Statistics by subject – Low income and inequality

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  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017397
    Description:

    Rates of low income among immigrants continue to be high relative to the Canadian-born population. This paper examines the rate of chronic low income among immigrants aged 25 or older in Canada during the 2000s. Chronic low income is defined as having a family income under a low income cut-off for five consecutive years or more. A regionally adjusted low-income measure is used for the analysis.

    Release date: 2017-09-29

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-09-06

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-08-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201700154854
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2014 Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA) in order to examine the relationship between low income and characteristics of people aged 25 to 64 with a disability, including disability type, severity class, age of onset of disability, family composition, and other risk factors associated with low income. It also examines the composition of the low-income population in relation to disability, and provides information on the relationship between employment and low income for this population.

    Release date: 2017-08-11

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-05-26

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-05-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017073
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series provides Canadian evidence of recent changes in intergenerational income mobility in Canada. The study uses a unique Canadian database that directly links children and parents. The analysis focuses on absolute income mobility—often seen as an indicator of economic opportunity in a society.

    Release date: 2017-05-23

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-12-16

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-06-21

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016059
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the extent to which the lifetime income of children is correlated with the lifetime income of their fathers—a topic known as intergenerational income mobility. The analysis uses data from Statistics Canada’s Intergenerational Income Database, which links together children and their parents using tax files. The data provides information that permits the comparison of the income of children to those of parents at a similar stage of the lifecycle. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016379
    Description:

    Comparative studies of intergenerational earnings and income mobility largely rank Canada as one of the most mobile countries among advanced economies, such as Denmark, Finland and Norway. The assertion that Canada is a highly mobile society is drawn from intergenerational income elasticity estimates reported in Corak and Heisz (1999). Corak and Heisz used data from the earlier version of the Intergenerational Income Database (IID), which tracked income of Canadian youth only into their early thirties. Recent theoretical literature, however, suggests that the relationship between childrens’ and parents’ lifetime income may not be accurately estimated when children’s income are not observed from their mid-careers— known as lifecycle bias. The present study addresses this concern by re-examining the extent of intergenerational earnings and income mobility in Canada using the updated version of the IID, which tracks children well into their mid-forties, when mid-career income are observed.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-05-03

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-02-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114322
    Description:

    This article explores how skill proficiencies are related to household income for Canadians aged 16 to 65 using data from the first wave of the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA), conducted in 2012. The article also demonstrates how the relationship between skill level and low income changes after controlling for other characteristics known to increase the risk of low income.

    Release date: 2016-02-24

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-06-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114194
    Description:

    This article examines changes in the wealth of Canadian families over the period 1999 to 2012, with a particular focus on changes across income quintiles. The paper also examines changes in the concentration of wealth across income quintiles, as well as the characteristics of families with low income and no wealth.

    Release date: 2015-06-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015366
    Description:

    Canada and the United States have recently experienced an increase in the regional dispersion of entering immigrants. American research suggests that a mixture of economic push factors (away from states like California) and pull factors (toward states with growth of low-wage jobs), as well as changing government policies and regulations contributed to the development of the ‘New Gateways.’ Very few studies have been conducted to determine why the regional dispersion of entering immigrants occurred in Canada. This paper assesses the relative importance of immigrant selection programs and immigrant source regions in accounting for changes in the regional dispersion of entering immigrants during the 2000s.

    Release date: 2015-03-18

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-01-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015365
    Description:

    Previous studies have found a strong association between source-country female labour force participation rates and immigrant women’s labour force participation in the host country. This relationship is interpreted as the enduring influence of source-country gender-role attitudes on immigrant women’s labour market activity. However, the assumption that source-country female labour force participation levels closely capture cultural gender-role attitudes has not been carefully examined. Furthermore, little is known about how source-country characteristics might be correlated with immigrant women’s labour market outcomes after entering the host country’s labour market.

    This paper extends the current literature by addressing three questions: What is the relationship between source-country gender-role attitudes and source-country female labour force participation? Does the relationship between the source-country female labour force participation rates and immigrant women’s labour force participation in the host country persist when source-country gender-role attitudes are taken into account? Are source-country female labour force participation rates and source-country gender-role attitudes associated with immigrant women’s wages in Canada?

    Release date: 2015-01-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014364
    Description:

    During the 1980s and 1990s, immigration was associated with the rise in low-income rates and family-income inequality in Canada. Over the 2000s, there were significant changes in the labour market and in immigrant selection. This paper focuses on the direct effect of immigration on the change in low income and family-income inequality over the 1995-to-2010 period. The paper outlines recent trends in low-income rates and income inequality for both the Canadian-born and immigrants. The low-income rate in Canada fell during the 2000s. Was this driven in part by changes in economic outcomes among immigrants? Inequality increased considerably in the late 1990s. Did immigration contribute to this increase?

    Release date: 2014-12-15

  • Journals and periodicals: 75-513-X
    Description:

    The Canadian Income Survey (CIS) is a cross-sectional survey developed to assess the economic well-being of individuals and families in Canada. It provides a portrait of the income and income sources of Canadians, with their individual and household characteristics.

    Release date: 2014-12-10

Reference (49)

Reference (49) (25 of 49 results)

  • Index and guides: 98-200-X2016012
    Description:

    This Census in Brief examines children younger than 18 living in low-income households in 2015. It sheds light on the incidence of low income for Canadian children of different ages, across different family circumstances and household living arrangements. It also provides information on child low income at different levels of geography, including provinces, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations.

    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5200
    Release date: 2017-05-26

  • Technical products: 75F0002M
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016002
    Description:

    Statistics Canada currently measures low-income using three low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs), and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). This publication provides a description of the methods used to arrive at each of these thresholds. It also explains how low-income status and various low-income statistics are determined. Tables presenting thresholds and low-income statistics are available on CANSIM.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016001
    Description:

    The study examines the evolution of income mobility for Canadian taxfilers from both the absolute and the relative perspectives. Using data from the Longitudinal Administrative Databank for the years 1982 to 2012, we estimated several income mobility statistics for overlapping panels of Canadian taxfilers over those 30 years. We also assessed the impact of mobility on long-term income inequality.

    Release date: 2016-05-03

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    This update presents revised LIMs for 2006 to 2011 resulting from the reweighting of SLID data. This reweighting makes it possible to compare results from CIS to earlier years.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015003
    Description:

    This note discusses revised income estimates from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). These revisions to the SLID estimates make it possible to compare results from the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) to earlier years. The revisions address the issue of methodology differences between SLID and CIS.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015001
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2015-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2014002
    Description:

    Statistics that depict the movements in the bottom end of the income distribution, such as the proportion of low-income persons exiting low income from one year to the next, provide important information for developing policy on poverty and income inequality. Since the mid 1990s, these statistics have been generated using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). The longitudinal component of the SLID was discontinued in 2010. This paper examines new and alternative time series on low income dynamics that can be created using the Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD).

    Release date: 2014-12-19

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2014003
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2014-12-10

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5206
    Release date: 2013-12-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 3889
    Release date: 2013-06-27

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0011X
    Description:

    This overview for the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) provides information on the purpose, content, methodology and products and services pertaining to SLID. Its HTML, menu-driven format enables users to discover all main elements of the survey in one, easy-to-use document. This publication was designed for survey respondents, users of SLID data, researchers and analysts, and individuals who would like to learn more about the survey.

    The SLID is an important source for income data for Canadian families, households and individuals. Introduced in 1993, SLID provides an added dimension to traditional surveys on labour market activity and income: the changes experienced by individuals and families through time. At the heart of the survey's objectives is the understanding of the economic well-being of Canadians. SLID also provides information on a broad selection of human capital variables, labour force experiences and demographic characteristics such as education, family relationships and household composition. Its breadth of content, combined with a relatively large sample, makes it a unique and valuable dataset.

    With this release, users now have free access to the 202 CANSIM Series tables. Tables are accessible using a PC or Mac via the web browser.

    Release date: 2013-06-27

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0026X
    Description:

    This electronic product provides information on all Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) variables, descriptions and response categories, and range of values. Starting with content themes, information is accessed in a hierarchical fashion, quickly guiding data users to variables of interest.

    Release date: 2013-06-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2013002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2013-06-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012003
    Description:

    The release of the 2010 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) data coincided with a historical revision of the 2006 to 2009 results. The survey weights were updated to take into account new population estimates based on the 2006 Census rather than the 2001 Census. This paper presents a summary of the impact of this revision on the 2006-2009 survey estimates.

    Release date: 2012-11-01

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2012-06-18

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012001
    Description:

    This study examines low income in Canada over a 34-year period from 1976 to 2009 with a multi-line, multi-index approach using data from the Survey of Consumer Finance (1976 to 1995) and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (1996 to 2009). Three different low income lines are used: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs); the Low Income Measure (LIM) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). In addition, three indexes are used to measure the incidence, depth and severity of low income in the study.

    We first examine the evolution of low-income at the national level. This is followed by an investigation of the low income experiences of children, seniors, lone-parents, unattached non-elderly individuals, recent immigrants, off-reserve aboriginals and persons with activity limitations. Next, we compare low incomes across the ten provinces as well as seven Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA). Finally, we study low income mobility in Canada during the 1993-to-2009 period.

    Release date: 2012-03-07

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2011003
    Description:

    Existing studies on Canadian poverty (or low-income) dynamics are mainly based on 1990s data from the Longitudinal Administrative Database or the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). These studies typically rely on a single low-income threshold.

    Our work extends the existing studies beyond 1999 by using SLID data from Panel 3 (1999 to 2004) and Panel 4 (2002 to 2007). We consider all three low-income thresholds established by federal departments: Statistics Canada's low-income cut-off (LICO) and low-income measure (LIM), and the market basket measure (MBM) of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.

    Release date: 2011-10-21

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2011002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2011-06-15

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2010005
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2010-06-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2010003
    Description:

    This study assesses the existing LICO, LIM, and MBM lines, together with a fixed LIM, by using several distribution sensitive indexes. We found that the low income lines tracked each other well in the long-run. But, in the short-run, they often behaved differently. The same was observed when examining different indexes under the same line. In the long-run, the low income rate, gap, and severity indexes all moved in the same direction. However in the short-run, they sometimes varied in opposite directions, or in the same direction with different magnitudes, suggesting that a single line or index can be misleading in some circumstances.

    Release date: 2010-05-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5161
    Release date: 2009-12-02

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2009002
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2009-06-03

  • Index and guides: 97-563-G2006003
    Description:

    This guide focuses on the following variables: After-tax income, Total income and its components, Income status as well as other related variables from the Income and earnings release.

    Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2006 Census. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts, data quality and historical comparability. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2008-12-04

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