Statistics by subject – Income, pensions, spending and wealth

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All (22) (22 of 22 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710913194
    Description:

    No agreed-upon definition exists of what constitutes high income, either in dollar cut-offs or as a percentage of the population. Researchers have used widely varying methods, producing widely varying outcomes. This paper presents various criteria for defining high income and looks at some of the characteristics and behaviours of high-income taxfilers under these definitions. Income taxes paid and effective tax rates are also examined.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710913195
    Description:

    In addition to sharing a border, Canada and the United States share many demographic and economic characteristics. Both countries have aging populations and low unemployment rates. Consumer spending has also been similar, although differences exist in certain areas. A comparison of spending patterns in Canada and the U.S. between the early 1980s and 2003.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200711113197
    Description:

    Prime-aged couples experienced a moderate decline in RPP coverage over the last two decades, as the substantial growth in wives labour market participation and the slight increase in their RPP coverage only partially offset a substantial decline in husbands coverage. On average, retirement savings of families rose over the last two decades, but the distribution became more unequal. To a large extent, the uneven growth in retirement savings mirrors the sharp increase in family earnings inequality since the early 1980s.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 16-002-X200700310456
    Description:

    Snowblower ownership is affected by a variety of socio-economic, cultural and climatic factors. This article shows household ownership of gas-powered snowblowers in 2006, by province, using data from the Households and the Environment Survey. It also presents data on snowblower ownership in certain cities, juxtaposed with data on average snowfall.

    Release date: 2007-12-10

  • Table: 92-596-X
    Description:

    Census Trends presents a series of summary data trends spanning the 2006, 2001 and 1996 censuses. The product is designed to facilitate the analysis and comparison of the changing demographic and socio-economic composition of selected geographic areas across Canada. Summary data trends include percentage distributions and percentage change.

    Census Trends will be released in two phases. The first set of summary data trends will be released on December 4, 2007, and the second, June 4, 2008. The product will include approximately 85 key data indicators.

    Release date: 2007-12-04

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2007018
    Description:

    This study examines the distribution of literacy skills in the Canadian economy and the ways in which they are generated. In large part, the generation of literacy skills has to do with formal schooling and parental inputs into their children's education. The nature of literacy generation in the years after individuals have left formal schooling and are in the labour market is also investigated. Once the core facts about literacy in the economy have been established, the study turns to examining the impact of increased literacy on individual earnings. Both the causal impact of literacy on earnings and the joint distribution of literacy and income are explored. The authors argue that the latter provides a more complete measure of how well an individual is able to function in society.

    The study focuses mainly on data from the Canadian component of the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), composed of a sample of over 22,000 respondents. The Canadian component of the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) is also used in order to obtain a more complete picture of how literacy changes with age and across birth cohorts.

    Release date: 2007-11-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007006
    Description:

    This study uses administrative tax data and the Survey of Financial Security to explore trends in the number and characteristics of high-income Canadians, as well as their wealth and effective income tax rates, from 1982 to 2004. The paper uses a range of thresholds to delineate high income and emphasizes statistics on the top 5%, 1%, 0.1% and 0.01% of tax filers.

    The study found that an individual income of $89,000 was needed to be counted among the top 5% if income recipients in 2004. A family income of $154,000 would place one in the top 5% of families. The growth in incomes at the high end has been quite rapid while incomes of the majority of the population remained stable. Compared with the U.S., Canada had significantly fewer high-income recipients in 2004, and their incomes were considerably less. Higher-income individuals tend to be middle aged married males that live in the larger urban centres. While women have made up a larger portion on the top 5% of tax filers since 1982, they have not made gains in the very highest income groups. High income Canadians have roughly the same share of total wealth as they do of total income.

    High income Canadians, in line with an increasing share of total income, have been paying an increasing share of total personal income taxes. Their share of total income increased from 21% to 25% between 1992 and 2004 while their share of income taxes paid increased from 30% to 36%. At the same time their effective tax rate dropped from 29% to 27%. Thus despite lower tax rates the increase in incomes was large enough, when combined with the progressive tax system, to result in an increased share of total taxes paid by high income Canadians. There is considerable heterogeneity in effective tax rates at the individual level with some high income individuals facing an effective tax rate of over 45%, while some pay as little as 10%. The proportion of tax filers, across the income distribution, who pay zero taxes decreased between 1992 and 2004.

    Release date: 2007-09-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710813193
    Description:

    'Do I have enough money to retire?' is a question that older workers have been trained to ask themselves as they consider the transition out of the workplace. The financial tally includes employer pension plans, registered savings plans and other investments, as well as entitlement to public benefits' the Canada and Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP) and Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement. These resources are balanced against projected spending and other considerations, such as health, family demands and leisure activities. Take-up rates of C/QPP benefits, co-receipt of C/QPP and other benefits, and employment following benefit take-up are examined for taxfilers in their 60s.

    Release date: 2007-09-18

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2007001
    Description:

    This guide will be of assistance when using the public use microdata file (PUMF) of the Survey of Financial Security (SFS) conducted by the Pensions and Wealth Surveys Section of the Income Statistics Division.

    Release date: 2007-09-04

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710413185
    Description:

    Payday loans are part of the growing alternative consumer credit market in Canada. These loans are for relatively small amounts ($100 to $1,000) and are short-term, with repayment usually made on or before the next payday. Although the convenience of payday loans makes them attractive, concerns have been raised about questionable practices within the industry, including high borrowing costs, insufficient disclosure of contract terms, and unfair collection practices. Who uses payday loans and why?

    Release date: 2007-06-19

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007005
    Description:

    This research examines the characteristics of non-elderly unattached Canadians who experience persistent low income and their transition patterns into and out of low income. It also examines the factors associated with increased risk of persistent low income.

    The study found that unattached individuals aged 45 to 64, the activity limited, the not employed, visible minorities, and high school leavers all faced a higher rate of the most persistent low income (6 years out 6). Family formation reduced the incidence and persistence of low income.

    Statistical analyses showed that among working-aged unattached individuals, those who faced the greatest risks of the most persistent low income included the unemployed and those who had reported limitations to work. Individuals also at great risk were those who had not completed high school, those who were aged 45 to 64, or those whose unattached status remained unchanged over the six-year study period.

    Release date: 2007-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710510476
    Description:

    Gambling participation and expenditure rates increased with household income.

    Release date: 2007-05-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007298
    Description:

    Using data from the 1976-to-1997 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 1993-to-2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we examine developments in family income inequality, income polarization, relative low income, and income redistribution through the tax-transfer system. We conclude that family after-tax-income inequality was stable across the 1980s, but rose during the 1989-to-2004 period.

    Growth in family after-tax-income inequality can be due to an increase in family market-income inequality (pre-tax, pre-transfer), or to a reduction in income redistribution through the tax-transfer system.

    We conclude that the increase in inequality was associated with a rise in family market-income inequality. Redistribution was at least as high in 2004 as it was at earlier cyclical peaks, but it failed to keep up with rapid growth in family market-income inequality in the 1990s.

    We present income inequality, polarization, and low-income statistics for several well-known measures, and use data preparations identical to those used in the Luxembourg Income Study in order to facilitate international comparisons.

    Release date: 2007-05-11

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007001
    Description:

    The Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) is a longitudinal survey which collects information related to the standard of living of individuals and their families. By interviewing the same people over a period of six years, changes and the causes of these changes can be monitored.

    A preliminary interview of background information is collected for all respondents aged 16 and over, who enter the SLID sample. Preliminary interviews are conducted for new household members during their first labour and income interview after they join the household. A labour and income interview is collected each year for all respondents 16 years of age and over.

    The purpose of this document is to present the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 2006 preliminary, labour and income questionnaire (for the 2005 reference year).

    Release date: 2007-05-10

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007004
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income Measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2007-05-10

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20070009627
    Description:

    This report examines immigrant settlement in terms of the subjective assessments and perceptions of immigrants themselves. Overall, it provides a broad overview of new immigrants' perceptions, with emphasis on their responses to a broad range of questions rather than a single issue. Differences are examined across a limited set of characteristics, with particular focus on admission categories.

    Release date: 2007-04-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007297
    Description:

    This paper examines income instability of lone parents, singles and two-parent families in Canada in the past two decades using tax data. We attempt to answer the following questions: Has there been a widespread increase in earnings instability among lone parents (especially lone mothers) and unattached individuals over the past 20 years? How do the trends in earnings instability among lone parents and unattached individuals compare to the trends among the two-parent families? What is the role of government transfers and the progressive tax system in mitigating differences in earnings instability across different segments of the earnings distribution among the above-mentioned groups? We find little evidence of a widespread increase in earnings instability in the past two decades and show that government transfers play a particularly important role in reducing employment income instability of lone mothers and unattached individuals.

    Release date: 2007-03-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20061129543
    Description:

    Major changes in the wealth structure have taken place over the last two decades. Between 1984 and 2005, virtually all population subgroups experienced a greater increase in average wealth than in median wealth, suggesting that Canadian families are becoming increasingly unequal in their capacity to deal with income shocks. The increase would have been even greater without the marked aging of the population.

    Release date: 2007-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710213181
    Description:

    Since they entered the scene, baby boomers have been shaping social and economic structures. Now on the cusp of retirement, they may once again force change on the labour market. Many aspire and can afford to retire relatively young, raising concerns about labour supply and public pension programs. But increasing longevity in good health may persuade some to extend their working life. Trends in pension uptake between ages 50 and 60 and post-pension employment during the 1990s and the first part of this decade offer some clues as to the direction baby boomers may take.

    Release date: 2007-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007294
    Description:

    The deteriorating economic outcomes among immigrants entering during the 1980s and 1990s have prompted much public concern and policy debate. In 1993, immigrant selection procedures were further modified to increase immigrants' educational attainment and the share of immigrants in the "skilled" economic class. By 2000, dramatic increases in the educational attainment of entering immigrants and the share in the skilled class were observed. In the face of these and other changes, this research focuses on three issues: (1) whether entering immigrants economic outcomes improved after 2000 (the last date for which we have such information from the census), (2) low-income dynamics among successive cohorts of entering immigrants, including changes in the entry and exit probabilities, and the extent of "chronic" low income among successive cohorts, and, (3) whether rising educational attainment and increasing share in the "skilled" class resulted in improvements in economic outcomes as measured by poverty entry, exit and chronic low income.

    Release date: 2007-01-30

Data (3)

Data (3) (3 results)

Analysis (14)

Analysis (14) (14 of 14 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710913194
    Description:

    No agreed-upon definition exists of what constitutes high income, either in dollar cut-offs or as a percentage of the population. Researchers have used widely varying methods, producing widely varying outcomes. This paper presents various criteria for defining high income and looks at some of the characteristics and behaviours of high-income taxfilers under these definitions. Income taxes paid and effective tax rates are also examined.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710913195
    Description:

    In addition to sharing a border, Canada and the United States share many demographic and economic characteristics. Both countries have aging populations and low unemployment rates. Consumer spending has also been similar, although differences exist in certain areas. A comparison of spending patterns in Canada and the U.S. between the early 1980s and 2003.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200711113197
    Description:

    Prime-aged couples experienced a moderate decline in RPP coverage over the last two decades, as the substantial growth in wives labour market participation and the slight increase in their RPP coverage only partially offset a substantial decline in husbands coverage. On average, retirement savings of families rose over the last two decades, but the distribution became more unequal. To a large extent, the uneven growth in retirement savings mirrors the sharp increase in family earnings inequality since the early 1980s.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 16-002-X200700310456
    Description:

    Snowblower ownership is affected by a variety of socio-economic, cultural and climatic factors. This article shows household ownership of gas-powered snowblowers in 2006, by province, using data from the Households and the Environment Survey. It also presents data on snowblower ownership in certain cities, juxtaposed with data on average snowfall.

    Release date: 2007-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2007018
    Description:

    This study examines the distribution of literacy skills in the Canadian economy and the ways in which they are generated. In large part, the generation of literacy skills has to do with formal schooling and parental inputs into their children's education. The nature of literacy generation in the years after individuals have left formal schooling and are in the labour market is also investigated. Once the core facts about literacy in the economy have been established, the study turns to examining the impact of increased literacy on individual earnings. Both the causal impact of literacy on earnings and the joint distribution of literacy and income are explored. The authors argue that the latter provides a more complete measure of how well an individual is able to function in society.

    The study focuses mainly on data from the Canadian component of the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), composed of a sample of over 22,000 respondents. The Canadian component of the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) is also used in order to obtain a more complete picture of how literacy changes with age and across birth cohorts.

    Release date: 2007-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710813193
    Description:

    'Do I have enough money to retire?' is a question that older workers have been trained to ask themselves as they consider the transition out of the workplace. The financial tally includes employer pension plans, registered savings plans and other investments, as well as entitlement to public benefits' the Canada and Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP) and Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement. These resources are balanced against projected spending and other considerations, such as health, family demands and leisure activities. Take-up rates of C/QPP benefits, co-receipt of C/QPP and other benefits, and employment following benefit take-up are examined for taxfilers in their 60s.

    Release date: 2007-09-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710413185
    Description:

    Payday loans are part of the growing alternative consumer credit market in Canada. These loans are for relatively small amounts ($100 to $1,000) and are short-term, with repayment usually made on or before the next payday. Although the convenience of payday loans makes them attractive, concerns have been raised about questionable practices within the industry, including high borrowing costs, insufficient disclosure of contract terms, and unfair collection practices. Who uses payday loans and why?

    Release date: 2007-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710510476
    Description:

    Gambling participation and expenditure rates increased with household income.

    Release date: 2007-05-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007298
    Description:

    Using data from the 1976-to-1997 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 1993-to-2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we examine developments in family income inequality, income polarization, relative low income, and income redistribution through the tax-transfer system. We conclude that family after-tax-income inequality was stable across the 1980s, but rose during the 1989-to-2004 period.

    Growth in family after-tax-income inequality can be due to an increase in family market-income inequality (pre-tax, pre-transfer), or to a reduction in income redistribution through the tax-transfer system.

    We conclude that the increase in inequality was associated with a rise in family market-income inequality. Redistribution was at least as high in 2004 as it was at earlier cyclical peaks, but it failed to keep up with rapid growth in family market-income inequality in the 1990s.

    We present income inequality, polarization, and low-income statistics for several well-known measures, and use data preparations identical to those used in the Luxembourg Income Study in order to facilitate international comparisons.

    Release date: 2007-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20070009627
    Description:

    This report examines immigrant settlement in terms of the subjective assessments and perceptions of immigrants themselves. Overall, it provides a broad overview of new immigrants' perceptions, with emphasis on their responses to a broad range of questions rather than a single issue. Differences are examined across a limited set of characteristics, with particular focus on admission categories.

    Release date: 2007-04-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007297
    Description:

    This paper examines income instability of lone parents, singles and two-parent families in Canada in the past two decades using tax data. We attempt to answer the following questions: Has there been a widespread increase in earnings instability among lone parents (especially lone mothers) and unattached individuals over the past 20 years? How do the trends in earnings instability among lone parents and unattached individuals compare to the trends among the two-parent families? What is the role of government transfers and the progressive tax system in mitigating differences in earnings instability across different segments of the earnings distribution among the above-mentioned groups? We find little evidence of a widespread increase in earnings instability in the past two decades and show that government transfers play a particularly important role in reducing employment income instability of lone mothers and unattached individuals.

    Release date: 2007-03-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20061129543
    Description:

    Major changes in the wealth structure have taken place over the last two decades. Between 1984 and 2005, virtually all population subgroups experienced a greater increase in average wealth than in median wealth, suggesting that Canadian families are becoming increasingly unequal in their capacity to deal with income shocks. The increase would have been even greater without the marked aging of the population.

    Release date: 2007-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710213181
    Description:

    Since they entered the scene, baby boomers have been shaping social and economic structures. Now on the cusp of retirement, they may once again force change on the labour market. Many aspire and can afford to retire relatively young, raising concerns about labour supply and public pension programs. But increasing longevity in good health may persuade some to extend their working life. Trends in pension uptake between ages 50 and 60 and post-pension employment during the 1990s and the first part of this decade offer some clues as to the direction baby boomers may take.

    Release date: 2007-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007294
    Description:

    The deteriorating economic outcomes among immigrants entering during the 1980s and 1990s have prompted much public concern and policy debate. In 1993, immigrant selection procedures were further modified to increase immigrants' educational attainment and the share of immigrants in the "skilled" economic class. By 2000, dramatic increases in the educational attainment of entering immigrants and the share in the skilled class were observed. In the face of these and other changes, this research focuses on three issues: (1) whether entering immigrants economic outcomes improved after 2000 (the last date for which we have such information from the census), (2) low-income dynamics among successive cohorts of entering immigrants, including changes in the entry and exit probabilities, and the extent of "chronic" low income among successive cohorts, and, (3) whether rising educational attainment and increasing share in the "skilled" class resulted in improvements in economic outcomes as measured by poverty entry, exit and chronic low income.

    Release date: 2007-01-30

Reference (5)

Reference (5) (5 of 5 results)

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007006
    Description:

    This study uses administrative tax data and the Survey of Financial Security to explore trends in the number and characteristics of high-income Canadians, as well as their wealth and effective income tax rates, from 1982 to 2004. The paper uses a range of thresholds to delineate high income and emphasizes statistics on the top 5%, 1%, 0.1% and 0.01% of tax filers.

    The study found that an individual income of $89,000 was needed to be counted among the top 5% if income recipients in 2004. A family income of $154,000 would place one in the top 5% of families. The growth in incomes at the high end has been quite rapid while incomes of the majority of the population remained stable. Compared with the U.S., Canada had significantly fewer high-income recipients in 2004, and their incomes were considerably less. Higher-income individuals tend to be middle aged married males that live in the larger urban centres. While women have made up a larger portion on the top 5% of tax filers since 1982, they have not made gains in the very highest income groups. High income Canadians have roughly the same share of total wealth as they do of total income.

    High income Canadians, in line with an increasing share of total income, have been paying an increasing share of total personal income taxes. Their share of total income increased from 21% to 25% between 1992 and 2004 while their share of income taxes paid increased from 30% to 36%. At the same time their effective tax rate dropped from 29% to 27%. Thus despite lower tax rates the increase in incomes was large enough, when combined with the progressive tax system, to result in an increased share of total taxes paid by high income Canadians. There is considerable heterogeneity in effective tax rates at the individual level with some high income individuals facing an effective tax rate of over 45%, while some pay as little as 10%. The proportion of tax filers, across the income distribution, who pay zero taxes decreased between 1992 and 2004.

    Release date: 2007-09-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2007001
    Description:

    This guide will be of assistance when using the public use microdata file (PUMF) of the Survey of Financial Security (SFS) conducted by the Pensions and Wealth Surveys Section of the Income Statistics Division.

    Release date: 2007-09-04

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007005
    Description:

    This research examines the characteristics of non-elderly unattached Canadians who experience persistent low income and their transition patterns into and out of low income. It also examines the factors associated with increased risk of persistent low income.

    The study found that unattached individuals aged 45 to 64, the activity limited, the not employed, visible minorities, and high school leavers all faced a higher rate of the most persistent low income (6 years out 6). Family formation reduced the incidence and persistence of low income.

    Statistical analyses showed that among working-aged unattached individuals, those who faced the greatest risks of the most persistent low income included the unemployed and those who had reported limitations to work. Individuals also at great risk were those who had not completed high school, those who were aged 45 to 64, or those whose unattached status remained unchanged over the six-year study period.

    Release date: 2007-06-15

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007001
    Description:

    The Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) is a longitudinal survey which collects information related to the standard of living of individuals and their families. By interviewing the same people over a period of six years, changes and the causes of these changes can be monitored.

    A preliminary interview of background information is collected for all respondents aged 16 and over, who enter the SLID sample. Preliminary interviews are conducted for new household members during their first labour and income interview after they join the household. A labour and income interview is collected each year for all respondents 16 years of age and over.

    The purpose of this document is to present the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 2006 preliminary, labour and income questionnaire (for the 2005 reference year).

    Release date: 2007-05-10

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007004
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income Measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2007-05-10

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