Statistics by subject – Ethnic diversity and immigration

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All (32) (25 of 32 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050038968
    Description:

    This article uses Statistics Canada's most recent population projections for visible minority groups to draw a picture of the possible ethnocultural composition of the country when Canada celebrates its 150th anniversary in 2017. It focuses on a number of issues: How many Canadians might belong to a visible minority group in the near future? How many landed immigrants might there be? What are the predominant visible minority groups likely to be? Is diversity likely to remain concentrated in Canada's major urban centres?

    Release date: 2005-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050038966
    Description:

    Studies of the postsecondary attainment of young adults are informative, but it is also useful to examine the educational aspirations of teenagers. Such studies profile the value placed on different types of formal education by youth as well as perceived opportunities for upward occupational mobility. This article explores the educational aspirations of 15-year-old visible minority immigrant students and compares them with those of Canadian-born youth who are not part of a visible minority group. It then identifies the most important factors that explain the large ethnocultural differences in university aspirations.

    Release date: 2005-12-06

  • Technical products: 11-522-X2004001
    Description:

    Since 1984, an annual international symposium on methodological issues has been sponsored by Statistics Canada. Proceedings have been available since 1987. Symposium 2004 was the twenty first in Statistics Canada's series of international symposia on methodological issues. Each year the symposium focuses on a particular them. In 2004 the theme was: "Innovative Methods for Surveying Difficult-to-reach Populations".

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20040018734
    Description:

    The Ethnic Diversity Survey generated methodological challenges like choosing the sampling plan, developing the questionnaire, collecting the data, weighting the data and estimating the variance.

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20040018740
    Description:

    The illegal immigration is difficult to sample in Italy since exhaustive sampling frames are generally unavailable. Sampling of centers is a strategy recently developed for surveying immigrant population.

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20040018735
    Description:

    This paper describes analyses on nonresponse among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands. These analyses show that the response effect is mediated by the degree of urbanisation. A negative impact is observed among ethnic minorities.

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20040018749
    Description:

    In its attempt to measure the mental health of Cambodian refugees in the U.S., Rand Corporation introduces novel methodology for efficiently listing, screening, and identifying households to ultimately yield a random sample of eligible participants.

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005267
    Description:

    We analyze the intergenerational income mobility of Canadians born to immigrants using the 2001 Census. A detailed portrait of the Canadian population is offered as are estimates of the degree of generational mobility among the children of immigrants from 70 countries. The degree of persistence as estimated in regression to the mean models is about the same for immigrants as for the entire population, and there is more generational mobility among immigrants in Canada than in the United States. We also use quantile regressions to distinguish between the role of social capital from other constraints limiting mobility and find that these are present and associated with father's education.

    Release date: 2005-10-25

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-615-X
    Description:

    The Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), conducted jointly by Statistics Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada under the Policy Research Initiative, is a comprehensive survey designed to study the process by which new immigrants adapt to Canadian society. About 12,000 immigrants aged 15 and older who arrived in Canada from abroad between October 2000 and September 2001 were interviewed. By late 2005, when all three waves of interviews will have been completed, the survey will provide a better understanding of how the settlement process unfolds for new immigrants.

    The results of this survey will provide valuable information on how immigrants are meeting various challenges associated with integration and what resources are most helpful to their settlement in Canada. The main topics being investigated include housing, education, foreign credentials recognition, employment, income, the development and use of social networks, language skills, health, values and attitudes, and satisfaction with the settlement experience.

    Results from the first wave of the LSIC had shown that labour market integration was a particularly critical aspect of the immigrant settlement process. This paper therefore focuses on this issue. The release addresses questions such as: how long does it take newly arrived immigrants to get their first job? How many of them find employment in their intended occupation? And what obstacles do they encounter when looking for work?

    Release date: 2005-10-13

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-614-X
    Description:

    By examining newcomers' progress over time, the LSIC affords the possibility of assisting researchers and policy-makers to go beyond existing descriptions of immigrant integration outcomes to an examination of how newcomers achieve these outcomes - in essence, the "how" and "why" dimensions. While the full value of the survey will be reached when the three waves of data collection are completed, this first wave of data provides important benchmark information.

    The focus of this publication is on the early settlement experiences of immigrants, from pre-migration to the first six months after arrival. First an overview of the LSIC population is provided, looking at both pre-migration characteristics as well as those at arrival. This is followed by a comprehensive look at the first six months of the settlement process, looking at things such as health, housing and mobility; education and training taken since arrival; employment, income and the general perception of the immigrant's settlement experience. Finally, a more in-depth look at problems and difficulties newcomers experience in four key areas of integration is presented: accessing health services, finding housing, accessing education and training and finding employment. Challenges to integration are examined in terms of what help was needed, received and from whom, or needed and not received.

    Release date: 2005-09-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050028455
    Description:

    Numbering 917,000 in 2001, South Asians were the second largest visible minority group in Canada, just behind the Chinese at slightly over one million people. The South Asian community is one of the most diverse visible minority groups, consisting of a range of ethnic, religious and linguistic groups whose ancestries, immigration histories and personal experiences are quite varied. Using data from the 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS) and the 2001 Census of Population, this article examines the diversity of the South Asian population in Canada, traces their history in this country and looks at how their ethnic and cultural backgrounds are reflected in their everyday lives.

    Release date: 2005-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050028454
    Description:

    Using longitudinal data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey (NPHS), this article assesses the health impact of the immigration process, as individuals adjust to life in Canada, by comparing changes in immigrants' self-perceived health status, health care use, and health-related behaviours with those of the Canadian-born population. Information was collected from the same individuals over an eight-year period from 1994-1995 to 2002-2003.

    Release date: 2005-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-005-X20050018440
    Description:

    This summary provides highlights of an analysis that used eight years of longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey, 1994/95 to 2002/03. The analysis was part of an Internet publication Healthy Today, Healthy Tomorrow? Findings from the National Population Health Survey, Catalogue no. 82-618-MWE.

    The analysis found that recent immigrants from non-European countries are twice as likely as the Canadian-born to experience deterioration in their health.

    Release date: 2005-08-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005254
    Description:

    This study examines changes in the geographic concentration of Canada's major immigrant groups, with respect to their initial destination and subsequent redistribution during the past two decades. At the same time, it examines the role of pre-existing immigrant communities in determining immigrants' locational choices. The results show a large rise in concentration levels at the initial destination among major immigrant groups throughout the 1970s and 1980s; this subsided in the following decade. Redistribution after immigration was generally small-scale, and had inconsistent effects on changing concentration at initial destinations among immigrant groups and across arrival cohorts within an immigrant group. Even for immigrant and refugee groups whose initial settlement was strongly influenced by government intervention, redistribution only partly altered general geographic distribution. Finally, this study finds that the size of the pre-existing immigrant community is not a significant factor in immigrant locational choice when location fixed effects are accounted for.

    Release date: 2005-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005255
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: The Initial Destinations and Redistribution of Canada's Major Immigrant Groups: Changes over the Past Two Decades. In 1981, about 58% of immigrants who had come to Canada in the previous 10 years lived in Toronto, Vancouver, and Montréal; by 2001, this had increased to 74% (Statistics Canada 2003), triggering debate on the merits of a more 'balanced geographic distribution of immigrants' (Citizenship and Immigration Canada-CIC 2001). Policies aimed at directing immigrants away from major gateway cities in many western countries have focused on the choice of initial destination, and little effort has been made to affect subsequent mobility. But such policies will work only if other, non-gateway regions, can keep immigrants or maintain balanced in- and out-migration. To this end, this study examines how Canada's major immigrant groups arriving over the past two decades have altered their geographic concentration through time, comparing immigrants arriving in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, in the concentration levels of their initial destinations, and in their subsequent geographic dispersal. It pays attention to the dispersal pattern of groups whose initial settlements were influenced by government policies and questions the role of pre-existing immigrant communities in geographic distribution.

    Release date: 2005-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20040048041
    Description:

    This article describes the prevalence of self-reported overweight and obesity in different ethnic groups and examines the influence of time since immigration on the prevalence of overweight within and between ethnic groups. The results are based on data from the 2000/01 and 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Release date: 2005-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005262
    Description:

    This paper reviews the increase in the earnings gap between immigrants and Canadian-born over the past two decades, and the current explanations of this labour market deterioration among recent immigrants in particular. The paper also outlines the rising gap in low-income rates between immigrants and non-immigrants. Like previous research, the paper concludes that the earnings gap at entry has increased for immigrants entering Canada during the 1990s, as compared to those of the 1970s. Furthermore, the gap in the low-income rate has been increasing. The rate of low income has been rising among immigrants (particularly recent immigrants) during the 1990s, while falling among the Canadian-born. The rise in low-income rates among immigrants was widespread, affecting immigrants in all education groups, age groups, and from most source countries (except the "traditional source regions"). Immigrants with university degrees were not excluded from this rise in low-income rates, in spite of the discussion regarding the rising demand for more highly-skilled workers in Canada. As a result of both rising low-income rates among immigrants, and their increasing share of the population, in Canada's major cities virtually all of the increase in the city low-income rates during the 1990s was concentrated among the immigrant population.

    Also reviewed here are the explanations discussed in the literature for the deterioration of immigrant economic outcomes. Three major sources are identified as being empirically important, all of which follow from declining labour market outcomes. First, the change in the characteristics of immigrants (e.g., from different source regions, rising levels of educational attainment, etc.) appears to have accounted for about one-third of the increase in the earnings gap at entry (i.e., the gap between immigrants and comparable Canadian-born). Second, decreasing economic returns to foreign work experience appears to play an equally large role. Third, there has been a general decline in the labour market outcomes of all new entrants to the Canadian labour market, and when new immigrants arrive in Canada they, regardless of age, appear to face a similar phenomenon. Other possible explanations are also discussed. Importantly, one potential factor that does not appear to be behind the decline is a reduction in the economic return to education. Immigrants, on average, do have a somewhat lower return to education obtained prior to immigrating (although not to education obtained once in Canada), but this has not changed much over the past two decades.

    Release date: 2005-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005252
    Description:

    Numerous studies equate immigrant homeownership with assimilation into the residential mainstream, though only rarely is this claim verified by studying the ethnic character of neighbourhoods where immigrants actually buy homes. In this paper, the 1996 and 2001 Census of Canada master files and bivariate probit models with sample selection corrections (a.k.a. Heckman probit models) are used to assess the neighbourhood-level ethnic determinants of homeownership in Toronto, Canada. By determining whether low levels of ethnic concentration accompany a home purchase, it can be assessed whether immigrants exit their enclaves in search of a home in the 'promised land', as traditional assimilation theory suggests, or if some now seek homes in the 'ethnic communities' that Logan, Alba and Zhang (2002) recently introduced in the American Sociological Review. Assessing the role of concentration under equilibrium conditions, evidence emerges that same-group concentration affects the propensity of several group members to buy homes.

    Release date: 2005-05-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005253
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled Are immigrants buying to get in? The role of ethnic clustering on the homeownership propensities of 12 Toronto immigrant groups, 1996-2001. Spatial assimilation theory is a model of status attainment that links the spatial and social positions of minority group members (Massey and Denton 1985). If applied to immigrants, the model would suggest that immigrants would first cluster in typically poor neighbourhoods with high concentrations of co-ethnics, but that ethnic concentration should be temporary and of declining utility. Once an immigrant family's socioeconomic status improves, they should merge into the residential 'mainstream' by moving to a better, and typically less segregated, neighbourhood (Massey and Denton 1985). Further, although housing tenure is not an explicit dimension of spatial assimilation theory, given the well-established relationship between income, human capital and homeownership (Balakrishnan and Wu 1992; Laryea 1999), and the importance of homeownership as an indicator of well-being and residential assimilation (Myers and Lee 1998), part of an immigrant family's socioeconomic ascent should be a shift from tenant to homeowner (Alba and Logan 1992). Spatial assimilation theory would further predict that same-group concentration should be inversely related to homeownership since ethnic enclaves are typically conceived of as poor rental zones (Fong and Gulia 1999; Myles and Hou 2004).

    Recent research (Alba and Nee 2003; Logan, Alba, and Zhang 2002), however, finds that some immigrant groups may be choosing against spatial assimilation to form more durable 'ethnic communities' (Logan, Alba, and Zhang 2002), giving rise to a positive and growing 'enclave effect' on homeownership (Borjas 2002). In this paper, an enclave effect is evaluated as an explanation for the 1996-2001 homeownership patterns of Toronto's 12 largest recent immigrant groups. Using longitudinally-consistent and temporally-antecedent 1996 neighbourhood ethnic composition data this paper aims to determine if immigrants buy homes outside their enclaves or prefer an owner-occupied neighbourhood of same-group members. To this end, the paper discusses the potential benefits of living and buying in an enclave; it develops a predictive framework for determining which groups might benefit from owner-occupied ethnic communities; it also examines the issue of 'neighbourhood disequilibrium' and evaluates the enclave effect on homeownership using a sample of recent (1996-2001) movers, their 1996 neighbourhood ethnic characteristics, and bivariate probit models with sample selection corrections (Van de Ven and Van Praag 1981).

    Release date: 2005-05-26

  • Public use microdata: 89M0019X
    Description:

    The Ethnic Diversity Survey (2002) provides information on how people's backgrounds affect their participation in Canada's social, economic and cultural life of Canada. As well, it indicates how Canadians of different ethnic backgrounds interpret and report their ethnicity. Topics covered in the survey include ethnic ancestry, ethnic identity, place of birth, visible minority status, religion, religious participation, knowledge of languages, family background, family interaction, social networks, civic participation, interaction with society, attitudes, satisfaction with life, trust and socio-economic activities.

    The Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS) was a post-censal survey which included about 42,500 people aged 15 and over who were interviewed by telephone in the 10 provinces between April and August 2002. The target population did not include persons living in collective dwellings, persons living on Indian reserves, persons declaring an Aboriginal origin or identity in the 2001 Census, or persons living in Northern and remote areas.

    The accompanying documentation is intended to facilitate use of the 2002 EDS public use microdata file. It contains contains information on survey methodology, variables and estimation procedures as well as the rules governing the dissemination of estimates.

    Release date: 2005-05-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005247
    Description:

    This study undertakes three comparisons using Cycle 2 (1996-97) data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) in Canada. First, the study compares the health outcomes of children of the Native-born Canadian (NBC) group with those of the immigrant group in general. Differences are also investigated within the three immigrant sub-groups: the American immigrant group, the European immigrant group and Asian immigrant group. Second, this study tests the hypothesis that the children of any immigrant group in Canada would have a higher level of health outcomes for the same level of resources. Third, the study examines the association of time of residency of immigrants in different groups and the health outcomes of their children. An immigrant family is defined as one in which at least one of the parents is foreign-born. Health outcomes are measured by the PMK's (person most knowledgeable about the child) assessment of the child's health. Ordered logit models are employed for estimation. The children selected for analysis are 4 to 13 years of age.

    The NLSCY data suggest that the health outcomes of children in the immigrant families in general are similar to that in the NBC group. However, the health outcomes of the Asian immigrant group are slightly lower and those of the American immigrant group are markedly better. Except for the American immigrant group, there is evidence that the children of any other immigrant group would have lower health status for the same level of resources. Decomposition results indicate that a higher level of observable and unobservable resources is responsible for markedly better outcomes for the American immigrant group; while a lower level of observable and unobservable resources is responsible for the lower level of outcomes for the Asian immigrant group. On the other hand, health outcomes are higher for the European immigrant group than for the NBC group when variation in resources is considered, while lower when variation in productivity coefficients is examined. Finally, there is statistical evidence that the health status of children of immigrant families would improve with the time of residency of immigrant parents, if it were lower initially. The findings of the study indicate that present health outcomes of children in the immigrant families, on average, are not a great concern. However, those of the Asian immigrant group may be a concern.

    Release date: 2005-04-15

  • Journals and periodicals: 91-541-X
    Description:

    This report presents the main results of population projections according to some ethnocultural variables (visible minority group, immigrant status, religion, mother tongue) for Canada, provinces and selected metropolitan areas. Based on the January 1st 2001 estimation of the permanent resident population, results of five projection scenarios from a micro-simulation model that take into account differentials in behaviors and intergenerational transfers are presented for the years 2001 to 2017.

    Release date: 2005-03-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20040047778
    Description:

    Chinese in Canada now comprise the country's largest visible minority group, surpassing one million for the first time, following successive waves of immigration. They are a diverse group, reporting a variety of countries of birth, mother tongues, home languages and religious affiliation. But they are linked by a common ethnicity. And while earlier Chinese immigrants came as manual labourers, recent arrivals tend to come with education and human capital. This article examines the history of the Chinese in Canada, its diverse population and its contribution to the nation's rich multicultural mosaic.

    Release date: 2005-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20040047774
    Description:

    The people of Canada have a long tradition of identifying themselves according to the land or nation of their sometimes remote ancestors. Over the past few decades, however, a rapidly growing number have begun describing themselves in the census as Canadians. The proportion of the population claiming some element of Canadian ethno-cultural ancestry climbed from fewer than 1% in 1986 to nearly 40% in 2001, making it by far the most common ethno-cultural ancestry reported on the census.

    Using data from the censuses of population, this article explores the potential reasons behind these changes. It begins by discussing our understanding of ethnicity and how it has changed over time. The article then reviews some of the meanings attached specifically to Canadian ethnicity and follows by examining the characteristics of individuals who, according to the 2001 Census, reported having a Canadian ethnic background.

    Release date: 2005-03-08

Data (4)

Data (4) (4 of 4 results)

Analysis (22)

Analysis (22) (22 of 22 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050038968
    Description:

    This article uses Statistics Canada's most recent population projections for visible minority groups to draw a picture of the possible ethnocultural composition of the country when Canada celebrates its 150th anniversary in 2017. It focuses on a number of issues: How many Canadians might belong to a visible minority group in the near future? How many landed immigrants might there be? What are the predominant visible minority groups likely to be? Is diversity likely to remain concentrated in Canada's major urban centres?

    Release date: 2005-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050038966
    Description:

    Studies of the postsecondary attainment of young adults are informative, but it is also useful to examine the educational aspirations of teenagers. Such studies profile the value placed on different types of formal education by youth as well as perceived opportunities for upward occupational mobility. This article explores the educational aspirations of 15-year-old visible minority immigrant students and compares them with those of Canadian-born youth who are not part of a visible minority group. It then identifies the most important factors that explain the large ethnocultural differences in university aspirations.

    Release date: 2005-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005267
    Description:

    We analyze the intergenerational income mobility of Canadians born to immigrants using the 2001 Census. A detailed portrait of the Canadian population is offered as are estimates of the degree of generational mobility among the children of immigrants from 70 countries. The degree of persistence as estimated in regression to the mean models is about the same for immigrants as for the entire population, and there is more generational mobility among immigrants in Canada than in the United States. We also use quantile regressions to distinguish between the role of social capital from other constraints limiting mobility and find that these are present and associated with father's education.

    Release date: 2005-10-25

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-615-X
    Description:

    The Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), conducted jointly by Statistics Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada under the Policy Research Initiative, is a comprehensive survey designed to study the process by which new immigrants adapt to Canadian society. About 12,000 immigrants aged 15 and older who arrived in Canada from abroad between October 2000 and September 2001 were interviewed. By late 2005, when all three waves of interviews will have been completed, the survey will provide a better understanding of how the settlement process unfolds for new immigrants.

    The results of this survey will provide valuable information on how immigrants are meeting various challenges associated with integration and what resources are most helpful to their settlement in Canada. The main topics being investigated include housing, education, foreign credentials recognition, employment, income, the development and use of social networks, language skills, health, values and attitudes, and satisfaction with the settlement experience.

    Results from the first wave of the LSIC had shown that labour market integration was a particularly critical aspect of the immigrant settlement process. This paper therefore focuses on this issue. The release addresses questions such as: how long does it take newly arrived immigrants to get their first job? How many of them find employment in their intended occupation? And what obstacles do they encounter when looking for work?

    Release date: 2005-10-13

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-614-X
    Description:

    By examining newcomers' progress over time, the LSIC affords the possibility of assisting researchers and policy-makers to go beyond existing descriptions of immigrant integration outcomes to an examination of how newcomers achieve these outcomes - in essence, the "how" and "why" dimensions. While the full value of the survey will be reached when the three waves of data collection are completed, this first wave of data provides important benchmark information.

    The focus of this publication is on the early settlement experiences of immigrants, from pre-migration to the first six months after arrival. First an overview of the LSIC population is provided, looking at both pre-migration characteristics as well as those at arrival. This is followed by a comprehensive look at the first six months of the settlement process, looking at things such as health, housing and mobility; education and training taken since arrival; employment, income and the general perception of the immigrant's settlement experience. Finally, a more in-depth look at problems and difficulties newcomers experience in four key areas of integration is presented: accessing health services, finding housing, accessing education and training and finding employment. Challenges to integration are examined in terms of what help was needed, received and from whom, or needed and not received.

    Release date: 2005-09-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050028455
    Description:

    Numbering 917,000 in 2001, South Asians were the second largest visible minority group in Canada, just behind the Chinese at slightly over one million people. The South Asian community is one of the most diverse visible minority groups, consisting of a range of ethnic, religious and linguistic groups whose ancestries, immigration histories and personal experiences are quite varied. Using data from the 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS) and the 2001 Census of Population, this article examines the diversity of the South Asian population in Canada, traces their history in this country and looks at how their ethnic and cultural backgrounds are reflected in their everyday lives.

    Release date: 2005-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050028454
    Description:

    Using longitudinal data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey (NPHS), this article assesses the health impact of the immigration process, as individuals adjust to life in Canada, by comparing changes in immigrants' self-perceived health status, health care use, and health-related behaviours with those of the Canadian-born population. Information was collected from the same individuals over an eight-year period from 1994-1995 to 2002-2003.

    Release date: 2005-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 82-005-X20050018440
    Description:

    This summary provides highlights of an analysis that used eight years of longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey, 1994/95 to 2002/03. The analysis was part of an Internet publication Healthy Today, Healthy Tomorrow? Findings from the National Population Health Survey, Catalogue no. 82-618-MWE.

    The analysis found that recent immigrants from non-European countries are twice as likely as the Canadian-born to experience deterioration in their health.

    Release date: 2005-08-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005254
    Description:

    This study examines changes in the geographic concentration of Canada's major immigrant groups, with respect to their initial destination and subsequent redistribution during the past two decades. At the same time, it examines the role of pre-existing immigrant communities in determining immigrants' locational choices. The results show a large rise in concentration levels at the initial destination among major immigrant groups throughout the 1970s and 1980s; this subsided in the following decade. Redistribution after immigration was generally small-scale, and had inconsistent effects on changing concentration at initial destinations among immigrant groups and across arrival cohorts within an immigrant group. Even for immigrant and refugee groups whose initial settlement was strongly influenced by government intervention, redistribution only partly altered general geographic distribution. Finally, this study finds that the size of the pre-existing immigrant community is not a significant factor in immigrant locational choice when location fixed effects are accounted for.

    Release date: 2005-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005255
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: The Initial Destinations and Redistribution of Canada's Major Immigrant Groups: Changes over the Past Two Decades. In 1981, about 58% of immigrants who had come to Canada in the previous 10 years lived in Toronto, Vancouver, and Montréal; by 2001, this had increased to 74% (Statistics Canada 2003), triggering debate on the merits of a more 'balanced geographic distribution of immigrants' (Citizenship and Immigration Canada-CIC 2001). Policies aimed at directing immigrants away from major gateway cities in many western countries have focused on the choice of initial destination, and little effort has been made to affect subsequent mobility. But such policies will work only if other, non-gateway regions, can keep immigrants or maintain balanced in- and out-migration. To this end, this study examines how Canada's major immigrant groups arriving over the past two decades have altered their geographic concentration through time, comparing immigrants arriving in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, in the concentration levels of their initial destinations, and in their subsequent geographic dispersal. It pays attention to the dispersal pattern of groups whose initial settlements were influenced by government policies and questions the role of pre-existing immigrant communities in geographic distribution.

    Release date: 2005-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X20040048041
    Description:

    This article describes the prevalence of self-reported overweight and obesity in different ethnic groups and examines the influence of time since immigration on the prevalence of overweight within and between ethnic groups. The results are based on data from the 2000/01 and 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Release date: 2005-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005262
    Description:

    This paper reviews the increase in the earnings gap between immigrants and Canadian-born over the past two decades, and the current explanations of this labour market deterioration among recent immigrants in particular. The paper also outlines the rising gap in low-income rates between immigrants and non-immigrants. Like previous research, the paper concludes that the earnings gap at entry has increased for immigrants entering Canada during the 1990s, as compared to those of the 1970s. Furthermore, the gap in the low-income rate has been increasing. The rate of low income has been rising among immigrants (particularly recent immigrants) during the 1990s, while falling among the Canadian-born. The rise in low-income rates among immigrants was widespread, affecting immigrants in all education groups, age groups, and from most source countries (except the "traditional source regions"). Immigrants with university degrees were not excluded from this rise in low-income rates, in spite of the discussion regarding the rising demand for more highly-skilled workers in Canada. As a result of both rising low-income rates among immigrants, and their increasing share of the population, in Canada's major cities virtually all of the increase in the city low-income rates during the 1990s was concentrated among the immigrant population.

    Also reviewed here are the explanations discussed in the literature for the deterioration of immigrant economic outcomes. Three major sources are identified as being empirically important, all of which follow from declining labour market outcomes. First, the change in the characteristics of immigrants (e.g., from different source regions, rising levels of educational attainment, etc.) appears to have accounted for about one-third of the increase in the earnings gap at entry (i.e., the gap between immigrants and comparable Canadian-born). Second, decreasing economic returns to foreign work experience appears to play an equally large role. Third, there has been a general decline in the labour market outcomes of all new entrants to the Canadian labour market, and when new immigrants arrive in Canada they, regardless of age, appear to face a similar phenomenon. Other possible explanations are also discussed. Importantly, one potential factor that does not appear to be behind the decline is a reduction in the economic return to education. Immigrants, on average, do have a somewhat lower return to education obtained prior to immigrating (although not to education obtained once in Canada), but this has not changed much over the past two decades.

    Release date: 2005-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005252
    Description:

    Numerous studies equate immigrant homeownership with assimilation into the residential mainstream, though only rarely is this claim verified by studying the ethnic character of neighbourhoods where immigrants actually buy homes. In this paper, the 1996 and 2001 Census of Canada master files and bivariate probit models with sample selection corrections (a.k.a. Heckman probit models) are used to assess the neighbourhood-level ethnic determinants of homeownership in Toronto, Canada. By determining whether low levels of ethnic concentration accompany a home purchase, it can be assessed whether immigrants exit their enclaves in search of a home in the 'promised land', as traditional assimilation theory suggests, or if some now seek homes in the 'ethnic communities' that Logan, Alba and Zhang (2002) recently introduced in the American Sociological Review. Assessing the role of concentration under equilibrium conditions, evidence emerges that same-group concentration affects the propensity of several group members to buy homes.

    Release date: 2005-05-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005253
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled Are immigrants buying to get in? The role of ethnic clustering on the homeownership propensities of 12 Toronto immigrant groups, 1996-2001. Spatial assimilation theory is a model of status attainment that links the spatial and social positions of minority group members (Massey and Denton 1985). If applied to immigrants, the model would suggest that immigrants would first cluster in typically poor neighbourhoods with high concentrations of co-ethnics, but that ethnic concentration should be temporary and of declining utility. Once an immigrant family's socioeconomic status improves, they should merge into the residential 'mainstream' by moving to a better, and typically less segregated, neighbourhood (Massey and Denton 1985). Further, although housing tenure is not an explicit dimension of spatial assimilation theory, given the well-established relationship between income, human capital and homeownership (Balakrishnan and Wu 1992; Laryea 1999), and the importance of homeownership as an indicator of well-being and residential assimilation (Myers and Lee 1998), part of an immigrant family's socioeconomic ascent should be a shift from tenant to homeowner (Alba and Logan 1992). Spatial assimilation theory would further predict that same-group concentration should be inversely related to homeownership since ethnic enclaves are typically conceived of as poor rental zones (Fong and Gulia 1999; Myles and Hou 2004).

    Recent research (Alba and Nee 2003; Logan, Alba, and Zhang 2002), however, finds that some immigrant groups may be choosing against spatial assimilation to form more durable 'ethnic communities' (Logan, Alba, and Zhang 2002), giving rise to a positive and growing 'enclave effect' on homeownership (Borjas 2002). In this paper, an enclave effect is evaluated as an explanation for the 1996-2001 homeownership patterns of Toronto's 12 largest recent immigrant groups. Using longitudinally-consistent and temporally-antecedent 1996 neighbourhood ethnic composition data this paper aims to determine if immigrants buy homes outside their enclaves or prefer an owner-occupied neighbourhood of same-group members. To this end, the paper discusses the potential benefits of living and buying in an enclave; it develops a predictive framework for determining which groups might benefit from owner-occupied ethnic communities; it also examines the issue of 'neighbourhood disequilibrium' and evaluates the enclave effect on homeownership using a sample of recent (1996-2001) movers, their 1996 neighbourhood ethnic characteristics, and bivariate probit models with sample selection corrections (Van de Ven and Van Praag 1981).

    Release date: 2005-05-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005247
    Description:

    This study undertakes three comparisons using Cycle 2 (1996-97) data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) in Canada. First, the study compares the health outcomes of children of the Native-born Canadian (NBC) group with those of the immigrant group in general. Differences are also investigated within the three immigrant sub-groups: the American immigrant group, the European immigrant group and Asian immigrant group. Second, this study tests the hypothesis that the children of any immigrant group in Canada would have a higher level of health outcomes for the same level of resources. Third, the study examines the association of time of residency of immigrants in different groups and the health outcomes of their children. An immigrant family is defined as one in which at least one of the parents is foreign-born. Health outcomes are measured by the PMK's (person most knowledgeable about the child) assessment of the child's health. Ordered logit models are employed for estimation. The children selected for analysis are 4 to 13 years of age.

    The NLSCY data suggest that the health outcomes of children in the immigrant families in general are similar to that in the NBC group. However, the health outcomes of the Asian immigrant group are slightly lower and those of the American immigrant group are markedly better. Except for the American immigrant group, there is evidence that the children of any other immigrant group would have lower health status for the same level of resources. Decomposition results indicate that a higher level of observable and unobservable resources is responsible for markedly better outcomes for the American immigrant group; while a lower level of observable and unobservable resources is responsible for the lower level of outcomes for the Asian immigrant group. On the other hand, health outcomes are higher for the European immigrant group than for the NBC group when variation in resources is considered, while lower when variation in productivity coefficients is examined. Finally, there is statistical evidence that the health status of children of immigrant families would improve with the time of residency of immigrant parents, if it were lower initially. The findings of the study indicate that present health outcomes of children in the immigrant families, on average, are not a great concern. However, those of the Asian immigrant group may be a concern.

    Release date: 2005-04-15

  • Journals and periodicals: 91-541-X
    Description:

    This report presents the main results of population projections according to some ethnocultural variables (visible minority group, immigrant status, religion, mother tongue) for Canada, provinces and selected metropolitan areas. Based on the January 1st 2001 estimation of the permanent resident population, results of five projection scenarios from a micro-simulation model that take into account differentials in behaviors and intergenerational transfers are presented for the years 2001 to 2017.

    Release date: 2005-03-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20040047778
    Description:

    Chinese in Canada now comprise the country's largest visible minority group, surpassing one million for the first time, following successive waves of immigration. They are a diverse group, reporting a variety of countries of birth, mother tongues, home languages and religious affiliation. But they are linked by a common ethnicity. And while earlier Chinese immigrants came as manual labourers, recent arrivals tend to come with education and human capital. This article examines the history of the Chinese in Canada, its diverse population and its contribution to the nation's rich multicultural mosaic.

    Release date: 2005-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20040047774
    Description:

    The people of Canada have a long tradition of identifying themselves according to the land or nation of their sometimes remote ancestors. Over the past few decades, however, a rapidly growing number have begun describing themselves in the census as Canadians. The proportion of the population claiming some element of Canadian ethno-cultural ancestry climbed from fewer than 1% in 1986 to nearly 40% in 2001, making it by far the most common ethno-cultural ancestry reported on the census.

    Using data from the censuses of population, this article explores the potential reasons behind these changes. It begins by discussing our understanding of ethnicity and how it has changed over time. The article then reviews some of the meanings attached specifically to Canadian ethnicity and follows by examining the characteristics of individuals who, according to the 2001 Census, reported having a Canadian ethnic background.

    Release date: 2005-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20040047775
    Description:

    Canada has a large and varied immigrant population, a diverse culture and vast distances. But whether individuals are Canadian citizens by birth or by naturalization, they are granted the same rights and responsibilities. Canadian citizenship may thus be viewed as something that creates a shared sense of belonging or an indication of allegiance to Canada. For the foreign-born, acquiring citizenship may be symbolic of the final stage of the migration process, their inclusion into the electoral process and a declaration of their commitment to Canada, their adopted homeland.

    This study explores the characteristics associated with becoming a Canadian citizen among immigrants who have resided in Canada for various periods of time.

    Release date: 2005-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005241
    Description:

    This paper examines the effect of ethnic neighbourhoods on wage growth as well as other labour market outcomes of immigrant men in Canada using the 1981, 1986, 1991 and 1996 Censuses. While the primary measure of affiliation is country of birth, ethnicity, language and visible minority status are also examined to determine the robustness of the findings. Consistent with U.S. findings, ethnic neighbourhoods based on country of birth are found to have a negative impact on the ten-year wage growth of immigrants. Further, the model for wage growth is found to be robust to different lengths of time and different base years as well as the specification of language and ethnicity as the affiliation grouping. Using country of birth as the affiliation index, exposure is also found to have a negative impact on the growth of total and weekly earnings as well as the initial wages of entry cohorts. While little evidence is found on the effects of ethnic neighbourhoods on changes in employment, a negative effect of exposure is found on entry employment rates of the most recent landing cohorts. Although the overall effect of ethnic neighbourhoods on wage growth is negative, ethnic neighbourhoods are found to have a divergent effect on different landing cohorts, having a positive impact on the wage growth of the more recent cohorts and a negative impact on earlier cohorts.

    Release date: 2005-02-25

  • Articles and reports: 82-618-M2005002
    Description:

    This article compares the changes in immigrants' health status over the last decade with that of the Canadian-born population. Based on longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey, the article also examines risk factors such as daily cigarette smoking, level of physical activity during leisure time and weight gain, to assess health changes while taking into account some socio-economic factors. This article is part of an Internet publication that provides links to tables, other research articles and information about the National Population Health Survey.

    Release date: 2005-02-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005238
    Description:

    In the past, working-age immigrant families in Canada's large urban centres had higher homeownership rates than the Canadian-born. Over the past twenty years however, this advantage has reversed, due jointly to a drop in immigrant rates and a rise in the popularity of homeownership among the Canadian-born. This paper assesses the efficacy of standard consumer choice models, which include indicators for age, income, education, family type, plus several immigrant characteristics, to explain these changes. The main findings are that the standard model almost completely explains the immigrant homeownership advantage in 1981, as well as the rise over time among the Canadian-born, but even after accounting for the well-known decline in immigrant economic fortunes, only about one-third of the 1981-2001 immigrant change in homeownership rates is explained. The implications of this inability are discussed and several suggestions for further research are made.

    Release date: 2005-02-03

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