Statistics by subject – Intercity and international price comparisons

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  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-01-04

  • Table: 62-013-X
    Description:

    These indexes are calculated to establish and adjust the Post Living Allowance (PLA) paid to Canadian government employees serving outside of Canada. They are comparative measurements that numerically express the difference between the retail prices of a representative basket of goods and services at a foreign location with prices for a similar basket of goods and services in Ottawa.

    Four separate reports are provided to reflect the specific terms and conditions of service for these personnel. A description of each report is provided below.

    Foreign Service Directives Post Indexes

    These indexes are calculated for personnel serving under the terms and conditions of the Foreign Service Directives (FSDs). They reflect circumstances for personnel who may have access to certain goods and services that are free of duties or taxes or to sources of supply that are not available to the general public. Where employees do not have (either directly or indirectly) duty-free purchasing privileges, departmental administrators must consult with Statistics Canada to calculate an additional index to reflect the specific circumstances in effect at that post.

    Non-government Organizations Post Indexes

    These indexes are calculated for persons who do not have special access privileges, and may be used by non-government organizations. Interested users should contact Statistics Canada to ensure the use of these indexes is appropriate for their needs. Customized indexes that reflect specific circumstances can be produced.

    Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) Post Indexes(TARS)

    These indexes are calculated for co-operants and advisers serving under the Technical Assistance Regulations (TARs), whose terms and conditions are governed by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).

    Canadian Forces Post Indexes

    These indexes are calculated for Canadian Forces members serving under either the terms and conditions of the Military Foreign Service Instructions (MFSIs) or the Foreign Service Directives (FSDs). They reflect circumstances for personnel who may have access to sources of supply that are not available to the general public. These personnel also may have access to certain goods and services that are free of duties or taxes or may be provided with supplies or allowances by the Department of National Defence or the United Nations. The indexes in this listing are not appropriate for use by non-military personnel.

    Release date: 2018-01-04

  • Journals and periodicals: 62F0014M
    Description:

    The Prices Analytical Series provides research and analysis pertaining to price indices. The Analytical series is intended to stimulate discussion on a variety of topics related to the analysis of the evolution of prices through time or space.

    Release date: 2017-11-17

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016065
    Description:

    The U.S.–Canada purchasing power parity (PPP) is a measure of the relative price level between Canada and the United States. It measures the difference, in dollars, that exists between the two countries for an individual or firm wishing to purchase an equivalent basket of goods and services in each country. This Economic Insights article presents quarterly estimates from Statistics Canada for the U.S.–Canada purchasing power parity. It is part of a series of research papers and articles that examine differences in price levels between Canada and the United States.

    Release date: 2016-12-22

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-08-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014094
    Description:

    This report compares household net worth per capita in Canada and the United States from 1970 to 2012, using data from the Canadian National Balance Sheet Accounts and the Flow of Funds Accounts published by the U.S. Federal Reserve.

    Three approaches are adopted. The first makes a level comparison using values adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). The second uses ratios of real net worth per capita and net worth relative to disposable income. The third decomposes the growth of the ratio of net worth to disposable income. Together, these approaches provide mutually re-enforcing results that are more robust than what could be derived from any one approach in isolation.

    Release date: 2014-08-20

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-06-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014093
    Description:

    This paper examines the composition of Canadian and United States gross national saving for a period spanning more than 80 years, using time series from the Bureau of Economic Analysis in the United States and a newly created dataset for Canada. The paper tracks short-term, year-to-year fluctuations, cyclical fluctuations and long-term compositional changes. It illustrates a substantial degree of national saving reallocation across sectors, annually and across business cycles. The national saving rate is more stable than sector saving rates, implying that sectoral changes have been largely offsetting.

    Release date: 2014-06-26

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2014035
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article presents new data on the relative prices of Canadian and U.S. products, focusing on various classes of goods and services. It also evaluates the extent to which changes in these relative prices correlate with movements in the nominal exchange rate. The comparative price estimates are based on data from Statistics Canada’s Purchasing Power Parity program.

    Release date: 2014-06-02

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-01-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012002
    Description:

    This Economic Insight presents new data on the relative prices of Canadian and U.S. products, focusing on various classes of goods and services. It also evaluates the extent to which changes in these relative prices correlate with movements in the nominal exchange rate. The comparative price estimates are based on data from Statistics Canada's Purchasing Power Parity program.

    Release date: 2012-01-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012003
    Description:

    This Economic Insight discusses price differences between Canada and the United States. It is based on the concepts and methods from Statistics Canada's Purchasing Power Parity program.

    Release date: 2012-01-04

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2010064
    Description:

    This paper provides the latest annual results for the U.S./Canada purchasing power parities (PPPs) and real expenditure indexes in the U.S. compared with Canada for the period 2002 to 2009. Revisions to previously published data and an update using the most recent US and Canada expenditure data from the National Accounts and in-depth price comparisons for 2005 are incorporated. The paper provides a primer on purchasing power parities and related measures and why they are important in international comparisons of economic performance. It also describes a new projection methodology for total economy measures that are now based on Gross Domestic Income and shows the impact of this change on the data.

    Release date: 2011-01-28

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0072G
    Description:

    The primary source of data used in post index construction are periodic retail-price and cost-of-living surveys conducted at foreign locations by the foreign service personnel stationed there. Statistics Canada analyses this survey data. In addition to a variety of price information gathered from retail outlets patronized by Canadian personnel at the post, data are also obtained regarding their spending patterns, along with information on the availability of any special local purchasing facilities, and the extent to which staff make direct importation of consumer goods from other countries. The general aim is for full-scale surveys to be carried out at about three-year intervals. However, specific studies may be undertaken more or less frequently than this, depending on the volatility of retail price conditions in each particular country, the instability of exchange rates and the extent to which close monitoring of changes in the local retail price situation being faced by Canadian personnel can be achieved through reference to other statistical indicators.

    Release date: 2010-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2007053
    Description:

    The latest annual results for the US/Canada purchasing power parities (PPPs) and real expenditure indexes in the US compared with Canada are published in this paper for the period 1992 to 2005. Revisions to previously published data and an update using the latest US and Canada expenditure data from the National Accounts and in-depth price comparisons for 2002 are incorporated, and a new type-of-product presentation is included. The paper provides a primer on purchasing power parities and related measures and why they are important in international comparisons of economic performance.

    Release date: 2007-02-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006043
    Description:

    The paper examines the pricing behaviour of 81 Canadian manufacturing industries from 1974 to 1996. It explores the domestic and foreign factors that affect price formation in Canada and the circumstances in which Canadian prices respond to foreign (U.S.) influences (the law of one price), as opposed to domestic factors (i.e., labour, energy costs and productivity growth). It finds that: (1) Canadian manufacturing prices are, on average, set using a mixture of a cost mark-up pricing rule and the law-of-one-price rule: both domestic factors (such as input prices and productivity) and foreign factors (such as competing U.S. prices) exert important influences on Canadian prices; (2) Canadian prices are more sensitive to U.S. prices if the industry faces higher import competition and if home and foreign products are less differentiated. Compared to prices of domestic products, prices of imported foreign products are more responsive to foreign prices. However, the price of imports also responds to Canadian prices; though this pricing-to-market phenomenon is reduced as imports increase in importance; (3) Industry differences exist. Domestic prices respond more to productivity changes in industries where competition is more intense and where products are more homogeneous. Imports respond more to domestic factors when they account for a smaller share of the domestic market; (4) As the pressure from foreign markets increases, in a period of an appreciating Canadian dollar, changes in prices are influenced more by fluctuations in foreign prices. In comparison, when the pressure from foreign markets decreases, in a period of a depreciating Canadian dollar, changes in Canadian prices are more responsive to input cost changes at home. Disequilibria that were generated by previous shocks are overcome more quickly during periods when the exchange rate appreciated.

    Release date: 2006-11-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006041
    Description:

    During the post-1970 period, Canadian manufacturing prices have alternately increased and fallen relative to U.S. prices' just the reverse of the cycle in the Canada' U.S. exchange rate. But not all manufacturing industries have experienced the same amplitude of relative price changes. This paper examines the industry characteristics that are related to the shifts in competitiveness, measured as the relative price ratio between Canadian prices and U.S. prices adjusted by the exchange rate. We find that relative factor input costs and relative productivity growth are the two most important factors influencing changes in relative Canada' U.S. prices. Competitive pressures emanating from trade are important determinants of the extent to which relative productivity differences are passed through to cross-country relative prices in the manufacturing sector. We also find that the magnitude of domestic market competition and export intensity affects the short-run relative price shifts over the cycle of exchange rate.

    Release date: 2006-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2005007
    Description:

    The objective of this bulletin is to document the trend in the price to move goods, information and people across space.

    Release date: 2006-03-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005029
    Description:

    This paper uses a detailed industry-level data base of industry prices in the manufacturing sector in Canada and the United States to investigate whether prices are co-integrated in the two countries and whether the relationship between the two sets of prices follows the law of one price. We find that aggregate Canadian price movements track U.S. price movements closely, but not perfectly, in the long run. But there are substantial deviations from the law of one price in the short run. Moreover, many individual industries deviate from the law of one price. These deviations are related to the degree of tariff protection and to the degree of product differentiation at the industry level.

    Release date: 2005-02-15

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2004006
    Description:

    The paper examines whether Canadians were paying more than the Americans for the goods and services they purchase, based on more than 160 product price data for each of the five years under study (1985, 1990, 1993, 1996, 1999).

    Release date: 2004-04-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20030056517
    Description:

    The paper examines the price differences between Canada and the United States for highly standardized products and for subsets of products with significant differences.

    Release date: 2003-05-22

Data (10)

Data (10) (10 of 10 results)

Analysis (24)

Analysis (24) (24 of 24 results)

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-01-04

  • Journals and periodicals: 62F0014M
    Description:

    The Prices Analytical Series provides research and analysis pertaining to price indices. The Analytical series is intended to stimulate discussion on a variety of topics related to the analysis of the evolution of prices through time or space.

    Release date: 2017-11-17

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016065
    Description:

    The U.S.–Canada purchasing power parity (PPP) is a measure of the relative price level between Canada and the United States. It measures the difference, in dollars, that exists between the two countries for an individual or firm wishing to purchase an equivalent basket of goods and services in each country. This Economic Insights article presents quarterly estimates from Statistics Canada for the U.S.–Canada purchasing power parity. It is part of a series of research papers and articles that examine differences in price levels between Canada and the United States.

    Release date: 2016-12-22

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-08-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014094
    Description:

    This report compares household net worth per capita in Canada and the United States from 1970 to 2012, using data from the Canadian National Balance Sheet Accounts and the Flow of Funds Accounts published by the U.S. Federal Reserve.

    Three approaches are adopted. The first makes a level comparison using values adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). The second uses ratios of real net worth per capita and net worth relative to disposable income. The third decomposes the growth of the ratio of net worth to disposable income. Together, these approaches provide mutually re-enforcing results that are more robust than what could be derived from any one approach in isolation.

    Release date: 2014-08-20

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-06-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2014093
    Description:

    This paper examines the composition of Canadian and United States gross national saving for a period spanning more than 80 years, using time series from the Bureau of Economic Analysis in the United States and a newly created dataset for Canada. The paper tracks short-term, year-to-year fluctuations, cyclical fluctuations and long-term compositional changes. It illustrates a substantial degree of national saving reallocation across sectors, annually and across business cycles. The national saving rate is more stable than sector saving rates, implying that sectoral changes have been largely offsetting.

    Release date: 2014-06-26

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2014035
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article presents new data on the relative prices of Canadian and U.S. products, focusing on various classes of goods and services. It also evaluates the extent to which changes in these relative prices correlate with movements in the nominal exchange rate. The comparative price estimates are based on data from Statistics Canada’s Purchasing Power Parity program.

    Release date: 2014-06-02

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2014-01-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012002
    Description:

    This Economic Insight presents new data on the relative prices of Canadian and U.S. products, focusing on various classes of goods and services. It also evaluates the extent to which changes in these relative prices correlate with movements in the nominal exchange rate. The comparative price estimates are based on data from Statistics Canada's Purchasing Power Parity program.

    Release date: 2012-01-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012003
    Description:

    This Economic Insight discusses price differences between Canada and the United States. It is based on the concepts and methods from Statistics Canada's Purchasing Power Parity program.

    Release date: 2012-01-04

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2010064
    Description:

    This paper provides the latest annual results for the U.S./Canada purchasing power parities (PPPs) and real expenditure indexes in the U.S. compared with Canada for the period 2002 to 2009. Revisions to previously published data and an update using the most recent US and Canada expenditure data from the National Accounts and in-depth price comparisons for 2005 are incorporated. The paper provides a primer on purchasing power parities and related measures and why they are important in international comparisons of economic performance. It also describes a new projection methodology for total economy measures that are now based on Gross Domestic Income and shows the impact of this change on the data.

    Release date: 2011-01-28

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2007053
    Description:

    The latest annual results for the US/Canada purchasing power parities (PPPs) and real expenditure indexes in the US compared with Canada are published in this paper for the period 1992 to 2005. Revisions to previously published data and an update using the latest US and Canada expenditure data from the National Accounts and in-depth price comparisons for 2002 are incorporated, and a new type-of-product presentation is included. The paper provides a primer on purchasing power parities and related measures and why they are important in international comparisons of economic performance.

    Release date: 2007-02-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006043
    Description:

    The paper examines the pricing behaviour of 81 Canadian manufacturing industries from 1974 to 1996. It explores the domestic and foreign factors that affect price formation in Canada and the circumstances in which Canadian prices respond to foreign (U.S.) influences (the law of one price), as opposed to domestic factors (i.e., labour, energy costs and productivity growth). It finds that: (1) Canadian manufacturing prices are, on average, set using a mixture of a cost mark-up pricing rule and the law-of-one-price rule: both domestic factors (such as input prices and productivity) and foreign factors (such as competing U.S. prices) exert important influences on Canadian prices; (2) Canadian prices are more sensitive to U.S. prices if the industry faces higher import competition and if home and foreign products are less differentiated. Compared to prices of domestic products, prices of imported foreign products are more responsive to foreign prices. However, the price of imports also responds to Canadian prices; though this pricing-to-market phenomenon is reduced as imports increase in importance; (3) Industry differences exist. Domestic prices respond more to productivity changes in industries where competition is more intense and where products are more homogeneous. Imports respond more to domestic factors when they account for a smaller share of the domestic market; (4) As the pressure from foreign markets increases, in a period of an appreciating Canadian dollar, changes in prices are influenced more by fluctuations in foreign prices. In comparison, when the pressure from foreign markets decreases, in a period of a depreciating Canadian dollar, changes in Canadian prices are more responsive to input cost changes at home. Disequilibria that were generated by previous shocks are overcome more quickly during periods when the exchange rate appreciated.

    Release date: 2006-11-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2006041
    Description:

    During the post-1970 period, Canadian manufacturing prices have alternately increased and fallen relative to U.S. prices' just the reverse of the cycle in the Canada' U.S. exchange rate. But not all manufacturing industries have experienced the same amplitude of relative price changes. This paper examines the industry characteristics that are related to the shifts in competitiveness, measured as the relative price ratio between Canadian prices and U.S. prices adjusted by the exchange rate. We find that relative factor input costs and relative productivity growth are the two most important factors influencing changes in relative Canada' U.S. prices. Competitive pressures emanating from trade are important determinants of the extent to which relative productivity differences are passed through to cross-country relative prices in the manufacturing sector. We also find that the magnitude of domestic market competition and export intensity affects the short-run relative price shifts over the cycle of exchange rate.

    Release date: 2006-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2005007
    Description:

    The objective of this bulletin is to document the trend in the price to move goods, information and people across space.

    Release date: 2006-03-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2005029
    Description:

    This paper uses a detailed industry-level data base of industry prices in the manufacturing sector in Canada and the United States to investigate whether prices are co-integrated in the two countries and whether the relationship between the two sets of prices follows the law of one price. We find that aggregate Canadian price movements track U.S. price movements closely, but not perfectly, in the long run. But there are substantial deviations from the law of one price in the short run. Moreover, many individual industries deviate from the law of one price. These deviations are related to the degree of tariff protection and to the degree of product differentiation at the industry level.

    Release date: 2005-02-15

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2004006
    Description:

    The paper examines whether Canadians were paying more than the Americans for the goods and services they purchase, based on more than 160 product price data for each of the five years under study (1985, 1990, 1993, 1996, 1999).

    Release date: 2004-04-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-010-X20030056517
    Description:

    The paper examines the price differences between Canada and the United States for highly standardized products and for subsets of products with significant differences.

    Release date: 2003-05-22

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M2002039
    Description:

    The latest annual results for the US/Canada purchasing power parities (PPPs) and real expenditures per head in the US compared with Canada are published in this paper. The data were developed for the period 1992 to 2001, using the latest US and Canada expenditure data from the National Accounts and price comparisons for 1999. The paper contains summaries of differences between the results of the multilateral (OECD) study and the Statistics Canada bilateral study. Some differences in classifications have been incorporated, as well as normal national Accounts revisions. Ten tables are presented in an Appendix for 21 categories of expenditure for the GDP.

    Release date: 2002-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2002002
    Description:

    The paper examines the possible explanations for deviations from purchasing power parity (PPP) between Canada and the United States in the 1980s and 1990s and investigates both the productivity effect and the underlying PPP assumption for tradable goods.

    Release date: 2002-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M1999036
    Description:

    Recent economic trends, including expanding globalization of trade (as evidenced by new trade agreements), volatility in market exchange rates, and greater interest in international comparisons of real income and productivity are generating increased interest in intercountry comparisons. These comparisons are made in real terms derived from purchasing power parities (PPPs). In Canada, a particularly important relationship with the United States focusses attention on US/Canada comparative price and volume measures. This article includes updated annual bilateral volume indexes of real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and its components for the United States, compared with Canada, and the associated PPPs.

    Release date: 1999-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 13-604-M1993025
    Description:

    This article introduces two new tables showing volume indexes of real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and its components for Canada compared with the United States and the associated purchasing power parities (PPPs). These international comparisons of real expenditures based on PPPs are considered to be a major addition to the tools available for macroeconomic analysis. For example, the recent publication by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) of a set of estimates of different countries' output using PPPs has changed the view of the share of world output that comes from the industrialized countries compared with the developing economies.

    An analysis based on PPPs, rather than a more conventional one based on exchange rates, has significantly changed the relative measures of output of countries. Comparisons based on exchange rates are unlikely to fully take into account the differences in price levels between countries (i.e., the goods and services that can be purchased in one country's currency compared with another's). Moreover, services are not generally traded in the way that goods are, so their prices in different countries tend not to be related in a way that parallels the currency exchange rate. If aggregate output is to be properly compared across countries, PPPs become more and more important as the size of the service sector grows.

    Economic theory would suggest that for internationally traded domestically produced goods and services, PPPs and exchange rates will tend to equalize in the long run. Exchange rates, however, can fluctuate widely in short periods and are affected by expectations and factors such as deficits, wars, fuel shortages and interest rates. With the calculation of PPPs, actual price level differences can be identified. Such measures are also much more stable over time.

    Release date: 1993-11-30

Reference (1)

Reference (1) (1 result)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0072G
    Description:

    The primary source of data used in post index construction are periodic retail-price and cost-of-living surveys conducted at foreign locations by the foreign service personnel stationed there. Statistics Canada analyses this survey data. In addition to a variety of price information gathered from retail outlets patronized by Canadian personnel at the post, data are also obtained regarding their spending patterns, along with information on the availability of any special local purchasing facilities, and the extent to which staff make direct importation of consumer goods from other countries. The general aim is for full-scale surveys to be carried out at about three-year intervals. However, specific studies may be undertaken more or less frequently than this, depending on the volatility of retail price conditions in each particular country, the instability of exchange rates and the extent to which close monitoring of changes in the local retail price situation being faced by Canadian personnel can be achieved through reference to other statistical indicators.

    Release date: 2010-06-09

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