Statistics by subject – Ethnic diversity and immigration

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Data (47) (25 of 47 results)

Analysis (18)

Analysis (18) (18 of 18 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008319
    Description:

    The past 25 years has seen a more or less continuous deterioration in the economic outcomes for immigrants entering Canada. However, economic outcomes for second-generation Canadians (children of immigrants) are more positive, and in spite of the economic difficulties, after four years in Canada most immigrants entering in 2000 remained positive regarding their immigration decision, citing the freedom, safety, rights, security and prospects for the future as the aspects they appreciate most in Canada. This paper reviews what we know about the economic deterioration, and the possible reasons behind it, in particular based on the research conducted at Statistics Canada. It also outlines the data development undertaken by Statistics Canada and its policy department partners to support increased research of this topic. From 2002 to 2008, Statistics Canada released 64 research articles on the above topics, and others related to immigration. The research suggests that through the 1980s and 1990s three factors were associated with the deterioration in economic outcomes: (1) the changing mix of source regions and related issues such as language and school quality, (2) declining returns to foreign experience, and (3) the deterioration in economic outcomes for all new labour market entrants, of which immigrants are a special case. After 2000, the reasons appear to be different, and are associated more with the dramatic increase in the number of engineers and information technology (IT) workers entering Canada, and the IT economic downturn. Data also suggest that, by and large, Canadians continue to see immigration as an important part of the development of Canada and that they continue to support it. The paper reviews Statistics Canada research that indicates that economic outcomes for most second-generation Canadians remain very positive. Finally, there is a discussion of the interaction between immigration and social cohesion in Canada, and possible reasons as to why we have not seen the discontent with immigration policy in Canada that has been observed in some European countries.

    Release date: 2008-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 85-002-X200801010730
    Description:

    This Juristat presents a socio-demographic profile of police officers and individuals working in private security occupations. Using the Census of Population and Housing from 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006 as the primary data sources, employment figures for those working in private security and public policing occupations are provided. Other characteristics of these occupational groups such as gender, age, education, visible minority and Aboriginal status as well as income are also included. The traditional and emerging roles of public police and private security personnel, as well as the systems of governance under which each operates are also discussed.

    Release date: 2008-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008318
    Description:

    The recent economic boom in the Canadian province of Alberta provides an ideal "natural experiment" to examine immigrants' responses to a strong labour demand outside major metropolitan centres. The key finding of our study, which is based on a unique dataset that combines administrative and immigrant records, is that not only did immigrants respond to the recent economic boom in Alberta, but they responded generally more strongly than non-immigrants. We find, however, a great deal of heterogeneity in the magnitude of the response across different regions and for different categories of immigrants.

    Release date: 2008-12-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X200800210689
    Description:

    Using data from the 2007 General Social Survey, this article investigates new national level data on caregiving. It is well established that family and friends provide care to ailing seniors. Focusing on caregivers aged 45 and over, the article examines whether family and friend care differs by the type of health problem the senior has (be it physical or mental), or whether the care was provided to a senior living in a private household or care facility. We also look at who provides care to seniors, which tasks are provided and how often, how caregivers cope, and where they turn in order to seek support. Included is a profile of the seniors 65 years and over with a long-term health problem who were receiving care from these caregivers.

    Release date: 2008-10-21

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2008069
    Description:

    "Doctorate Education in Canada: Findings from the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2005/2006" is the third paper in a series of reports written by the Learning Policy Directorate of Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC) and the Centre for Education Statistics of Statistics Canada. Each report presents an overview of doctoral education covering annual data from the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) from each of the three years of the survey's existence (2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006).

    The Survey of Earned Doctorates is a key source of information regarding the training of doctoral graduates in Canada. It provides information on the pathways of these highly qualified graduates through the education system and sheds light into the expectations of graduates as they transition into employment and postdoctoral education.

    In this 2005/2006 report, special attention has been given to the foreign born among the doctoral graduates. Foreign-born graduates represent more than one in every five graduates in the 2005/2006 academic year, and over half of all doctoral graduates living in Canada in 2006. Canada's immigration policy, with its emphasis on educational attainment, ensures that the foreign born will continue to account for a large proportion of Canada's doctorate degree holders. Furthermore, attracting foreign-born talent to Canada will be important if Canada is to increase the number of doctoral degree holders, since growth in the graduates from Canadian institutions has been minimal. One of the key challenges will be to retain graduates, both foreign-born and Canadian-born, in Canada upon the completion of their degree.

    Also unique to this third report, is the ability to discuss trends over the three years of survey data.

    Release date: 2008-10-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008316
    Description:

    We analyse the intergenerational education mobility of Canadian men and women born to immigrants. A detailed portrait of Canadians is offered, as are estimates of the degree of intergenerational mobility among the children of immigrants. Persistence in the years of schooling across the generations is rather weak between immigrants and their Canadian-born children, and one third as strong as for the general population. Parental earnings are not correlated with years of schooling for second-generation children and, if anything, are negatively correlated. Finally, we find that the intergenerational transmission of education has not changed across the birth cohorts of the post-war period.

    Release date: 2008-10-02

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-630-X
    Description:

    Matter of Fact is an analytic series highlighting what the General Social Survey (GSS) has contributed to understanding Canadian society over the last 20 years.

    The 20 years of GSS data is an opportunity to look back over our years of data and ask: What have we learned about Canadian society over those 20 years?

    This series will include short, focused, single-theme analysis documents. Over the course of the series analysis will include topics on: How satisfied are Canadians with their life in general? What is the relationship between education, work and retirement? What motivates people to retire or to continue working? How do people prepare for retirement? How is the Internet changing the way Canadians live? How are Canadians using their time? What do Canadian families look like? How have they changed in recent years? How are Canadians engaged with their families, neighbours, communities and coworkers? Which Canadians are caring for others? What is the impact of care-giving on people's work, families, leisure time and health? What are the victimization rates for Canadians, and who is most at risk of victimization? How have housing trends changed over the past 20 years? And how have religious practices changed over the past 20 years?

    Release date: 2008-09-25

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200810713213
    Description:

    During their initial years in Canada, a significant minority of new immigrants send money to family members in their country of origin. The incidence of remitting among immigrants from different countries ranges from less than 10% to over 60%, and the annual amounts from about $500 to almost $3,000. While financial and family characteristics are consistently significant with the remittance activities of immigrants from all world regions, factors such as sex and education are significant only for immigrants from some regions but not others.

    Release date: 2008-09-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008308
    Description:

    Using the 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey, this article examines the group differences by national origin in university educational attainment among the children of immigrants in Canada. We found that children of immigrant parents in most source region groups achieve higher university completion rates than children of Canadian-born parents, partly due to higher education levels of their parents. Children of Chinese and Indian immigrants particularly attain higher academic achievements than children of Canadian-born parents. Parental education was also important in explaining the relatively low university completion rates among the second-generation Portuguese.

    Release date: 2008-09-22

  • Articles and reports: 89-630-X200800110672
    Description:

    Although overall, Canadians feel fairly safe, there may be groups in the population who feel less safe for reasons such as where they live, fear of discrimination or other factors. One possible measure of how well immigrants are adapting to Canadian society is how safe they feel in their new country. In particular, are they more likely to feel safe after having lived in Canada for some time or less safe than those who have arrived recently? The Canadian General Social Survey (GSS) data help us to answer these questions with data from three time periods for recent immigrants who arrived in Canada in the 5-year period prior to the respective surveys and more established immigrants who have been in the country for longer periods.

    All percentages (%) have been adjusted as of September 17, 2008.

    Release date: 2008-08-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008312
    Description:

    Remittances "the money immigrants send to family members in their country of origin" are now centre stage in development and immigrant research. Yet, in spite of this interest, research on the characteristics of remittance senders in Canada remains quite limited, in large part because of the absence of household survey data. More broadly, studies of remittance senders in Canada and elsewhere often focus on immigrants from only one or two source countries and, consequently, do not provide a broad cross-national perspective on the issue. This study addresses these gaps by using the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada to document the incidence of remitting and the amounts remitted by immigrants from a wide range of countries. Using a common set of concepts and methods, we find that the incidence of remitting by the 2000 to 2001 landing cohort ranges from less than 10% to 60% across immigrants from different countries, while the average annual amounts remitted range from about $500 to almost $3,000. Turning to the factors associated with remitting, the financial and family characteristics are consistently significant among immigrants from all world regions. In contrast, other factors, such as gender and education, are associated with remitting among immigrants from some regions but not from others.

    Release date: 2008-07-23

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2008020
    Description:

    Considerable research effort has been devoted to understanding earnings differences between immigrant and Canadian-born workers. Previous studies have established that immigrants typically earn less than Canadian-born workers with the same amount of education and work experience. The low earnings of immigrants are often attributed to the specificity of human capital to the country where it originates - in other words, education or work experience in the country of origin cannot be directly transferred to the host country, resulting in well qualified immigrants holding low paying jobs. Another possibility is that employers in the host country discriminate against immigrants. This paper uses data from the Canadian component of the International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), which includes both standard demographic and labour market information for the Canadian born and immigrants and results from tests of literacy, numeracy and problem-solving skills, to investigate these issues. Interpreting the test scores as direct measurements of cognitive skills, the authors provide a closer examination of explanations for low immigrant earnings than has previously been possible. In addition, the data include more precise information on where education was obtained and age of migration than is available in most previous studies, further enabling scrutiny of immigrant-Canadian born earnings differentials.

    Release date: 2008-07-21

  • Articles and reports: 71-606-X2008004
    Description:

    This series of analytical reports provides an overview of the Canadian labour market experiences of immigrants to Canada, based on data from the Labour Force Survey. These reports examine the labour force characteristics of immigrants, by reporting on employment and unemployment at the Canada level, for the provinces and large metropolitan areas. They also provide more detailed analysis by region of birth, as well as in-depth analysis of other specific aspects of the immigrant labour market.

    This is the fourth report in the series. The first two reports analyzed the 2006 labour market experiences of immigrants (a general overview and one specific to country of birth). The third report updated many of these characteristics using 2007 Labour Force Survey data now available. In this fourth report, the focus is on the 2007 labour market experiences of immigrants with postsecondary education, with an analysis by country where the highest level of education was obtained.

    Release date: 2008-07-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008310
    Description:

    Participation in ethnic economies has been regarded as an alternative avenue of economic adaptation for immigrants and minorities in major immigrant-receiving countries. This study examines one important dimension of ethnic economies: co-ethnic concentration at the workplace. Using a large national representative sample from Statistics Canada's 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey, this study addresses four questions: (1) What is the level of co-ethnic concentration at the workplace for Canada's minority groups? (2) How do workers who share the same ethnicity with most of their co-workers differ from other workers in sociodemographic characteristics? (3) Is a higher level of co-ethnic concentration at the workplace associated with lower earnings? (4) Is a higher level of co-ethnic concentration at the workplace associated with higher levels of life satisfaction?

    The results show that only a small proportion of immigrants and the Canadian born (persons born to immigrant parents) work in ethnically homogeneous settings. In Canada's eight largest metropolitan areas, about 10% of non-British/French immigrants share the same ethnic origin with the majority of their co-workers. The level is as high as 20% among Chinese immigrants and 18% among Portuguese immigrants. Among Canadian-born minority groups, the level of co-ethnic workplace concentration is about half the level for immigrants. Immigrant workers in ethnically concentrated settings have much lower educational levels and a lower proficiency in English/French. Immigrant men who work mostly with co-ethnics earn, on average, about 33% less than workers with few or no co-ethnic co-workers. About two thirds of this gap is attributable to differences in demographic and job characteristics. Meanwhile, immigrant workers in ethnically homogenous settings are less likely to report low levels of life satisfaction than other immigrant workers. Among the Canadian born, co-ethnic concentration is not consistently associated with earnings and life satisfaction.

    Release date: 2008-07-14

  • Articles and reports: 71-606-X2008003
    Description:

    This series of analytical reports provides an overview of the Canadian labour market experiences of immigrants to Canada, based on data from the Labour Force Survey. These reports examine the labour force characteristics of immigrants, by reporting on employment and unemployment at the Canada level, for the provinces and large metropolitan areas. They also provide more detailed analysis by region of birth, as well as in-depth analysis of other specific aspects of the immigrant labour market.

    The first two reports analyzed the 2006 labour market experiences of immigrants. This third report updates many of these characteristics for 2007, including analysis by province, sex, educational attainment and selected age groups, using 2007 Labour Force Survey data now available.

    Release date: 2008-05-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008309
    Description:

    The deterioration of immigrants' entry earnings in Canada in the past three decades has been well documented. This study provides further insights into the changing fortunes of immigrants by focusing on their earnings inequality and earnings instability. The analysis is based on a flexible econometric model that decomposes earnings inequality into current and long-term components. In addition to constructing earnings inequality and earnings instability profiles for different arrival cohorts, we also examine the underlying causes of earnings inequality, including the impact of foreign education, birthplace and the ability to speak English or French.

    Release date: 2008-04-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200810113201
    Description:

    Where immigrants choose to settle appears to have an impact on their economic integration. It is much faster outside the large urban centres. In the larger urban centres, immigrants face a large initial income disadvantage and subsequent increases are not enough for them to achieve parity with other Canadians. Better economic integration of immigrants outside the larger urban centres is found even after taking into consideration differences in education, ability in an official language, admission class and country of origin.

    Release date: 2008-03-18

  • Articles and reports: 85F0033M2008015
    Description:

    Using data from the 2001 Census of Population and self-reported data from the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS) on victimization, this profile examines certain socio-demographic and economic characteristics of visible minorities in Canada followed by an analysis of the rates and characteristics of violent crimes involving visible minority victims. It also provides information on visible minorities perceptions of safety, discrimination and of the criminal justice system.

    Release date: 2008-02-13

Reference (6)

Reference (6) (6 of 6 results)

  • Index and guides: 97-562-G2006003
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the following demographic variables: Visible minority population and Population group.

    Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2006 Census. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts, data quality and historical comparability. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2008-07-29

  • Index and guides: 97-562-G2006025
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the following demographic variable: Ethnic origin. Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2006 Census. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts, data quality and historical comparability. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2008-07-29

  • Index and guides: 97-557-G2006003
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the following demographic variables: Place of birth, Generation status, Citizenship and Immigration.

    Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2006 Census. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts, data quality and historical comparability. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2008-07-29

  • Index and guides: 97-562-P2006003
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the following demographic variables: Visible minority population and Population group.

    Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2006 Census. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2008-04-02

  • Index and guides: 97-562-P2006025
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the following demographic variable: Ethnic origin.

    Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2006 Census. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2008-04-02

  • Index and guides: 97-557-P2006003
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the following demographic variables: Place of birth, Generation status, Citizenship and Immigration.

    Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2006 Census. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2008-01-09

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