the right skills who want to work in health? Does it have the infrastructure, capacity, and effective education system to ensure an adequate supply of health workers to meet future health care demands? As such, the report is primarily comprised of information tables accompanied by some brief analysis intended to highlight broad findings that may guide the reader in interpreting the tables.

    Release date: 2007-08-13

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2007052
    Description:

    This bulletin contains salary information for the year 2006-07. Information is provided for institutions that have determined salaries for the period and have responded to the survey by June 2007. This information is collected annually under the 'University and College Academic Staff Survey' and has a reference date of October 1. Therefore, the data reflect employment in universities as of that date. Each university must authorize Statistics Canada to release their information. However, information for institutions that have less than 100 full-time staff (and who responded to the survey by June 2007) are not included in this bulletin but are now available by special request to Client Services (telephone: 1 800 307-3382 or 613-951-7608; fax: 613-951-4441; TTY: 1 800 363-7629; email: educationstats@statcan.ca), Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics, Statistics Canada, 150 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Ottawa ON, K1A 0T6.

    Release date: 2007-08-02

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2007016
    Description:

    Recent findings from the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) and the 2003 Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL) suggest that improvements in literacy skill flowing from the initial education system are being eroded by significant levels of literacy skill loss in adulthood. This study uses data from IALS and ALL to explore how Canada's stock of literacy skill evolved over the nine year period from 1994 to 2003. It analyzes net skill change for various demographic groups for Canada and the provinces and explores the individual characteristics that influence whether a particular group has gained or lost skills on average over the nine-year reference period.

    Release date: 2007-07-06

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20070029994
    Description:

    Streaming or tracking of high school students through different sequences of core courses (e.g., english, science, mathematics) has been practised in Canada and other developed countries for decades. The practice has also been vigorously debated. This article examines the extent to which streaming of tenth-grade students was occurring in four provinces - Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia - in 2000, using data obtained from Cycle 1 of Statistics Canada's Youth in Transition (YITS) Survey. It also focuses on the impact of social background as measured by parents' education levels and family income on the course-selection choices made by 15 year-old high school students. In four provinces -- Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia -- the distinctions between the levels of courses taken by 15 year-old students (open PSE options vs college-only options) were clearest. As a result, the analysis reported here is based on data from those four provinces which accounted for about two-thirds of Canadian 15 year-olds in 2000.

    Release date: 2007-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20070029989
    Description:

    Between the ages of 15 and 19, youth have three decisions to make: first, whether or not to graduate from high school; second, whether or not to go to postsecondary education; and finally, the type of institution in which to pursue that postsecondary education. Using data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), this article examines these pathways to see if there are any differences between the provinces in the choices made by boys versus girls and by youth from lower-income backgrounds versus those from higher-income backgrounds. The target population for the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), cohort A includes all 15 year-old students enrolled in an educational institution in Canada on December 31, 1999. Students were initially interviewed in April or May of 2000 and re-interviewed in February to May of 2002 and again, between February and June of 2004. Youth were questioned about their school and work activities for the two-year period directly prior to the interview date. Thus, the high school dropout and postsecondary participation rates presented here refer to the youth's schooling status as of December 2003, the last date for which data were collected. These results are representative of Canadian youth who were 15 years old as of December 1999.

    Release date: 2007-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007301
    Description:

    Young women have gained considerable ground on young men in terms of educational attainment in the 1990s. The objective of this study is to assess the role of rapidly rising educational attainment among young women in raising their relative position in the labour market. The findings suggest that the educational trends have not contributed towards a decline in the full-time employment gap. Nevertheless, they have contributed towards a decline in the gender earnings gap, especially in the 1990s. However, university-educated women have lost ground to university-educated men. This is likely due to the fact that men and women continued to choose traditional disciplines during the 1990s, but only male-dominated disciplines saw improvements in average earnings.

    Release date: 2007-06-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007299
    Description:

    Whether or not relative rates of assortative marriage have been rising in the affluent democracies has been subject to considerable dispute. First, we show how the conflicting empirical findings that have fueled the debate are frequently an artifact of alternative methodological strategies for answering the question. Then, drawing on comparable census data for Canada and the United States, we examine trends in educational homogamy and intermarriage with log-linear models for all marriages among young adults under 35 over three decades. Our results show that educational homogamy, the tendency of like to marry like, has unambiguously risen in both countries since the 1970s, with no sign of the U-turn in levels of intermarriage reported in some earlier comparative studies. Rising levels of marital homogamy were the result of declining intermarriage at both ends of the educational distribution. However, while trends for men and women were quite similar in Canada, they differed significantly in the United States. The overall rise in marital homogamy In the United States was partially offset by an increased tendency of women with some college education to marry 'down' the educational hierarchy. In Canada, the only sign of abatement in the trend toward greater educational homogamy was a slight increase in intermarriage among university-educated men and women during the 1990s.

    Release date: 2007-05-18

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20070019630
    Description:

    Activities in a child's home environment, such as daily reading, high positive parent child interaction, participation in organized sports, as well as lessons in physical activities and the arts are associated with a child's readiness to learn in school at age 5. According to a recent study, children in lower-income households were less likely to have exposure to these activities -- however, those who did were more ready to learn than those who did not. The analysis draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to describe the readiness to learn at school of Canadian children who were 5 years old in 2002-2003.

    Release date: 2007-05-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007292
    Description:

    This paper models earnings of male and female Bachelor's graduates in Canada five years after graduation. Using a university fixed-effect approach, the research finds evidence of significant (fixed) variations in earnings among graduates from different universities. Within universities, changes over time in various characteristics are correlated with changes in graduates' earnings. Increases in undergraduate enrollment are associated with declines in subsequent earnings for graduates, suggesting crowding out. For men, but not women, increases in the professor - student ratio are associated with meaningful gains in students' subsequent earnings. Models that do not condition on a student's major show increased effects of changes in a university's characteristics, with estimated effects rising up to almost two-fold. For women in particular, changes in several university characteristics are strongly associated with changes in women's choice of major. Changes in university characteristics are not strongly related to the probability of employment five years after graduation.

    Release date: 2007-02-26

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20060059588
    Description:

    Today, disability is viewed more often as a social construct than a medical one. Educational reforms have changed the way in which children with disabilities are integrated into the school system. With data from the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, this article looks at the prevalence of children with disabilities, whether they attend regular classes and the kind of conditions for which they need special services. It examines the issues about access to educational services needed : which services are most needed and used, and what barriers may get in the way of obtaining such services.

    Release date: 2007-02-26

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X20060059589
    Description:

    In an increasingly knowledge-based economy, the key to equity in economic opportunity lies in equity in access to a university education. Attending university is a costly undertaking. One aspect of the costs is distance, for the many who do not live within commuting distance of a university. Using census data, a new study looks at the impact the creation of seven new universities : in British Columbia, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia : in the last 25 years has had on university attendance of local youth. The impact is positive, but not shared equally among all youth.

    Release date: 2007-02-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007295
    Description:

    In this study, I use new Canadian data containing detailed information on academic abilities, parental influences, financial constraints, and other socio-economic background characteristics of youth to try to account for the large gap in university attendance across the income distribution. I find that 96% of the total gap in university attendance between youth from the top and bottom income quartiles can be accounted for by differences in observable characteristics. Differences in long-term factors such as standardized test scores in reading obtained at age 15, school marks reported at age 15, parental influences, and high-school quality account for 84% of the gap. In contrast, only 12% of the gap is related to financial constraints. Similar results hold across different income quartiles and when I use standardized test scores in mathematics and science. However, reading scores account for a larger proportion of the gap than other test scores.

    Release date: 2007-02-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007294
    Description:

    The deteriorating economic outcomes among immigrants entering during the 1980s and 1990s have prompted much public concern and policy debate. In 1993, immigrant selection procedures were further modified to increase immigrants' educational attainment and the share of immigrants in the "skilled" economic class. By 2000, dramatic increases in the educational attainment of entering immigrants and the share in the skilled class were observed. In the face of these and other changes, this research focuses on three issues: (1) whether entering immigrants economic outcomes improved after 2000 (the last date for which we have such information from the census), (2) low-income dynamics among successive cohorts of entering immigrants, including changes in the entry and exit probabilities, and the extent of "chronic" low income among successive cohorts, and, (3) whether rising educational attainment and increasing share in the "skilled" class resulted in improvements in economic outcomes as measured by poverty entry, exit and chronic low income.

    Release date: 2007-01-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006283
    Description:

    In this study, I explore the relationship between the presence of a local university in a city and university and college participation among local youth. The evidence is drawn from Census data, along with information on the creation of new university degree-granting institutions in Canada. Students who do not have access to a local university are far less likely to go on to university than students who grew up near a university, likely due to the added cost of moving away to attend, as opposed to differences in other factors (e.g., family income, parental education, academic achievement). When distant students are faced with a local option, however, their probability of attendance substantially increases. Specifically, the creation of a local degree-granting institution is associated with a 28.1% increase in university attendance among local youth, and large increases were registered in each city affected. However, the increase in university participation came at the expense of college participation in most cities. Furthermore, not everyone benefited equally from new universities. In particular, students from lower income families saw the largest increase in university participation, which is consistent with the notion that distance poses a financial barrier. Also, local aboriginal youth only saw a slight increase in university participation when faced with a local university option.

    Release date: 2007-01-25

Reference (2)

Reference (2) (2 results)

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2007002
    Description:

    PhDs are an important and vital asset in Canada's labour force because not only do they represent the highest educational attainment level in a knowledge-based economy, but they are also highly skilled industrial researchers and innovators, teachers and professors, along with being scientists and engineers. The study examines what industries are employing scientists and engineers and in what occupations, along with other labour market characteristics such as income and unemployment, age, gender and geographic location. The report also examines the differences between Canadian born and non-Canadian born scientists and engineers.

    Release date: 2007-04-16

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20050019476
    Description:

    The paper will show how, using data published by Statistics Canada and available from member libraries of the CREPUQ, a linkage approach using postal codes makes it possible to link the data from the outcomes file to a set of contextual variables. These variables could then contribute to producing, on an exploratory basis, a better index to explain the varied outcomes of students from schools. In terms of the impact, the proposed index could show more effectively the limitations of ranking students and schools when this information is not given sufficient weight.

    Release date: 2007-03-02

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