Statistics by subject – Employment insurance, social assistance and other transfers

Filter results by

Help for filters and search
Currently selected filters that can be removed

Keyword(s)

Survey or statistical program

25 facets displayed. 0 facets selected.

Content

1 facets displayed. 0 facets selected.

Filter results by

Help for filters and search
Currently selected filters that can be removed

Keyword(s)

Survey or statistical program

25 facets displayed. 0 facets selected.

Content

1 facets displayed. 0 facets selected.

Filter results by

Help for filters and search
Currently selected filters that can be removed

Keyword(s)

Survey or statistical program

25 facets displayed. 0 facets selected.

Content

1 facets displayed. 0 facets selected.

Filter results by

Help for filters and search
Currently selected filters that can be removed

Keyword(s)

Survey or statistical program

25 facets displayed. 0 facets selected.

Content

1 facets displayed. 0 facets selected.

Other available resources to support your research.

Help for sorting results
Browse our central repository of key standard concepts, definitions, data sources and methods.
Loading
Loading in progress, please wait...
All (100)

All (100) (25 of 100 results)

Data (50)

Data (50) (25 of 50 results)

Analysis (39)

Analysis (39) (25 of 39 results)

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-10-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-004-M2017001
    Description:

    The Annual Review of the Labour Market analyses recent trends on a yearly basis using data from a variety of sources such as the Labour Force Survey, the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours, the Employment Insurance Statistics Program, and the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey. The focus is on trends at the national level, although some selected trends will be examined at the provincial level.

    Release date: 2017-05-01

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-11-16

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-10-15

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2012-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201200211697
    Description:

    Many parents take time off work to care for a child after birth or adoption. Whether or not parents take leave and the duration of that leave may be influenced by characteristics such as parental employment or child and maternal health factors.

    This article examines children's experiences of parent-reported leave after their birth or adoption. In addition, associations between leave and parent employment and child and maternal health factors are analyzed using data from the 2010 Survey of Young Canadians.

    Release date: 2012-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200810613211
    Description:

    In 2001, shareable parental leave benefits under the federal Parental Benefits Program increased from 10 to 35 weeks, and in 2006 Quebec introduced its Parental Insurance Program. These changes led to a significant increase in the number of fathers claiming paid parental leave benefits. Between 2000 and 2006, the proportion of fathers claiming parental benefits jumped from 3% to 20%. The most common reasons for fathers not claiming the benefits were family choice, difficulty taking time off work and financial issues.

    Release date: 2008-09-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008304
    Description:

    Using data from a large Canadian longitudinal dataset, we examine whether earnings of wives and teenagers increase in response to layoffs experienced by husbands. We find virtually no evidence of an "added worker effect" for the earnings of teenagers. However, we find that among families with no children of working age, wives' earnings offset about one fifth of the earnings losses experienced by husbands five years after the layoff.

    We also contrast the long-term earnings losses experienced by husbands and unattached males. Even though the former group might be less mobile geographically than the latter, we find that both groups experience roughly the same earnings losses in the long run. Furthermore, the income losses (before tax and after tax) of both groups are also very similar. However, because unattached males have much lower pre-layoff income, they experience much greater relative income shocks than (families of) laid-off husbands.

    Release date: 2008-02-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007298
    Description:

    Using data from the 1976-to-1997 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 1993-to-2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we examine developments in family income inequality, income polarization, relative low income, and income redistribution through the tax-transfer system. We conclude that family after-tax-income inequality was stable across the 1980s, but rose during the 1989-to-2004 period.

    Growth in family after-tax-income inequality can be due to an increase in family market-income inequality (pre-tax, pre-transfer), or to a reduction in income redistribution through the tax-transfer system.

    We conclude that the increase in inequality was associated with a rise in family market-income inequality. Redistribution was at least as high in 2004 as it was at earlier cyclical peaks, but it failed to keep up with rapid growth in family market-income inequality in the 1990s.

    We present income inequality, polarization, and low-income statistics for several well-known measures, and use data preparations identical to those used in the Luxembourg Income Study in order to facilitate international comparisons.

    Release date: 2007-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007297
    Description:

    This paper examines income instability of lone parents, singles and two-parent families in Canada in the past two decades using tax data. We attempt to answer the following questions: Has there been a widespread increase in earnings instability among lone parents (especially lone mothers) and unattached individuals over the past 20 years? How do the trends in earnings instability among lone parents and unattached individuals compare to the trends among the two-parent families? What is the role of government transfers and the progressive tax system in mitigating differences in earnings instability across different segments of the earnings distribution among the above-mentioned groups? We find little evidence of a widespread increase in earnings instability in the past two decades and show that government transfers play a particularly important role in reducing employment income instability of lone mothers and unattached individuals.

    Release date: 2007-03-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007293
    Description:

    In recent years, differences in working hours between Canada and other countries have been the focus of a substantial body of research. Much less attention has been paid to regional differences in work hours, although differences in average annual work hours between some regions are of an order of magnitude that is similar to that of the Canada-U.S. difference. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this study examines how much of differences in working time between Ontario and five other regions of Canada can be explained by 'observable' differences, including differences in union status, industrial structure, job conditions and demographic characteristics. 'Observables' were relatively efficient in explaining differences in the shares of individuals working a short year and working a full-year, full-time schedule. However, they were not very helpful in explaining differences in long work hours, did not entirely explain the larger share of short-year workers in the Atlantic and in British Columbia, and did not explain the huge popularity of the 'low' full-year, full-time schedule in Quebec. These differences that remain unexplained suggest that 'unobservable' factors (those that are difficult to observe in household surveys) also contribute to regional differences in work hours. These include incentives related to wage inequality, possible tax incentives (or disincentives) built upon progressive taxation policies, differences in job conditions, in preferences and tastes, and in the shape of institutions.

    Release date: 2007-01-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006280
    Description:

    Before 1989, childless social assistance recipients in Quebec under age 30 received much lower benefits than recipients over age 30. We use this sharp discontinuity in policy to estimate the effects of social assistance on various labour market outcomes using a regression discontinuity approach. We find strong evidence that more generous social assistance benefits reduce employment. The estimates exhibit little sensitivity to the degree of flexibility in the specification, and perform very well when we control for unobserved heterogeneity using a first difference specification. Finally, we show that commonly used difference-in-differences estimators may perform poorly with inappropriately chosen control groups.

    Release date: 2006-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005260
    Description:

    The exploration of newly available administrative data in a number of countries has led to a growing realization that a careful study of the interaction between employer and employee characteristics is needed to fully understand labour market outcomes. The objective of this paper is to develop this theme by examining the design of social policy and its interaction with the labour market. The focus is on the Canadian unemployment insurance (UI) program. This analysis uses administrative data on the universe of employees, firms, and UI recipients in Canada over an 11 year period to examine the operation of UI from the perspective of the firm, paying particular attention to longitudinal issues associated with the pattern and causes of cross-subsidies. The findings show that persistent transfers through UI are present at both industry and firm levels. These cross-subsidies are concentrated among a small fraction of firms. An analysis using firm fixed effect indicates that almost 60 percent of explained variation in persistent cross-subsidies can be attributed to firm effects. Calculations of overall efficiency loss are very sensitive to the degree to which firm level information is used. A full appreciation of how social programs like UI interact with the labour market requires recognition of the characteristics and human resource practices of firms, and might be more fruitfully explored by implicit contract models of unemployment.

    Release date: 2005-06-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005246
    Description:

    This paper summarizes findings from the research paper entitled Social Assistance Use in Canada: National and Provincial Trends in Incidence, Entry and Exit. For many Canadian families, Social Assistance (SA) usage reflects near-destitution and an exclusion from the social and economic mainstream. For children, it can represent a critical period of disadvantage with potentially lasting effects. While committed to SA, governments worry about cost. Thus, when SA participation rose during the recession of the early 1990s, virtually all provinces instituted changes to reduce SA dependency. Eligibility rules were made tighter, benefit levels cut, and 'snitch' lines introduced. Following these changes, and the economic recovery post-1995, the number of SA-dependent individuals dropped from 3.1 million to under 2 million by 2000, while benefits received fell from $14.3b in 1994 to $10.4b in 2001 (current dollars).

    This paper maps the cycle of SA dependency, focusing on empirical records of SA entry, exit, and annual participation rates, placing these in the economic and policy context of the 1990s. The paper begins with a description of the database used, sample selection and editing procedures, the unit of analysis, a definition of SA participation, and the measure of entry and exit from SA. It then turns to the economic and policy backdrop of the 1990s, before showing results at the national and provincial levels. We conclude with a summary of main findings.

    Release date: 2005-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005245
    Description:

    Canada witnessed a dramatic decline in welfare participation from 1993/94 to the end of the nineties - one almost on a par with the U.S., but without the sort of landmark legislation adopted there. We explore the dynamics of Social Assistance usage in Canada over this period using data based on tax files for between 2 and 4 million individuals in each year from Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Data - the LAD. The unique attributes of this base - size, longitudinal nature, and income information availability - allow us, for the first time, to calculate annual incidence, entry and exit rates both at the national and provincial levels, broken down by family type. We discuss the variety of experiences of these groups; we identify the policy context and discuss the implications of the findings.

    Release date: 2005-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005240
    Description:

    This paper provides an overview of income inequality and low-income trends in Canada from an international perspective. It addresses a series of questions, including:- Is family income inequality rising in Canada after decades of stability?- Is Canada a low- or high-income inequality country?- Does Canada have a low or high low-income rate as compared to other western nations?- Does the tax/transfer system reduce low-income rates in Canada more than in the U.S. or in European countries?- Has the low-income rate and the depth of low income risen in Canada during the past two decades?- Does rising low income among immigrants significantly affect the aggregate low-income rate?- Do most spells of low income become long-term, and among which groups is persistent low income concentrated?

    The paper uses the results from a number of papers to address these questions.

    Release date: 2005-02-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004219
    Description:

    This study investigates trends in family income inequality in the 1980s and 1990s, with particular attention paid to the recovery period of the 1990s.

    Release date: 2004-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2004231
    Description:

    In this paper, Canadian longitudinal tax-based data are used to estimate models of the receipt of social assistance, or welfare, in a given year as well as the underlying dynamics: entry onto social assistance from one year to another, exit from a given spell of social assistance and re-entry onto social assistance after the end of a previous spell.

    Release date: 2004-10-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20030036702
    Description:

    Although generally considered a happy event, the birth of a baby brings with it significant stresses. The transition period of adjusting to the demands of a new lifestyle is often made smoother when parents are able to take some time off work and stay at home with their newborn. Over the years, the Canadian government has extended parental leave several times to allow mothers and fathers more time with their children. This article examines whether parents now remain at home longer with their infants, as well as the socio-demographic factors that influence the length of leave time taken.

    Release date: 2003-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200310913100
    Description:

    This article examines the many dimensions of seasonality in employment to determine the extent to which each contributes to frequent reliance on Employment Insurance (EI) benefits.

    Release date: 2003-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2003192
    Description:

    The 1990s were characterized by substantial declines in the number of welfare recipients in most Canadian provinces. These declines occurred in a period when most provincial governments lowered benefits and tightened eligibility rules. What happened to the economic well-being of those who left welfare in the 1990s? Using longitudinal tax data, this study examines the short and long-term outcomes of welfare leavers across three dimensions: earnings, disposable income and low-income. The role of marriage in post-welfare outcomes is also investigated.

    Release date: 2003-03-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2003172
    Description:

    All countries look to economic growth to reduce low-income. This paper focuses on the 1990s and assesses the role played by changes in economic growth, employment earnings and government transfers in the patterns of low-income intensity in Canada during the 1990s. We find that low-income intensity was higher in most provinces during the 1990s than during the 1980s (comparing comparable positions in the business cycle). The largest increase was in Ontario. In particular, in spite of the slow economic growth and falling unemployment between 1993 and 1997, low-income intensity continued to rise. Both increases in the low-income rate and the low-income gaps contributed to this higher level. Employment earnings continued to decline among low-income families over the 1990s, contributing to the increase in low-income intensity in central and eastern Canada in particular. This is related in part to the more severe recession of the early 1990s east of Manitoba, and the lack of recovery among poorer families. During the 1990s changes in government transfers did not offset the fall in employment earnings among lower-income families, as they did during the 1980s, resulting in rising low-income intensity. Declining transfer benefits were associated with a rising low-income gap in some provinces, particularly Alberta. The latest data available at the time of writing was 1998. The strong economic growth of 1999 and 2000 will likely have reduced low-income intensity, but it remains to be seen if it falls back to the level of the 1980s cyclical peak.

    Release date: 2003-01-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001149
    Description:

    This paper extends earlier work by updating the structure and policy parameters of payroll taxes in Canada. Drawing from a newly available dataset, it also reports trends on the level, growth and role of each component of these taxes in recent years. Finally, it compares Canadian payroll taxes to those of the world's leading developed countries. The following highlights the main findings.

    Payroll taxes in Canada have grown considerably since the early 1980s, constituting an increasingly important source of revenues for both the federal and provincial governments. However, the rapid expansion observed in earlier years has in large part slowed down in the early 1990s. Payroll tax revenues collected from employees and employers in the country have stabilized at around 5.7% of GDP or 14.0% of total federal and provincial government revenues since 1992; the effective total payroll tax rate has levelled off at around $12.20 for every $100 of wages and salaries since 1994.

    The structure, level, growth, and role of each component of payroll taxes vary considerably from one province to another. Yet, EI premiums have remarkably been the largest component of these taxes in every province in both the 1980s and the 1990s, regardless of whether there are provincial payroll taxes; rising EI premiums have also consistently been the leading contributor to the expansion of total payroll taxes during this period.

    Despite rapid growth in the 1980s and early 1990s, Canadian payroll taxes remain one of the lowest in the world's major developed economies. According to data compiled by the OECD, total payroll tax revenues in Canada amounted to 6.0% of GDP in 1996 --- that is 14% lower than that of the United States (at 7.0% of GDP); the lowest in the G7 nations; and the 9th lowest among the 29 OECD member states.

    Release date: 2001-09-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001166
    Description:

    This study assesses two potential problems with respect to the reporting of Employment Insurance (EI) and Social Assistance (SA) benefits in the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID): (a) under-reporting of the monthly number of beneficiaries; and (b) a tendency to incorrectly report receiving benefits throughout the year, while in fact benefits may have been received only in certain months, leading to artificial spikes in the January starts and December terminations of benefit spells (seam effect). The results of the analysis show the following:

    (1) The rate of under-reporting of EI in SLID is about 15%. Although it varies by month (from 0% to 30%), it is fairly stable from year to year.

    (2) There are significant spikes in the number of January starts and December terminations of EI benefit spells. However, the spikes in January starts appear to represent a real phenomenon, rather than a seam problem. They mirror closely the pattern of establishment of new EI claims (the latter increase significantly in January as a result of the decline in employment following the Christmas peak demand). There are no corresponding statistics for EI claim terminations to assess the nature of December spikes.

    (3) The rate of under-reporting of SA in SLID is about 50%, significantly greater than for EI. The rate of under-reporting goes down to about 20% to 30%, if we assume that those who received SA, but did not report in which months they received benefits, received benefits throughout the year.

    (4) There are large spikes in the number of January starts and December terminations. As in the case of EI, the SA could reflect a real phenomenon. After all, SA starts and terminations are affected by labour market conditions, in the same way EI starts and terminations are affected. However, the SA spikes are much larger than the EI spikes, which increases the probability that, at least in part, are due to a seam effect.

    Release date: 2001-09-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20010045725
    Description:

    This article compares the demographic characteristics of employment insurance (EI) claimants to employees in general. It also looks at the attitudes of EI users toward employment and unemployment.

    Release date: 2001-03-23

Reference (11)

Reference (11) (11 of 11 results)

Browse our partners page to find a complete list of our partners and their associated products.

Date modified: