Statistics by subject – Ethnic diversity and immigration

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All (22) (22 of 22 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201100211592
    Description:

    Recent immigrants are having more difficulty adjusting to the Canadian economy than did their predecessors. It is taking newcomers longer to achieve employment and income levels similar to those of the Canadian-born. Using the General Social Survey conducted in 2008, this article examines whether personal networks, along with more typically-used measures of human capital, might explain differences in employment and income levels between immigrants and other Canadians. Are more limited personal networks associated with lower employment rates and incomes among Canada's more recent immigrants?

    Release date: 2011-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100411588
    Description:

    This article presents analysis using the 1991 to 2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study to explore associations between mortality and birthplace and period of immigration.

    Release date: 2011-11-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011336
    Description:

    This paper examines the education outcomes (including the chances of being a high school drop-out) of a cohort of immigrants who arrived in Canada as children using the 2006 Census. The research documents the degree to which high school graduation for immigrant children may change discretely after a particular age at arrival in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100411559
    Description:

    With data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada, this analysis examines the relationship between self-reported official language proficiency and transitions to poor self-reported health during the first four years in the country.

    Release date: 2011-10-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011338
    Description:

    This paper examines the labour market benefits associated with becoming a citizen of the host country, in this case Canada or the United States. Recent international research indicates that there is an economic return to acquiring citizenship. In addition, the paper examines the rising gap in the citizenship rate between Canada and the United States and examines the differences in individual and region characteristics of immigrants as a possibility for explaining changes in the citizenship rate gap.

    Release date: 2011-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 82-622-X2011008
    Description:

    The 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study permits analysis of the healthy immigrant effect-the dominant hypothesis in immigrant health research-by world region of birth and for different areas of Canada. This hypothesis suggests that immigrants arrive with better health than the Canadian-born population, but that this health advantage tends to disappear over time. The results of this study provide overall support for this trend. However, similar to earlier research, the analysis of age-standardized mortality rates by world region of origin, period of immigration and residence reveals underlying differences that may not be evident when only the overall results are examined.

    Release date: 2011-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2011094
    Description:

    Unlike the waves of immigrants who arrived in the 1950s and 1960s, those arriving in Canada since the 1970s have possessed relatively high educational levels, making an enormous contribution to the pool of individuals in Canada with postsecondary qualifications. Upon their arrival however, many immigrants initially face difficulties finding employment related to their field of study as well as finding jobs that pay relatively high wages.

    Using data from the 2006 Census of Population, the report presents a profile of internationally-educated paid workers and focus on the different characteristics and determinants more closely associated with an easier integration in the Canadian labour market: How likely are they to be working in their field of study or in an equivalent occupation? What is their likelihood of having employment earnings at or above the median level of earnings associated with the occupation corresponding best to their field of study?

    Different aspects are taken into account when examining these labour market outcomes. These include the time elapsed since landing, region of education, type of credential, as well as diverse socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age group, marital status, presence of children, province, territory and area of residence, language ability, and visible minority status. Results for internationally-educated immigrant paid workers are compared to their counterparts with a postsecondary credential earned in Canada and to the Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education.

    Release date: 2011-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2011093
    Description:

    This report uses data from the 2006 Census of Population to examine the extent to which the location completion of highest postsecondary diploma/degree completion affects the relative labour market success of immigrants to in Canada. Using descriptive and multivariate techniques, different immigrant cohorts are compared to the Canadian-born with respect to labour force status, earnings and the match between occupation and required schooling. In line with prior Canadian research, we find that in comparison with the Canadian-born, immigrants, especially very-recent immigrants, are more likely to be out of the labour force and less likely to be paid employees, even after accounting for a set of pertinent variables drawn from prior research. When employed, they are much more likely to be overeducated and less likely to be correctly matched or self-employed. They are also more likely to face an earnings disadvantage in Canada's labour markets. Location of study plays a role. Those who completed their postsecondary education in the United Kingdom, France, the United States or, to some extent in Germany, were much more likely to do well on Canada's labour markets in terms of employment ratios and earnings, regardless of immigration cohort, compared to those who completed their postsecondary studies in any other foreign country, especially China, the Russian Federation, Pakistan or South Korea. This finding leads us to conclude that many prospective employers who use education to assess the potential productivity of prospective labour market participants may perceive the 'outcomes' of the British, American, French and German postsecondary education systems as having components that are more easily transferable to Canada than the 'outcomes' of the Chinese, Russian Federation, Pakistani and South Korean postsecondary education systems. Our results lend support to the idea that many Canadian employers and several other stakeholders (such as regulatory bodies, assessment agencies, etc.) may not value postsecondary educational qualifications from all source regions equally.

    Release date: 2011-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100311539
    Description:

    This study investigates job-related training taken by immigrant employees in Canada. Using the Access and Support to Education and Training Survey (ASETS), it examines the incidence, subject and objectives of, and satisfaction with, job-related training of immigrant and Canadian-born employees. Differences among sub-groups of immigrants are compared, as well as other characteristics related to the incidence of training. Perceptions of barriers to training among immigrants and the Canadian-born are also explored.

    Release date: 2011-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201100211536
    Description:

    Young adults with one or two parents who are university-educated are much more likely to have a degree themselves than those whose parents are less well-educated. This article determines whether intergenerational mobility in university education is increasing. Specifically, whether people whose parents did not complete university are themselves more likely to have finished university than nearly 25 years ago is examined, as is whether the gap between them and people whose parents completed university has narrowed over time.

    Release date: 2011-08-24

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201000111528
    Description:

    The chapter provided a statistical overview of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the immigrant women in Canada. Drawing data from the censuses and administrative sources, the chapter looked at the socio-demographic trends of the female population who came to live in Canada as immigrants. The information included growth and geographic distribution of the female immigrant population, the changing make-up of immigrant women in terms of their language profile, country of birth and visible minority status, as well as the categories under which female permanent residents were admitted to Canada. The socio-economic conditions of immigrant women, such as educational attainment, field of study, occupational group, labour market participation, earnings and component of income were examined and compared with women who were born in Canada. While census was the main data source for the analysis of the population's socio-economic situations, where applicable, data from the Labour Force Survey and the Longitudinal Immigration Data Base were also included.

    Release date: 2011-07-26

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201000111527
    Description:

    The chapter provided a statistical overview of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the female visible minority population in Canada. Drawing mainly data from the 2006 Census, the chapter looked at the growth and the geographical distribution of the population, its family situation and language characteristics as well as its diversity in terms of generational status and country of birth. The chapter also presented results of the analysis on educational attainment, labour market experience and economic well-being such as earnings and components of income. The analyses compared the situations of visible minority women with those of women who did not report visible minority status and those of visible minority men. Where applicable, immigrant status was taken into account in the examination of the experience of visible minority women, i.e., comparison was made between visible minority women who were born in Canada and those who came to live as immigrants. As well, the differences among the groups that made up the visible minority population were highlighted.

    Release date: 2011-07-26

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X201100111526
    Description:

    This article on international migration will provide an overview of the current demographic situation regarding immigration to Canada analyzed within a historical and international context, where possible. In addition, the category of admission of immigrants to Canada, primarily during the 2008 and 2009 period, with reference to preliminary 2010 data, as well as place of birth, provincial or territorial destination within Canada of immigrants, and a brief section on international adoption will be discussed.

    Release date: 2011-07-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100311500
    Description:

    Self-employment is an important source of jobs for immigrants, more so than for non-immigrants. This article uses data from the Labour Force Survey to examine how self-employed immigrants differ from their non-immigrant counterparts across a number of personal and job characteristics. It also compares the reasons immigrants and non-immigrants report for entering and staying in self-employment, based on data from the Survey of Self-Employment.

    Release date: 2011-06-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100311505
    Description:

    Even though immigrants who arrived in Canada in recent decades are more educated than other Canadians, they enrol in postsecondary educational institutions in proportionally greater numbers after their arrival. This article examines a cohort of immigrants who were between 25 and 44 years of age when they arrived in Canada in 1998 and 1999. Using data from the Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD), changes in immigrants' employment income over an eight-year period are studied based on whether these individuals pursued postsecondary education in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-06-24

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201100211453
    Description:

    This paper examines the extent of transmission of immigrant languages between 1981 and 2006. It compares immigrant mothers having a non-official mother tongue and their children born in Canada using a cross-sectional approach. Then a longitudinal approach is used to compare immigrant mothers in 1981 with their second-generation daughters in 2006. The article is based on census data from 1981 and 2006.

    Release date: 2011-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011331
    Description:

    This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of the labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants in Canada and in the U.S. New research on outcomes in Canada is also presented. In the aggregate, and with no controls, the labour market outcomes of the second generation-the children of immigrants-are equal to, or better than, those of the third-and-higher generations-the children of domestic-born parents. However, the story is somewhat different after one has accounted for the superior educational levels and the residential locations of the second generation. In the U.S, the second generation's advantage in labour market outcomes disappears; in Canada, among second-generation members of a visible-minority group, the advantage turns marginally negative. Ethnic group/source region differences in outcomes loom large in both countries. The important determinants of the earnings gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations include educational attainment, which accounts for about half of the wage gap, residential location, ethnic background, the degree of "ethnic capital," and the educational and earnings mobility between immigrants and their children.

    Release date: 2011-03-03

  • Thematic map: 82-583-X201000111213
    Description:

    This map shows the distribution, by health region, of the proportion of the population belonging to a visible minority group.

    Release date: 2011-02-28

  • Thematic map: 82-583-X201000111211
    Description:

    This map shows the distribution, by health region, of the proportion of immigrant population.

    Release date: 2011-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011332
    Description:

    This paper reviews the recent research on the determinants of the educational attainment among the children of immigrants born in Canada and the United States, also known as the second generation. The focus is on the gap in educational attainment between the second and third-and-higher generations (the children of domestic-born parents), as well as the intergenerational transmission of education between immigrants and their children.

    On average, the children of immigrants have educational levels significantly above those of their counterparts in Canada with Canadian-born parents. In the U.S., educational levels are roughly the same between these two groups. In both countries, conditional on the educational attainment of the parents and location of residence, the children of immigrants attain higher levels of education than the third-and-higher generations. Parental education and residential location are major determinants of the numerically positive gap in educational attainment between the children of immigrants and the children of Canadian-born or American-born parents. However, even after accounting for these and other demographic background variables, much of the positive gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations remains in Canada.

    In Canada, parental education is less important as a determinant of educational attainment for the children in immigrant families than for those with Canadian-born parents. Less educated immigrant parents are more likely to see their children attain higher levels of education than are their Canadian-born counterparts.

    Outcomes vary significantly by ethnic/source region group in both countries. In the U.S., some second-generation ethnic/source region groups, such as those with Mexican, Puerto Rican and other Central/South American backgrounds, have relatively low levels of education (unadjusted data with no controls). However, conditional on background characteristics, these second-generation groups achieve higher levels than their third-and-higher-generation counterparts. In contrast, in Canada, children of the larger and increasingly numerically important immigrant groups (Chinese, South Asians, Africans, etc.) register superior educational attainment levels to those of the third-and-higher generations. This result is partly related to the high levels of parental education and of group-level 'ethnic capital' among these immigrant groups.

    Release date: 2011-02-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011330
    Description:

    Current knowledge about the favourable socioeconomic attainment (in education and earnings) among children of immigrants is based on the experiences of those individuals whose immigrant parents came to Canada before the 1970s. Since then, successive cohorts of adult immigrants have experienced deteriorating entry earnings. This has raised questions about whether the outcomes of their children have changed over time. This study shows that successive cohorts of childhood immigrants who arrived in Canada at age 12 or younger during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s had increasingly higher educational attainment (as measured by the share with university degrees) than their Canadian-born peers by age 25 to 34. Conditional on education and other background characteristics, male childhood immigrants who arrived in the 1960s earned less than the Canadian-born comparison group, but the two subsequent cohorts had similar earnings as the comparison group. Female childhood immigrants earned as much as the Canadian-born comparison group, except for the 1980s cohort, which earned more.

    Release date: 2011-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011329
    Description:

    This paper compares changes in wages of university-educated new immigrant workers in Canada and in the U.S. over the period from 1980 to 2005, relative to those of their domestic-born counterparts and to those of high school graduates (university wage premium). Wages of university-educated new immigrant men declined relative to those of domestic-born university graduates over the entire study period in Canada, but rose between 1990 and 2000 in the U.S. The characteristics of entering immigrants underwent more change in Canada than in the U.S. over the 1980-to-2005 period; as a result, compositional changes in the immigrant population had a larger negative effect on the outcomes of highly educated immigrants in Canada than in the U.S. However, even after accounting for such compositional shifts, most of the discrepancy in relative earnings outcomes between immigrants to Canada and immigrants to the U.S. persisted. The university premium for new immigrants was fairly similar in both countries in 1980, but by 2000 was considerably higher in the U.S. than in Canada, especially for men.

    Release date: 2011-01-14

Data (2)

Data (2) (2 results)

Analysis (20)

Analysis (20) (20 of 20 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201100211592
    Description:

    Recent immigrants are having more difficulty adjusting to the Canadian economy than did their predecessors. It is taking newcomers longer to achieve employment and income levels similar to those of the Canadian-born. Using the General Social Survey conducted in 2008, this article examines whether personal networks, along with more typically-used measures of human capital, might explain differences in employment and income levels between immigrants and other Canadians. Are more limited personal networks associated with lower employment rates and incomes among Canada's more recent immigrants?

    Release date: 2011-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100411588
    Description:

    This article presents analysis using the 1991 to 2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study to explore associations between mortality and birthplace and period of immigration.

    Release date: 2011-11-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011336
    Description:

    This paper examines the education outcomes (including the chances of being a high school drop-out) of a cohort of immigrants who arrived in Canada as children using the 2006 Census. The research documents the degree to which high school graduation for immigrant children may change discretely after a particular age at arrival in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100411559
    Description:

    With data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada, this analysis examines the relationship between self-reported official language proficiency and transitions to poor self-reported health during the first four years in the country.

    Release date: 2011-10-19

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011338
    Description:

    This paper examines the labour market benefits associated with becoming a citizen of the host country, in this case Canada or the United States. Recent international research indicates that there is an economic return to acquiring citizenship. In addition, the paper examines the rising gap in the citizenship rate between Canada and the United States and examines the differences in individual and region characteristics of immigrants as a possibility for explaining changes in the citizenship rate gap.

    Release date: 2011-10-12

  • Articles and reports: 82-622-X2011008
    Description:

    The 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study permits analysis of the healthy immigrant effect-the dominant hypothesis in immigrant health research-by world region of birth and for different areas of Canada. This hypothesis suggests that immigrants arrive with better health than the Canadian-born population, but that this health advantage tends to disappear over time. The results of this study provide overall support for this trend. However, similar to earlier research, the analysis of age-standardized mortality rates by world region of origin, period of immigration and residence reveals underlying differences that may not be evident when only the overall results are examined.

    Release date: 2011-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2011094
    Description:

    Unlike the waves of immigrants who arrived in the 1950s and 1960s, those arriving in Canada since the 1970s have possessed relatively high educational levels, making an enormous contribution to the pool of individuals in Canada with postsecondary qualifications. Upon their arrival however, many immigrants initially face difficulties finding employment related to their field of study as well as finding jobs that pay relatively high wages.

    Using data from the 2006 Census of Population, the report presents a profile of internationally-educated paid workers and focus on the different characteristics and determinants more closely associated with an easier integration in the Canadian labour market: How likely are they to be working in their field of study or in an equivalent occupation? What is their likelihood of having employment earnings at or above the median level of earnings associated with the occupation corresponding best to their field of study?

    Different aspects are taken into account when examining these labour market outcomes. These include the time elapsed since landing, region of education, type of credential, as well as diverse socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age group, marital status, presence of children, province, territory and area of residence, language ability, and visible minority status. Results for internationally-educated immigrant paid workers are compared to their counterparts with a postsecondary credential earned in Canada and to the Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education.

    Release date: 2011-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2011093
    Description:

    This report uses data from the 2006 Census of Population to examine the extent to which the location completion of highest postsecondary diploma/degree completion affects the relative labour market success of immigrants to in Canada. Using descriptive and multivariate techniques, different immigrant cohorts are compared to the Canadian-born with respect to labour force status, earnings and the match between occupation and required schooling. In line with prior Canadian research, we find that in comparison with the Canadian-born, immigrants, especially very-recent immigrants, are more likely to be out of the labour force and less likely to be paid employees, even after accounting for a set of pertinent variables drawn from prior research. When employed, they are much more likely to be overeducated and less likely to be correctly matched or self-employed. They are also more likely to face an earnings disadvantage in Canada's labour markets. Location of study plays a role. Those who completed their postsecondary education in the United Kingdom, France, the United States or, to some extent in Germany, were much more likely to do well on Canada's labour markets in terms of employment ratios and earnings, regardless of immigration cohort, compared to those who completed their postsecondary studies in any other foreign country, especially China, the Russian Federation, Pakistan or South Korea. This finding leads us to conclude that many prospective employers who use education to assess the potential productivity of prospective labour market participants may perceive the 'outcomes' of the British, American, French and German postsecondary education systems as having components that are more easily transferable to Canada than the 'outcomes' of the Chinese, Russian Federation, Pakistani and South Korean postsecondary education systems. Our results lend support to the idea that many Canadian employers and several other stakeholders (such as regulatory bodies, assessment agencies, etc.) may not value postsecondary educational qualifications from all source regions equally.

    Release date: 2011-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100311539
    Description:

    This study investigates job-related training taken by immigrant employees in Canada. Using the Access and Support to Education and Training Survey (ASETS), it examines the incidence, subject and objectives of, and satisfaction with, job-related training of immigrant and Canadian-born employees. Differences among sub-groups of immigrants are compared, as well as other characteristics related to the incidence of training. Perceptions of barriers to training among immigrants and the Canadian-born are also explored.

    Release date: 2011-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201100211536
    Description:

    Young adults with one or two parents who are university-educated are much more likely to have a degree themselves than those whose parents are less well-educated. This article determines whether intergenerational mobility in university education is increasing. Specifically, whether people whose parents did not complete university are themselves more likely to have finished university than nearly 25 years ago is examined, as is whether the gap between them and people whose parents completed university has narrowed over time.

    Release date: 2011-08-24

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201000111528
    Description:

    The chapter provided a statistical overview of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the immigrant women in Canada. Drawing data from the censuses and administrative sources, the chapter looked at the socio-demographic trends of the female population who came to live in Canada as immigrants. The information included growth and geographic distribution of the female immigrant population, the changing make-up of immigrant women in terms of their language profile, country of birth and visible minority status, as well as the categories under which female permanent residents were admitted to Canada. The socio-economic conditions of immigrant women, such as educational attainment, field of study, occupational group, labour market participation, earnings and component of income were examined and compared with women who were born in Canada. While census was the main data source for the analysis of the population's socio-economic situations, where applicable, data from the Labour Force Survey and the Longitudinal Immigration Data Base were also included.

    Release date: 2011-07-26

  • Articles and reports: 89-503-X201000111527
    Description:

    The chapter provided a statistical overview of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the female visible minority population in Canada. Drawing mainly data from the 2006 Census, the chapter looked at the growth and the geographical distribution of the population, its family situation and language characteristics as well as its diversity in terms of generational status and country of birth. The chapter also presented results of the analysis on educational attainment, labour market experience and economic well-being such as earnings and components of income. The analyses compared the situations of visible minority women with those of women who did not report visible minority status and those of visible minority men. Where applicable, immigrant status was taken into account in the examination of the experience of visible minority women, i.e., comparison was made between visible minority women who were born in Canada and those who came to live as immigrants. As well, the differences among the groups that made up the visible minority population were highlighted.

    Release date: 2011-07-26

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X201100111526
    Description:

    This article on international migration will provide an overview of the current demographic situation regarding immigration to Canada analyzed within a historical and international context, where possible. In addition, the category of admission of immigrants to Canada, primarily during the 2008 and 2009 period, with reference to preliminary 2010 data, as well as place of birth, provincial or territorial destination within Canada of immigrants, and a brief section on international adoption will be discussed.

    Release date: 2011-07-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100311500
    Description:

    Self-employment is an important source of jobs for immigrants, more so than for non-immigrants. This article uses data from the Labour Force Survey to examine how self-employed immigrants differ from their non-immigrant counterparts across a number of personal and job characteristics. It also compares the reasons immigrants and non-immigrants report for entering and staying in self-employment, based on data from the Survey of Self-Employment.

    Release date: 2011-06-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100311505
    Description:

    Even though immigrants who arrived in Canada in recent decades are more educated than other Canadians, they enrol in postsecondary educational institutions in proportionally greater numbers after their arrival. This article examines a cohort of immigrants who were between 25 and 44 years of age when they arrived in Canada in 1998 and 1999. Using data from the Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD), changes in immigrants' employment income over an eight-year period are studied based on whether these individuals pursued postsecondary education in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-06-24

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201100211453
    Description:

    This paper examines the extent of transmission of immigrant languages between 1981 and 2006. It compares immigrant mothers having a non-official mother tongue and their children born in Canada using a cross-sectional approach. Then a longitudinal approach is used to compare immigrant mothers in 1981 with their second-generation daughters in 2006. The article is based on census data from 1981 and 2006.

    Release date: 2011-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011331
    Description:

    This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of the labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants in Canada and in the U.S. New research on outcomes in Canada is also presented. In the aggregate, and with no controls, the labour market outcomes of the second generation-the children of immigrants-are equal to, or better than, those of the third-and-higher generations-the children of domestic-born parents. However, the story is somewhat different after one has accounted for the superior educational levels and the residential locations of the second generation. In the U.S, the second generation's advantage in labour market outcomes disappears; in Canada, among second-generation members of a visible-minority group, the advantage turns marginally negative. Ethnic group/source region differences in outcomes loom large in both countries. The important determinants of the earnings gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations include educational attainment, which accounts for about half of the wage gap, residential location, ethnic background, the degree of "ethnic capital," and the educational and earnings mobility between immigrants and their children.

    Release date: 2011-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011332
    Description:

    This paper reviews the recent research on the determinants of the educational attainment among the children of immigrants born in Canada and the United States, also known as the second generation. The focus is on the gap in educational attainment between the second and third-and-higher generations (the children of domestic-born parents), as well as the intergenerational transmission of education between immigrants and their children.

    On average, the children of immigrants have educational levels significantly above those of their counterparts in Canada with Canadian-born parents. In the U.S., educational levels are roughly the same between these two groups. In both countries, conditional on the educational attainment of the parents and location of residence, the children of immigrants attain higher levels of education than the third-and-higher generations. Parental education and residential location are major determinants of the numerically positive gap in educational attainment between the children of immigrants and the children of Canadian-born or American-born parents. However, even after accounting for these and other demographic background variables, much of the positive gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations remains in Canada.

    In Canada, parental education is less important as a determinant of educational attainment for the children in immigrant families than for those with Canadian-born parents. Less educated immigrant parents are more likely to see their children attain higher levels of education than are their Canadian-born counterparts.

    Outcomes vary significantly by ethnic/source region group in both countries. In the U.S., some second-generation ethnic/source region groups, such as those with Mexican, Puerto Rican and other Central/South American backgrounds, have relatively low levels of education (unadjusted data with no controls). However, conditional on background characteristics, these second-generation groups achieve higher levels than their third-and-higher-generation counterparts. In contrast, in Canada, children of the larger and increasingly numerically important immigrant groups (Chinese, South Asians, Africans, etc.) register superior educational attainment levels to those of the third-and-higher generations. This result is partly related to the high levels of parental education and of group-level 'ethnic capital' among these immigrant groups.

    Release date: 2011-02-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011330
    Description:

    Current knowledge about the favourable socioeconomic attainment (in education and earnings) among children of immigrants is based on the experiences of those individuals whose immigrant parents came to Canada before the 1970s. Since then, successive cohorts of adult immigrants have experienced deteriorating entry earnings. This has raised questions about whether the outcomes of their children have changed over time. This study shows that successive cohorts of childhood immigrants who arrived in Canada at age 12 or younger during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s had increasingly higher educational attainment (as measured by the share with university degrees) than their Canadian-born peers by age 25 to 34. Conditional on education and other background characteristics, male childhood immigrants who arrived in the 1960s earned less than the Canadian-born comparison group, but the two subsequent cohorts had similar earnings as the comparison group. Female childhood immigrants earned as much as the Canadian-born comparison group, except for the 1980s cohort, which earned more.

    Release date: 2011-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011329
    Description:

    This paper compares changes in wages of university-educated new immigrant workers in Canada and in the U.S. over the period from 1980 to 2005, relative to those of their domestic-born counterparts and to those of high school graduates (university wage premium). Wages of university-educated new immigrant men declined relative to those of domestic-born university graduates over the entire study period in Canada, but rose between 1990 and 2000 in the U.S. The characteristics of entering immigrants underwent more change in Canada than in the U.S. over the 1980-to-2005 period; as a result, compositional changes in the immigrant population had a larger negative effect on the outcomes of highly educated immigrants in Canada than in the U.S. However, even after accounting for such compositional shifts, most of the discrepancy in relative earnings outcomes between immigrants to Canada and immigrants to the U.S. persisted. The university premium for new immigrants was fairly similar in both countries in 1980, but by 2000 was considerably higher in the U.S. than in Canada, especially for men.

    Release date: 2011-01-14

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