Statistics by subject – Income, pensions, spending and wealth

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  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200511013151
    Description:

    The Guaranteed Income Supplement is one of the pillars of Canada's safety net for seniors. Available to those with little or no income other than Old Age Security, it plays an integral part in reducing low income among those 65 and over. However, a misunderstanding of the rules and requirements has meant that some eligible seniors are missing out.

    Release date: 2005-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510913149
    Description:

    While spending on prescription drugs still constitutes less than 1% of the overall household budget, the average expenditure rose 71% between 1992 and 2002. Lack of universal coverage for prescription drugs could adversely affect seniors on fixed incomes and people with specific medical conditions. Spending is most affected by province of residence.

    Release date: 2005-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20051128982
    Description:

    As households age and labour market attachment diminishes, income, savings and wealth generally become less. Households also become smaller as adult children leave or a spouse dies. And spending patterns change. Using 'similar' households, this study looks at changes in spending patterns for households headed by persons aged 55 or older in 1982 and 2003.

    Release date: 2005-12-20

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005007
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending, which gathers information on the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households. The survey covers private households in the 10 provinces. (The territories are surveyed every second year, starting in 1999.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables, as well as descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. One section describes the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, aggregates and medians).

    Release date: 2005-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005272
    Description:

    This paper makes use of matched tax-return data for daughters, their parents, their partners and their partners' parents to investigate the interactions between intergenerational mobility and marital matching for young couples in Canada. We show how assortative mating contributes to intergenerational household income persistence. The strength of the association between sons-in-law's income and women's parental income means that the intergenerational link between household incomes is stronger than that found for daughters' own incomes alone. This is also the case when viewed from the other side, so that daughters' and their partners' earnings are related to partners' parental income. These results indicate that assortative matching magnifies individual-level intergenerational persistence.

    In the second part of the paper we consider assortative mating by parental income. We find that daughter's parental income has an elasticity of almost 0.2 with respect to her partner's parental income. This association is of approximately the same magnitude as the intergenerational link between parents' and children's incomes. We investigate variations in the correlation between the parental incomes across several measured dimensions; cohabiting couples have lower correlations, as do those who form partnerships early, those who live in rural areas and most interestingly, those who later divorce. We interpret this last result as evidence that, on average, couples with parental incomes that are more similar enjoy a more stable match.

    Release date: 2005-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2005034
    Description:

    This article analyses Holiday retail sales in 2004 by commodity as well as by province and territory using data from the Monthly Retail Trade Survey and the Quarterly Retail Commodity Survey. Western Canadians led the country last Christmas in December 2004, with Albertans spending more per capita in retail stores than consumers in any other province. For Canada as a whole, the pace of growth in sales in stores doubled in December 2004 compared with the same month in 2003. What did shoppers buy besides toys and clothing? Jewellery, cameras and small electrical appliances were very popular gift items for the season.

    Release date: 2005-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005266
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: The Instability of Family Earnings and Family Income in Canada, 1986 to 1991 and 1996 to 2001. Despite its implications for family well-being, little attention has been paid to the analysis of earnings instability in the context of the family versus the earnings profiles of individuals. While a focus on individuals is important, the extent to which families can generate stable income flows from the labour market is a key concern for policymakers. Therefore, using data from Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD), this study documents how family earnings instability has evolved between two six-year periods: 1986-1991 and 1996-2001. We also examine how husbands' earnings instability compares to couples' earnings instability, and we compute measures of instability based on family earnings, family market income, and family income before and after tax. This allows us to examine the extent to which wives' earnings reduce the volatility of husbands' employment income; the extent to which the tax and transfer system plays a stabilization role; and the extent to which wives' earnings, taxes, and transfers reduce the differences in instability between couples in the bottom of the earnings distribution and those in the top.

    Release date: 2005-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005265
    Description:

    We investigate how family earnings instability has evolved between the late 1980s and the late 1990s and how family income instability varies across segments of the (family-level) earnings distribution. We uncover four key patterns. First, among the subset of families who were intact over the 1982-1991 and 1992-2001 periods, family earnings instability changed little between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. Second, the dispersion of families' permanent earnings became much more unequal during that period. Third, families who were in the bottom tertile of the (age-specific) earnings distribution in 1992-1995 had, during the 1996-2001 period, much more unstable market income than their counterparts in the top tertile. Fourth, among families with husbands aged under 45, the tax and transfer system has, during the 1996-2001 period, eliminated at least two-thirds (and up to all) of the differences in instability (measured in terms of proportional income gains/losses) in family market income that were observed during that period between families in the bottom tertile and those in the top tertile. This finding highlights the key stabilization role played by the tax and transfer system, a feature that has received relatively little attention during the 1990s when Employment Insurance (EI) (formerly known as Unemployment Insurance (UI)) and Social Assistance were reformed.

    Release date: 2005-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005267
    Description:

    We analyze the intergenerational income mobility of Canadians born to immigrants using the 2001 Census. A detailed portrait of the Canadian population is offered as are estimates of the degree of generational mobility among the children of immigrants from 70 countries. The degree of persistence as estimated in regression to the mean models is about the same for immigrants as for the entire population, and there is more generational mobility among immigrants in Canada than in the United States. We also use quantile regressions to distinguish between the role of social capital from other constraints limiting mobility and find that these are present and associated with father's education.

    Release date: 2005-10-25

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2005036
    Description:

    This report builds on previous research examining the role of family income in postsecondary education. The paper attempts to address three broad questions using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). First, has the postsecondary education participation pattern changed in the recent past either for college and university participation, or for youth of various backgrounds? Second, how are the socio-economic factors related to postsecondary participation? Does the impact of socio-economic factors differ for college and university participation? Thirdly, for those who did pursue postsecondary education, which factors are more important in the choice of institution - university versus college?

    Release date: 2005-10-17

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005006
    Description:

    This report describes the quality indicators produced for the 2003 Survey of Household Spending. These quality indicators, such as coefficients of variation, nonresponse rates, slippage rates and imputation rates, help users interpret the survey data.

    Release date: 2005-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050088449
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse geographic income disparities in Canada from the perspective of provinces and especially urban and rural areas. In particular, it looks at how per capita incomes vary across the urban-rural continuum - that is, how per capita incomes in large cities like Toronto and Montreal compare with medium sized cities like Halifax and Victoria, small cities like Brandon and Drummondville and with rural areas.

    Release date: 2005-08-11

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005009
    Description:

    The release of the 2003 data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) was accompanied by a historical revision which accomplished three things. First, the survey weights were updated to take into account new population projections based on the 2001 Census of Population, instead of the 1996 Census. Second, a new procedure in the weight adjustments was introduced to take into account an external source of information on the overall distribution of income in the population, namely the T4 file of employer remittances to Canada Revenue Agency. Third, the low income estimates were revised due to new low income cut-offs (LICOs). This paper describes the second of these improvements' the new weighting procedure to reflect the distribution of income in the population with greater accuracy. Part 1 explains in non-technical terms how this new procedure came about and how it works. Part 2 provides some examples of the impacts on the results for previous years.

    Release date: 2005-07-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2005012
    Description:

    This paper describes per capita employment income disparities across provinces and across the urban-rural continuum, from larger to small cities and between cities and rural areas. Its first objective is to compare the degree of income disparities across provinces to income disparities across the urban-rural continuum. Its second objective is to determine the extent to which provincial disparities can be tied to the urban-rural composition of provinces. The paper also seeks to determine whether urban-rural disparities in per capita employment income stem from poorer labour market conditions in smaller cities and rural areas compared to large cities.

    Release date: 2005-07-21

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005005
    Description:

    This discussion paper reviews the previous research into the subject of presenting historical time series and comparisons in constant dollars for the Survey of Household Spending (SHS), and its predecessor the Family Expenditure Survey (FAMEX). It examines two principal methods of converting spending data into constant dollars. The purpose of this discussion paper is to show interested parties how the two methods differ in complexity of implementation and interpretation.

    Release date: 2005-07-15

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005003
    Description:

    The Food Expenditure Survey (FES) is a periodic survey collecting data from households on food spending habits. Data are collected mainly using weekly diaries of purchases that the respondents must fill in daily during two consecutive weeks.

    The FES, like all surveys, is subject to error despite all the precautions taken at the various stages of the survey to control them. Although there is no exhaustive measure of a survey's data quality, certain quality measures taken at various stages of the survey can provide the user with relevant information to ensure sound data interpretation.

    This paper presents, for the 2001 FES, the following quality indicators the coefficients of variation, the non-response rates, the vacancy rates, the slippage rates, the imputation rates as well the impacts of imputation on the estimates.

    Release date: 2005-07-08

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005004
    Description:

    The Food Expenditure Survey (FES) is a periodic survey collecting data from households on food spending habits. Data are collected mainly using weekly diaries of purchases that the respondents must fill in daily during two consecutive weeks.

    This paper presents a detailed description of the methodology of this survey. First, we briefly described the sample design which is mainly based on the plan of the Labour Force Survey. Then we present the methods of collection, data processing, weighting, and variance estimation, as well as the suppression of unreliable data in the tables of estimates.

    Release date: 2005-07-08

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005002
    Description:

    This document will provide an overview of the differences between the old and the new weighting methodologies and the effect of the new weighting system on estimations.

    Release date: 2005-06-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510413141
    Description:

    Prolonged periods of low earnings can limit an individual's capacity to cope with income losses or unexpected expenses, and makes economic self-sufficiency difficult. The ability to escape low earnings is linked to a number of factors, including age, firm size, and changing jobs.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510313137
    Description:

    Local government revenues are increasingly perceived as inadequate to fund the program responsibilities of municipalities. Property taxes (residential and non-residential) are by far the most important revenue source, accounting for 35% in 2003 (up from 30% in 1988). But, residential property taxes are commonly viewed as regressive in relation to income. This study uses the 2001 Census of Population to quantify the regressiveness of residential property taxes in Canadian municipalities, and to examine whether regressive taxes are generally attributable to lower-income seniors living in high-priced homes.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510313138
    Description:

    The national savings rate has been oscillating around historic lows for several years, prompting concerns about the resilience of a macro-level economy increasingly reliant on debt-financed consumer spending. Many are also troubled by the balance sheets of households, where ever-expanding debt has rapidly outpaced earnings growth. The resulting record-high, debt-to-income ratios leave households more vulnerable to interruptions in income. This article examines changes in saving and spending patterns over 20 years, and differences in the characteristics and spending patterns of saving versus spending households.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005007
    Description:

    Every January, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) Labour interview is conducted using computer-assisted interviewing (CAI). CAI is paperless interviewing. This document is therefore a written approximation of the CAI interview, or the questionnaire.

    A labour interview is collected for all respondents 16 years of age and over. In January, 2004 data was collected for reference year 2003 from panels 3 and 4. Panel 3, in its fifth year, consisted of approximately 17,000 households and panel 4, in its second year, also consisted of approximately 17,000 households.

    This document outlines the structure of the January 2004 Labour interview (for the 2003 reference year) including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005005
    Description:

    The Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) conducts two annual interviews: the Labour interview in January and the Income interview in May. The data are collected using computer-assisted interviewing. Thus there are no paper questionnaires required for data collection. The questions, responses and interview flow for Labour and Income are documented in other SLID research papers. This document presents the information for the 2004 Entry Exit portion of the Labour and the Income interviews (for the 2003 reference year).

    The Entry Exit Component consists of five separate modules. The Entry module is the first set of data collected. It is information collected to update household composition and place of residence. For each person identified in Entry, the Demographics module collects (or updates) the person's name, date of birth, sex and marital status. Then the Relationships module identifies (or updates) the relationship between each respondent and every other household member. Relationship data is not collected in the May Income interview. The Exit module includes questions on who to contact for the next interview and the names, phone numbers and addresses of two contacts to be used only if future tracing of respondents is required. An overview of the Tracing module is also included in this document.

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2005029
    Description:

    The system of postsecondary education in Manitoba plays an important role in the social and economic health of the province. Colleges and universities strive to meet the lifelong learning needs of Manitobans and to ensure the availability of individuals with the right skills to support a growing and changing economy.

    This report uses data from the National Graduates Survey (Class of 2000) and asks who are the graduates of Manitoba's universities and colleges, what do they do after graduation, and how well do they integrate into the labour market? In particular, the report provides a portrait of the graduates from Manitoba's postsecondary institutions, analyses the mobility of students and graduates into and out of the province, looks at graduates' outcomes in the work force, and examines the student debt load of graduates. In addition, the report includes a special analysis of Aboriginal graduates.

    Release date: 2005-05-18

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005001
    Description:

    This paper provides some guidance to users on the use of medians and also gives some examples of situations when it can be a more appropriate measure than the average.

    Release date: 2005-05-17

Data (1)

Data (1) (1 result)

Analysis (26)

Analysis (26) (25 of 26 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200511013151
    Description:

    The Guaranteed Income Supplement is one of the pillars of Canada's safety net for seniors. Available to those with little or no income other than Old Age Security, it plays an integral part in reducing low income among those 65 and over. However, a misunderstanding of the rules and requirements has meant that some eligible seniors are missing out.

    Release date: 2005-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510913149
    Description:

    While spending on prescription drugs still constitutes less than 1% of the overall household budget, the average expenditure rose 71% between 1992 and 2002. Lack of universal coverage for prescription drugs could adversely affect seniors on fixed incomes and people with specific medical conditions. Spending is most affected by province of residence.

    Release date: 2005-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20051128982
    Description:

    As households age and labour market attachment diminishes, income, savings and wealth generally become less. Households also become smaller as adult children leave or a spouse dies. And spending patterns change. Using 'similar' households, this study looks at changes in spending patterns for households headed by persons aged 55 or older in 1982 and 2003.

    Release date: 2005-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005272
    Description:

    This paper makes use of matched tax-return data for daughters, their parents, their partners and their partners' parents to investigate the interactions between intergenerational mobility and marital matching for young couples in Canada. We show how assortative mating contributes to intergenerational household income persistence. The strength of the association between sons-in-law's income and women's parental income means that the intergenerational link between household incomes is stronger than that found for daughters' own incomes alone. This is also the case when viewed from the other side, so that daughters' and their partners' earnings are related to partners' parental income. These results indicate that assortative matching magnifies individual-level intergenerational persistence.

    In the second part of the paper we consider assortative mating by parental income. We find that daughter's parental income has an elasticity of almost 0.2 with respect to her partner's parental income. This association is of approximately the same magnitude as the intergenerational link between parents' and children's incomes. We investigate variations in the correlation between the parental incomes across several measured dimensions; cohabiting couples have lower correlations, as do those who form partnerships early, those who live in rural areas and most interestingly, those who later divorce. We interpret this last result as evidence that, on average, couples with parental incomes that are more similar enjoy a more stable match.

    Release date: 2005-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2005034
    Description:

    This article analyses Holiday retail sales in 2004 by commodity as well as by province and territory using data from the Monthly Retail Trade Survey and the Quarterly Retail Commodity Survey. Western Canadians led the country last Christmas in December 2004, with Albertans spending more per capita in retail stores than consumers in any other province. For Canada as a whole, the pace of growth in sales in stores doubled in December 2004 compared with the same month in 2003. What did shoppers buy besides toys and clothing? Jewellery, cameras and small electrical appliances were very popular gift items for the season.

    Release date: 2005-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005266
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: The Instability of Family Earnings and Family Income in Canada, 1986 to 1991 and 1996 to 2001. Despite its implications for family well-being, little attention has been paid to the analysis of earnings instability in the context of the family versus the earnings profiles of individuals. While a focus on individuals is important, the extent to which families can generate stable income flows from the labour market is a key concern for policymakers. Therefore, using data from Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD), this study documents how family earnings instability has evolved between two six-year periods: 1986-1991 and 1996-2001. We also examine how husbands' earnings instability compares to couples' earnings instability, and we compute measures of instability based on family earnings, family market income, and family income before and after tax. This allows us to examine the extent to which wives' earnings reduce the volatility of husbands' employment income; the extent to which the tax and transfer system plays a stabilization role; and the extent to which wives' earnings, taxes, and transfers reduce the differences in instability between couples in the bottom of the earnings distribution and those in the top.

    Release date: 2005-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005265
    Description:

    We investigate how family earnings instability has evolved between the late 1980s and the late 1990s and how family income instability varies across segments of the (family-level) earnings distribution. We uncover four key patterns. First, among the subset of families who were intact over the 1982-1991 and 1992-2001 periods, family earnings instability changed little between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. Second, the dispersion of families' permanent earnings became much more unequal during that period. Third, families who were in the bottom tertile of the (age-specific) earnings distribution in 1992-1995 had, during the 1996-2001 period, much more unstable market income than their counterparts in the top tertile. Fourth, among families with husbands aged under 45, the tax and transfer system has, during the 1996-2001 period, eliminated at least two-thirds (and up to all) of the differences in instability (measured in terms of proportional income gains/losses) in family market income that were observed during that period between families in the bottom tertile and those in the top tertile. This finding highlights the key stabilization role played by the tax and transfer system, a feature that has received relatively little attention during the 1990s when Employment Insurance (EI) (formerly known as Unemployment Insurance (UI)) and Social Assistance were reformed.

    Release date: 2005-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005267
    Description:

    We analyze the intergenerational income mobility of Canadians born to immigrants using the 2001 Census. A detailed portrait of the Canadian population is offered as are estimates of the degree of generational mobility among the children of immigrants from 70 countries. The degree of persistence as estimated in regression to the mean models is about the same for immigrants as for the entire population, and there is more generational mobility among immigrants in Canada than in the United States. We also use quantile regressions to distinguish between the role of social capital from other constraints limiting mobility and find that these are present and associated with father's education.

    Release date: 2005-10-25

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2005036
    Description:

    This report builds on previous research examining the role of family income in postsecondary education. The paper attempts to address three broad questions using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). First, has the postsecondary education participation pattern changed in the recent past either for college and university participation, or for youth of various backgrounds? Second, how are the socio-economic factors related to postsecondary participation? Does the impact of socio-economic factors differ for college and university participation? Thirdly, for those who did pursue postsecondary education, which factors are more important in the choice of institution - university versus college?

    Release date: 2005-10-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050088449
    Description:

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse geographic income disparities in Canada from the perspective of provinces and especially urban and rural areas. In particular, it looks at how per capita incomes vary across the urban-rural continuum - that is, how per capita incomes in large cities like Toronto and Montreal compare with medium sized cities like Halifax and Victoria, small cities like Brandon and Drummondville and with rural areas.

    Release date: 2005-08-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2005012
    Description:

    This paper describes per capita employment income disparities across provinces and across the urban-rural continuum, from larger to small cities and between cities and rural areas. Its first objective is to compare the degree of income disparities across provinces to income disparities across the urban-rural continuum. Its second objective is to determine the extent to which provincial disparities can be tied to the urban-rural composition of provinces. The paper also seeks to determine whether urban-rural disparities in per capita employment income stem from poorer labour market conditions in smaller cities and rural areas compared to large cities.

    Release date: 2005-07-21

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510413141
    Description:

    Prolonged periods of low earnings can limit an individual's capacity to cope with income losses or unexpected expenses, and makes economic self-sufficiency difficult. The ability to escape low earnings is linked to a number of factors, including age, firm size, and changing jobs.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510313137
    Description:

    Local government revenues are increasingly perceived as inadequate to fund the program responsibilities of municipalities. Property taxes (residential and non-residential) are by far the most important revenue source, accounting for 35% in 2003 (up from 30% in 1988). But, residential property taxes are commonly viewed as regressive in relation to income. This study uses the 2001 Census of Population to quantify the regressiveness of residential property taxes in Canadian municipalities, and to examine whether regressive taxes are generally attributable to lower-income seniors living in high-priced homes.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510313138
    Description:

    The national savings rate has been oscillating around historic lows for several years, prompting concerns about the resilience of a macro-level economy increasingly reliant on debt-financed consumer spending. Many are also troubled by the balance sheets of households, where ever-expanding debt has rapidly outpaced earnings growth. The resulting record-high, debt-to-income ratios leave households more vulnerable to interruptions in income. This article examines changes in saving and spending patterns over 20 years, and differences in the characteristics and spending patterns of saving versus spending households.

    Release date: 2005-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2005029
    Description:

    The system of postsecondary education in Manitoba plays an important role in the social and economic health of the province. Colleges and universities strive to meet the lifelong learning needs of Manitobans and to ensure the availability of individuals with the right skills to support a growing and changing economy.

    This report uses data from the National Graduates Survey (Class of 2000) and asks who are the graduates of Manitoba's universities and colleges, what do they do after graduation, and how well do they integrate into the labour market? In particular, the report provides a portrait of the graduates from Manitoba's postsecondary institutions, analyses the mobility of students and graduates into and out of the province, looks at graduates' outcomes in the work force, and examines the student debt load of graduates. In addition, the report includes a special analysis of Aboriginal graduates.

    Release date: 2005-05-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050057901
    Description:

    An overview of effective tax rates for different income groups.

    Release date: 2005-05-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005248
    Description:

    We examine the evolution of low-paid work and the position of economically vulnerable families in Canada over the last two decades. Despite substantial growth in workers' educational attainment and experience, the proportion of jobs paying less than $10.00 per hour has remained fairly stable since the early 1980s. However, union coverage in low-paid jobs has dropped, especially for males. The risk of job loss has changed little but the proportion of newly hired employees who hold temporary jobs has increased markedly, thereby indicating important changes in the employer-employee relationship. Despite their rising educational attainment, most low earners (except women aged 25 to 29) have not seen their chances of escaping low earnings improved between the 1980s and the 1990s.

    Of all full-time employees, 5% were low-paid and lived in low income families in 1980 and 2000. In 2000, individuals with no high school diploma, recent immigrants, unattached individuals, lone mothers and persons living alone accounted for fully 71% of all full-time workers in low-paid jobs and in low-income, but only 37% of all full-time workers. While members of these five groups account for the majority of low-paid workers in low-income families, two of these groups have seen their economic position declined significantly: low-educated couples and recent immigrants.

    Release date: 2005-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005249
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from recent research papers in the Business and Labour Market Analysis Division of Statistics Canada, regarding low-paid work and economically vulnerable families. It begins by focusing on the evolution of wages in Canada between 1981 and 2004, and then turns to a close-hand look at low-paid work over these two decades. Next, it asks to what extent low-paid workers live in low income families, before documenting the deteriorating position in the labour marker of low-educated couples and recent immigrants.

    Release date: 2005-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2005024
    Description:

    This study examines trends in income, federal personal income tax and effective income tax rate, from 1990 to 2002. The paper splits income tax fillers into three groups: those in the lower half of the income distribution (deciles 1 to 5), those in the top 10% (decile 10) and those in between (deciles 6 to 9).

    Release date: 2005-04-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20050017745
    Description:

    RRSPs are not always used as a source of income in retirement. This article examines premature RRSP withdrawals between 1993 and 2001, and whether major life events such as marital separation, death of a spouse or job loss affect this behaviour.

    Release date: 2005-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005244
    Description:

    This comparative study investigates the role of family background characteristics in postsecondary access in Canada and the United States. Given that postsecondary schooling is funded very differently in the two countries, family background may play substantively different roles. The findings suggest that university-going is less common among lower-income students and members of a visible minority group in the U.S. than among their Canadian counterparts. Some possible reasons are discussed.

    Release date: 2005-03-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005243
    Description:

    This paper examines the extent to which the relationship between participation in post-secondary education and family background, namely parental income and parental education changed between 1993 and 2001. The results support a long-standing pattern that university participation rates are highest among youths from high-income families and of highly educated parents. There is no evidence to suggest that this relationship between university participation and family background changed over the 1993-2001 period. Although university participation rates generally rise as family incomes increase, there is little difference in participation rates among youths from modest-income (below $75,000) and low-income families. Overall, the correlation between university participation and family income changed very little between 1993 and 2001. Next, when taking account of both parental education and parental income, university participation rates are more strongly associated with parents' level of education than with their income. The paper discusses significant data gaps and concludes that these data gaps do not have important implications on conclusions about the relationship between post-secondary education and family background throughout the 1993-2001 period.

    Release date: 2005-02-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005240
    Description:

    This paper provides an overview of income inequality and low-income trends in Canada from an international perspective. It addresses a series of questions, including:- Is family income inequality rising in Canada after decades of stability?- Is Canada a low- or high-income inequality country?- Does Canada have a low or high low-income rate as compared to other western nations?- Does the tax/transfer system reduce low-income rates in Canada more than in the U.S. or in European countries?- Has the low-income rate and the depth of low income risen in Canada during the past two decades?- Does rising low income among immigrants significantly affect the aggregate low-income rate?- Do most spells of low income become long-term, and among which groups is persistent low income concentrated?

    The paper uses the results from a number of papers to address these questions.

    Release date: 2005-02-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005238
    Description:

    In the past, working-age immigrant families in Canada's large urban centres had higher homeownership rates than the Canadian-born. Over the past twenty years however, this advantage has reversed, due jointly to a drop in immigrant rates and a rise in the popularity of homeownership among the Canadian-born. This paper assesses the efficacy of standard consumer choice models, which include indicators for age, income, education, family type, plus several immigrant characteristics, to explain these changes. The main findings are that the standard model almost completely explains the immigrant homeownership advantage in 1981, as well as the rise over time among the Canadian-born, but even after accounting for the well-known decline in immigrant economic fortunes, only about one-third of the 1981-2001 immigrant change in homeownership rates is explained. The implications of this inability are discussed and several suggestions for further research are made.

    Release date: 2005-02-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005239
    Description:

    Using hourly wage data from the Labour Force Survey as well as previous household surveys covering the 1981-2004 period, we assess whether the relative importance of low-paid jobs and well-paid jobs has changed over the last two decades. Since it is unclear whether trends in wage levels obtained from all the aforementioned surveys are unbiased, we refrain from making definitive statements regarding the evolution of low-paid and well-paid jobs over the 1981-2004 period. When assessing whether well-paid jobs are disappearing in Canada, we focus our attention on recent trends, i.e. on changes in the fraction of jobs falling in certain (real) wage categories during the 1997-2004 period.

    We find little evidence that the relative importance of well-paid jobs - however defined - has fallen over the last two decades or since the second half of the 1990s. We also find little evidence that the relative importance of low-paid jobs, those paying less than $10.00 per hour, has risen during these two periods. We show, along with numerous previous studies, that the wage gap between young workers and their older counterparts has risen substantially over the last two decades but that the wage gap between university graduates and other workers has shown little change. More important, we show that, within age groups, wages of newly hired male and female employees - those with two years of seniority or less - have fallen substantially relative to those of others. Second, in the private sector, the fraction of new employees employed in temporary jobs has risen substantially, increasing from 11% in 1989 to 21% in 2004. Among employees with one year of seniority or less, the incidence of temporary work rose from 14% in 1989 to 25% in 2004. Third, pension coverage has fallen among men of all ages and among females under 45. Taken together, these findings suggest that Canadian firms (existing or newly-born) have responded to growing competition within industries and from abroad by reducing their wage offers for new employees, by offering temporary jobs to a growing proportion of them and by offering less often pension plans that guarantee defined benefits at the time of retirement.

    Release date: 2005-01-26

Reference (13)

Reference (13) (13 of 13 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005007
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending, which gathers information on the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households. The survey covers private households in the 10 provinces. (The territories are surveyed every second year, starting in 1999.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables, as well as descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. One section describes the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, aggregates and medians).

    Release date: 2005-12-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005006
    Description:

    This report describes the quality indicators produced for the 2003 Survey of Household Spending. These quality indicators, such as coefficients of variation, nonresponse rates, slippage rates and imputation rates, help users interpret the survey data.

    Release date: 2005-10-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005009
    Description:

    The release of the 2003 data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) was accompanied by a historical revision which accomplished three things. First, the survey weights were updated to take into account new population projections based on the 2001 Census of Population, instead of the 1996 Census. Second, a new procedure in the weight adjustments was introduced to take into account an external source of information on the overall distribution of income in the population, namely the T4 file of employer remittances to Canada Revenue Agency. Third, the low income estimates were revised due to new low income cut-offs (LICOs). This paper describes the second of these improvements' the new weighting procedure to reflect the distribution of income in the population with greater accuracy. Part 1 explains in non-technical terms how this new procedure came about and how it works. Part 2 provides some examples of the impacts on the results for previous years.

    Release date: 2005-07-22

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005005
    Description:

    This discussion paper reviews the previous research into the subject of presenting historical time series and comparisons in constant dollars for the Survey of Household Spending (SHS), and its predecessor the Family Expenditure Survey (FAMEX). It examines two principal methods of converting spending data into constant dollars. The purpose of this discussion paper is to show interested parties how the two methods differ in complexity of implementation and interpretation.

    Release date: 2005-07-15

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005003
    Description:

    The Food Expenditure Survey (FES) is a periodic survey collecting data from households on food spending habits. Data are collected mainly using weekly diaries of purchases that the respondents must fill in daily during two consecutive weeks.

    The FES, like all surveys, is subject to error despite all the precautions taken at the various stages of the survey to control them. Although there is no exhaustive measure of a survey's data quality, certain quality measures taken at various stages of the survey can provide the user with relevant information to ensure sound data interpretation.

    This paper presents, for the 2001 FES, the following quality indicators the coefficients of variation, the non-response rates, the vacancy rates, the slippage rates, the imputation rates as well the impacts of imputation on the estimates.

    Release date: 2005-07-08

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005004
    Description:

    The Food Expenditure Survey (FES) is a periodic survey collecting data from households on food spending habits. Data are collected mainly using weekly diaries of purchases that the respondents must fill in daily during two consecutive weeks.

    This paper presents a detailed description of the methodology of this survey. First, we briefly described the sample design which is mainly based on the plan of the Labour Force Survey. Then we present the methods of collection, data processing, weighting, and variance estimation, as well as the suppression of unreliable data in the tables of estimates.

    Release date: 2005-07-08

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005002
    Description:

    This document will provide an overview of the differences between the old and the new weighting methodologies and the effect of the new weighting system on estimations.

    Release date: 2005-06-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005007
    Description:

    Every January, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) Labour interview is conducted using computer-assisted interviewing (CAI). CAI is paperless interviewing. This document is therefore a written approximation of the CAI interview, or the questionnaire.

    A labour interview is collected for all respondents 16 years of age and over. In January, 2004 data was collected for reference year 2003 from panels 3 and 4. Panel 3, in its fifth year, consisted of approximately 17,000 households and panel 4, in its second year, also consisted of approximately 17,000 households.

    This document outlines the structure of the January 2004 Labour interview (for the 2003 reference year) including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005005
    Description:

    The Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) conducts two annual interviews: the Labour interview in January and the Income interview in May. The data are collected using computer-assisted interviewing. Thus there are no paper questionnaires required for data collection. The questions, responses and interview flow for Labour and Income are documented in other SLID research papers. This document presents the information for the 2004 Entry Exit portion of the Labour and the Income interviews (for the 2003 reference year).

    The Entry Exit Component consists of five separate modules. The Entry module is the first set of data collected. It is information collected to update household composition and place of residence. For each person identified in Entry, the Demographics module collects (or updates) the person's name, date of birth, sex and marital status. Then the Relationships module identifies (or updates) the relationship between each respondent and every other household member. Relationship data is not collected in the May Income interview. The Exit module includes questions on who to contact for the next interview and the names, phone numbers and addresses of two contacts to be used only if future tracing of respondents is required. An overview of the Tracing module is also included in this document.

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005001
    Description:

    This paper provides some guidance to users on the use of medians and also gives some examples of situations when it can be a more appropriate measure than the average.

    Release date: 2005-05-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005003
    Description:

    Statistics Canada has been publishing data on low-income Canadians for more than 30 years. In the past, these measures were published separately in Low income cut-offs (Catalogue no. 13-551-XPB) and Low income measures, low-income after-tax cut-offs and low-income after-tax measures (Catalogue no. 13F0019-XPB). Henceforth, all these measures will be incorporated in this publication.

    As well as the various cut-offs, this publication contains a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at the cut-off points. There is also an explanation of how base years are defined, and how the cut-offs are updated using the Consumer Price Index (CPI).

    Release date: 2005-04-21

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005002
    Description:

    This paper describes the changes made to the structure of geography information on SLID from reference year 1999 onwards. It goes into reasons for changing to the 2001 Census-based geography, shows how the overlap between the 1991 and 2001 Census-based concepts are handled, provides detail on how the geographic concepts are implemented, discusses a new imputation procedure and finishes with an illustration of the impact of these changes on selected tables.

    Release date: 2005-03-31

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005001
    Description:

    Comparative analysis of poverty dynamics incidence - transitions, and persistence - can yield important insights about the nature of poverty and the effectiveness of alternative policy responses. This manuscript compares poverty dynamics in four advanced industrial countries (Canada, unified Germany, Great Britain, and the United States) for overlapping six-year periods in the 1990s. The data indicate that poverty persistence is higher in North America than in Europe; for example, despite high incidence, poverty in Great Britain is relatively transitory. Most poverty transitions, and the prevalence of chronic poverty, are associated with employment instability and family dissolution in all four countries. The results also suggest that differences in social policy are crucial for the observed differences in poverty incidence and persistence between Europe and North America.

    Release date: 2005-01-31

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