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All (63) (25 of 63 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254887
    Description:

    This paper proposes a new approach to decompose the wage difference between men and women that is based on a calibration procedure. This approach generalizes two current decomposition methods that are re-expressed using survey weights. The first one is the Blinder-Oaxaca method and the second one is a reweighting method proposed by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux. The new approach provides a weighting system that enables us to estimate such parameters of interest like quantiles. An application to data from the Swiss Structure of Earnings Survey shows the interest of this method.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014735
    Description:

    Microdata dissemination normally requires data reduction and modification methods be applied, and the degree to which these methods are applied depend on the control methods that will be required to access and use the data. An approach that is in some circumstances more suitable for accessing data for statistical purposes is secure computation, which involves computing analytic functions on encrypted data without the need to decrypt the underlying source data to run a statistical analysis. This approach also allows multiple sites to contribute data while providing strong privacy guarantees. This way the data can be pooled and contributors can compute analytic functions without either party knowing their inputs. We explain how secure computation can be applied in practical contexts, with some theoretical results and real healthcare examples.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014714
    Description:

    The Labour Market Development Agreements (LMDAs) between Canada and the provinces and territories fund labour market training and support services to Employment Insurance claimants. The objective of this paper is to discuss the improvements over the years in the impact assessment methodology. The paper describes the LMDAs and past evaluation work and discusses the drivers to make better use of large administrative data holdings. It then explains how the new approach made the evaluation less resource-intensive, while results are more relevant to policy development. The paper outlines the lessons learned from a methodological perspective and provides insight into ways for making this type of use of administrative data effective, especially in the context of large programs.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014738
    Description:

    In the standard design approach to missing observations, the construction of weight classes and calibration are used to adjust the design weights for the respondents in the sample. Here we use these adjusted weights to define a Dirichlet distribution which can be used to make inferences about the population. Examples show that the resulting procedures have better performance properties than the standard methods when the population is skewed.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014743
    Description:

    Probabilistic linkage is susceptible to linkage errors such as false positives and false negatives. In many cases, these errors may be reliably measured through clerical-reviews, i.e. the visual inspection of a sample of record pairs to determine if they are matched. A framework is described to effectively carry-out such clerical-reviews based on a probabilistic sample of pairs, repeated independent reviews of the same pairs and latent class analysis to account for clerical errors.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014718
    Description:

    This study assessed whether starting participation in Employment Assistance Services (EAS) earlier after initiating an Employment Insurance (EI) claim leads to better impacts for unemployed individuals than participating later during the EI benefit period. As in Sianesi (2004) and Hujer and Thomsen (2010), the analysis relied on a stratified propensity score matching approach conditional on the discretized duration of unemployment until the program starts. The results showed that individuals who participated in EAS within the first four weeks after initiating an EI claim had the best impacts on earnings and incidence of employment while also experiencing reduced use of EI starting the second year post-program.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014709
    Description:

    Traffic congestion is not limited to large cities but is also becoming a problem in medium-size cities and to roads going through cities. Among a large variety of congestion measures, six were selected for the ease of aggregation and their capacity to use the instantaneous information from CVUS-light component in 2014. From the selected measures, the Index of Congestion is potentially the only one not biased. This measure is used to illustrate different dimension of congestion on the road network.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014740
    Description:

    In this paper, we discuss the impacts of Employment Benefit and Support Measures delivered in Canada under the Labour Market Development Agreements. We use linked rich longitudinal administrative data covering all LMDA participants from 2002 to 2005. We Apply propensity score matching as in Blundell et al. (2002), Gerfin and Lechner (2002), and Sianesi (2004), and produced the national incremental impact estimates using difference-in-differences and Kernel Matching estimator (Heckman and Smith, 1999). The findings suggest that, both Employment Assistance Services and employment benefit such as Skills Development and Targeted Wage Subsidies had positive effects on earnings and employment.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201600114307
    Description:

    Using the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study examined the psychometric properties of the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (a short measure of non-specific psychological distress) for First Nations people living off reserve, Métis, and Inuit aged 15 or older.

    Release date: 2016-01-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500214238
    Description:

    Félix-Medina and Thompson (2004) proposed a variant of link-tracing sampling to sample hidden and/or hard-to-detect human populations such as drug users and sex workers. In their variant, an initial sample of venues is selected and the people found in the sampled venues are asked to name other members of the population to be included in the sample. Those authors derived maximum likelihood estimators of the population size under the assumption that the probability that a person is named by another in a sampled venue (link-probability) does not depend on the named person (homogeneity assumption). In this work we extend their research to the case of heterogeneous link-probabilities and derive unconditional and conditional maximum likelihood estimators of the population size. We also propose profile likelihood and bootstrap confidence intervals for the size of the population. The results of simulations studies carried out by us show that in presence of heterogeneous link-probabilities the proposed estimators perform reasonably well provided that relatively large sampling fractions, say larger than 0.5, be used, whereas the estimators derived under the homogeneity assumption perform badly. The outcomes also show that the proposed confidence intervals are not very robust to deviations from the assumed models.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201501214295
    Description:

    Using the Wisconsin Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Monitoring Network breast cancer simulation model adapted to the Canadian context, costs and quality-adjusted life years were evaluated for 11 mammography screening strategies that varied by start/stop age and screening frequency for the general population. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are presented, and sensitivity analyses are used to assess the robustness of model conclusions.

    Release date: 2015-12-16

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014257
    Description:

    The Canadian Vehicle Use Study is a survey conducted by Transport Canada in partnership with Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada and the provincial registrars. The study is divided in two components: the light vehicles like cars, minivans, SUVs and trucks with gross vehicle weight (GVW) less than 4.5 metric tons; the medium and heavy component with trucks of GVW of 4.5 metric tons and more. The study is the first that collects vehicle activity directly from the vehicle using electronic collection methods exclusively. This result in more information, which is very timely and reliable.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400114029
    Description:

    Fay and Train (1995) present a method called successive difference replication that can be used to estimate the variance of an estimated total from a systematic random sample from an ordered list. The estimator uses the general form of a replication variance estimator, where the replicate factors are constructed such that the estimator mimics the successive difference estimator. This estimator is a modification of the estimator given by Wolter (1985). The paper furthers the methodology by explaining the impact of the row assignments on the variance estimator, showing how a reduced set of replicates leads to a reasonable estimator, and establishing conditions for successive difference replication to be equivalent to the successive difference estimator.

    Release date: 2014-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201300111831
    Description:

    We consider conservative variance estimation for the Horvitz-Thompson estimator of a population total in sampling designs with zero pairwise inclusion probabilities, known as "non-measurable" designs. We decompose the standard Horvitz-Thompson variance estimator under such designs and characterize the bias precisely. We develop a bias correction that is guaranteed to be weakly conservative (nonnegatively biased) regardless of the nature of the non-measurability. The analysis sheds light on conditions under which the standard Horvitz-Thompson variance estimator performs well despite non-measurability and where the conservative bias correction may outperform commonly-used approximations.

    Release date: 2013-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201300111764
    Description:

    This study compares two sources of information about prescription drug use by people aged 65 or older in Ontario - the Canadian Community Health Survey and the drug claimsdatabase of the Ontario Drug Benefit Program. The analysis pertains to cardiovascular and diabetes drugs because they are commonly used, and almost all are prescribed on a regular basis.

    Release date: 2013-01-16

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100411598
    Description:

    With longitudinal data, lifetime health status dynamics can be estimated by modeling trajectories. Health status trajectories measured by the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) modeled as a function of age alone and also of age and socio-economic covariates revealed non-normal residuals and variance estimation problems. The possibility of transforming the HUI3 distribution to obtain residuals that approximate a normal distribution was investigated.

    Release date: 2011-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201100111449
    Description:

    We analyze the statistical and economic efficiency of different designs of cluster surveys collected in two consecutive time periods, or waves. In an independent design, two cluster samples in two waves are taken independently from one another. In a cluster-panel design, the same clusters are used in both waves, but samples within clusters are taken independently in two time periods. In an observation-panel design, both clusters and observations are retained from one wave of data collection to another. By assuming a simple population structure, we derive design variances and costs of the surveys conducted according to these designs. We first consider a situation in which the interest lies in estimation of the change in the population mean between two time periods, and derive the optimal sample allocations for the three designs of interest. We then propose the utility maximization framework borrowed from microeconomics to illustrate a possible approach to the choice of the design that strives to optimize several variances simultaneously. Incorporating the contemporaneous means and their variances tends to shift the preferences from observation-panel towards simpler panel-cluster and independent designs if the panel mode of data collection is too expensive. We present numeric illustrations demonstrating how a survey designer may want to choose the efficient design given the population parameters and data collection cost.

    Release date: 2011-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100111404
    Description:

    This study assesses three child-reported parenting behaviour scales (nurturance, rejection and monitoring) in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.

    Release date: 2011-02-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201000111252
    Description:

    Nonresponse bias has been a long-standing issue in survey research (Brehm 1993; Dillman, Eltinge, Groves and Little 2002), with numerous studies seeking to identify factors that affect both item and unit response. To contribute to the broader goal of minimizing survey nonresponse, this study considers several factors that can impact survey nonresponse, using a 2007 Animal Welfare Survey Conducted in Ohio, USA. In particular, the paper examines the extent to which topic salience and incentives affect survey participation and item nonresponse, drawing on the leverage-saliency theory (Groves, Singer and Corning 2000). We find that participation in a survey is affected by its subject context (as this exerts either positive or negative leverage on sampled units) and prepaid incentives, which is consistent with the leverage-saliency theory. Our expectations are also confirmed by the finding that item nonresponse, our proxy for response quality, does vary by proximity to agriculture and the environment (residential location, knowledge about how food is grown, and views about the importance of animal welfare). However, the data suggests that item nonresponse does not vary according to whether or not a respondent received incentives.

    Release date: 2010-06-29

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010957
    Description:

    Business surveys differ from surveys of populations of individual persons or households in many respects. Two of the most important differences are (a) that respondents in business surveys do not answer questions about characteristics of themselves (such as their experiences, behaviours, attitudes and feelings) but about characteristics of organizations (such as their size, revenues, policies, and strategies) and (b) that they answer these questions as an informant for that organization. Academic business surveys differ from other business surveys, such as of national statistical agencies, in many respects as well. The one most important difference is that academic business surveys usually do not aim at generating descriptive statistics but at testing hypotheses, i.e. relations between variables. Response rates in academic business surveys are very low, which implies a huge risk of non-response bias. Usually no attempt is made to assess the extent of non-response bias and published survey results might, therefore, not be a correct reflection of actual relations within the population, which in return increases the likelihood that the reported test result is not correct.

    This paper provides an analysis of how (the risk of) non-response bias is discussed in research papers published in top management journals. It demonstrates that non-response bias is not assessed to a sufficient degree and that, if attempted at all, correction of non-response bias is difficult or very costly in practice. Three approaches to dealing with this problem are presented and discussed:(a) obtaining data by other means than questionnaires;(b) conducting surveys of very small populations; and(c) conducting surveys of very small samples.

    It will be discussed why these approaches are appropriate means of testing hypotheses in populations. Trade-offs regarding the selection of an approach will be discussed as well.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200800210761
    Description:

    Optimum stratification is the method of choosing the best boundaries that make strata internally homogeneous, given some sample allocation. In order to make the strata internally homogenous, the strata should be constructed in such a way that the strata variances for the characteristic under study be as small as possible. This could be achieved effectively by having the distribution of the main study variable known and create strata by cutting the range of the distribution at suitable points. If the frequency distribution of the study variable is unknown, it may be approximated from the past experience or some prior knowledge obtained at a recent study. In this paper the problem of finding Optimum Strata Boundaries (OSB) is considered as the problem of determining Optimum Strata Widths (OSW). The problem is formulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP), which minimizes the variance of the estimated population parameter under Neyman allocation subject to the restriction that sum of the widths of all the strata is equal to the total range of the distribution. The distributions of the study variable are considered as continuous with Triangular and Standard Normal density functions. The formulated MPPs, which turn out to be multistage decision problems, can then be solved using dynamic programming technique proposed by Bühler and Deutler (1975). Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the computational details. The results obtained are also compared with the method of Dalenius and Hodges (1959) with an example of normal distribution.

    Release date: 2008-12-23

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200800110615
    Description:

    We consider optimal sampling rates in element-sampling designs when the anticipated analysis is survey-weighted linear regression and the estimands of interest are linear combinations of regression coefficients from one or more models. Methods are first developed assuming that exact design information is available in the sampling frame and then generalized to situations in which some design variables are available only as aggregates for groups of potential subjects, or from inaccurate or old data. We also consider design for estimation of combinations of coefficients from more than one model. A further generalization allows for flexible combinations of coefficients chosen to improve estimation of one effect while controlling for another. Potential applications include estimation of means for several sets of overlapping domains, or improving estimates for subpopulations such as minority races by disproportionate sampling of geographic areas. In the motivating problem of designing a survey on care received by cancer patients (the CanCORS study), potential design information included block-level census data on race/ethnicity and poverty as well as individual-level data. In one study site, an unequal-probability sampling design using the subjectss residential addresses and census data would have reduced the variance of the estimator of an income effect by 25%, or by 38% if the subjects' races were also known. With flexible weighting of the income contrasts by race, the variance of the estimator would be reduced by 26% using residential addresses alone and by 52% using addresses and races. Our methods would be useful in studies in which geographic oversampling by race-ethnicity or socioeconomic characteristics is considered, or in any study in which characteristics available in sampling frames are measured with error.

    Release date: 2008-06-26

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110414
    Description:

    In Finland the first national health examination surveys were carried out in the 1960s. Comprehensive surveys of nationally representative population samples have been carried out in 1978 to 1980 (The Mini-Finland Health Survey) and in 2000 to 2001 (Health 2000). Surveys of cardiovascular risk factors, so called FinRisk surveys, have assessed their trends every five years. The health examination surveys are an important tool of health monitoring, and, linked with registers also a rich source of data for epidemiological research. The paper also gives examples on reports published from several of these studies.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110425
    Description:

    Suppose data for a survey with multi-stage design is to be collected in two periods of time. This paper assesses the relative merits of keeping the same clusters in the sample vs. sampling new clusters, under different statistical (correlation between clusters and over time) and logistical (costs of survey) scenarios. The design effect of re-using the same clusters from the master sample over time is of the form "1 - Ap(pi)/n" where "p" is intertemporal correlation of the cluster totals, "n" is the number of clusters, "pi" is the proportion of clusters retained from the previous round, and "A>0" is a fixed constant. As long as the efficiency gains appear to be minor, the value of the designs that reuse the clusters comes from the logistical (cost of the survey) considerations. Empirical demonstration that uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for Bangladesh, 1996 and 2000, is provided.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200700210490
    Description:

    The European Union's Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) survey was introduced in 2004 as a replacement for the European Panel. It produces annual statistics on income distribution, poverty and social exclusion. First conducted in France in May 2004, it is a longitudinal survey of all individuals over the age of 15 in 16,000 dwellings selected from the master sample and the new-housing sample frame. All respondents are tracked over time, even when they move to a different dwelling. The survey also has to produce cross-sectional estimates of good quality.

    To limit the response burden, the sample design recommended by Eurostat is a rotation scheme consisting of four panels that remain in the sample for four years, with one panel replaced each year. France, however, decided to increase the panel duration to nine years. The rotating sample design meets the survey's longitudinal and cross-sectional requirements, but it presents some weighting challenges.

    Following a review of the inference context of a longitudinal survey, the paper discusses the longitudinal and cross-sectional weighting, which are designed to produce approximately unbiased estimators.

    Release date: 2008-01-03

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  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254887
    Description:

    This paper proposes a new approach to decompose the wage difference between men and women that is based on a calibration procedure. This approach generalizes two current decomposition methods that are re-expressed using survey weights. The first one is the Blinder-Oaxaca method and the second one is a reweighting method proposed by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux. The new approach provides a weighting system that enables us to estimate such parameters of interest like quantiles. An application to data from the Swiss Structure of Earnings Survey shows the interest of this method.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201600114307
    Description:

    Using the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study examined the psychometric properties of the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (a short measure of non-specific psychological distress) for First Nations people living off reserve, Métis, and Inuit aged 15 or older.

    Release date: 2016-01-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500214238
    Description:

    Félix-Medina and Thompson (2004) proposed a variant of link-tracing sampling to sample hidden and/or hard-to-detect human populations such as drug users and sex workers. In their variant, an initial sample of venues is selected and the people found in the sampled venues are asked to name other members of the population to be included in the sample. Those authors derived maximum likelihood estimators of the population size under the assumption that the probability that a person is named by another in a sampled venue (link-probability) does not depend on the named person (homogeneity assumption). In this work we extend their research to the case of heterogeneous link-probabilities and derive unconditional and conditional maximum likelihood estimators of the population size. We also propose profile likelihood and bootstrap confidence intervals for the size of the population. The results of simulations studies carried out by us show that in presence of heterogeneous link-probabilities the proposed estimators perform reasonably well provided that relatively large sampling fractions, say larger than 0.5, be used, whereas the estimators derived under the homogeneity assumption perform badly. The outcomes also show that the proposed confidence intervals are not very robust to deviations from the assumed models.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201501214295
    Description:

    Using the Wisconsin Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Monitoring Network breast cancer simulation model adapted to the Canadian context, costs and quality-adjusted life years were evaluated for 11 mammography screening strategies that varied by start/stop age and screening frequency for the general population. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are presented, and sensitivity analyses are used to assess the robustness of model conclusions.

    Release date: 2015-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400114029
    Description:

    Fay and Train (1995) present a method called successive difference replication that can be used to estimate the variance of an estimated total from a systematic random sample from an ordered list. The estimator uses the general form of a replication variance estimator, where the replicate factors are constructed such that the estimator mimics the successive difference estimator. This estimator is a modification of the estimator given by Wolter (1985). The paper furthers the methodology by explaining the impact of the row assignments on the variance estimator, showing how a reduced set of replicates leads to a reasonable estimator, and establishing conditions for successive difference replication to be equivalent to the successive difference estimator.

    Release date: 2014-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201300111831
    Description:

    We consider conservative variance estimation for the Horvitz-Thompson estimator of a population total in sampling designs with zero pairwise inclusion probabilities, known as "non-measurable" designs. We decompose the standard Horvitz-Thompson variance estimator under such designs and characterize the bias precisely. We develop a bias correction that is guaranteed to be weakly conservative (nonnegatively biased) regardless of the nature of the non-measurability. The analysis sheds light on conditions under which the standard Horvitz-Thompson variance estimator performs well despite non-measurability and where the conservative bias correction may outperform commonly-used approximations.

    Release date: 2013-06-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201300111764
    Description:

    This study compares two sources of information about prescription drug use by people aged 65 or older in Ontario - the Canadian Community Health Survey and the drug claimsdatabase of the Ontario Drug Benefit Program. The analysis pertains to cardiovascular and diabetes drugs because they are commonly used, and almost all are prescribed on a regular basis.

    Release date: 2013-01-16

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100411598
    Description:

    With longitudinal data, lifetime health status dynamics can be estimated by modeling trajectories. Health status trajectories measured by the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) modeled as a function of age alone and also of age and socio-economic covariates revealed non-normal residuals and variance estimation problems. The possibility of transforming the HUI3 distribution to obtain residuals that approximate a normal distribution was investigated.

    Release date: 2011-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201100111449
    Description:

    We analyze the statistical and economic efficiency of different designs of cluster surveys collected in two consecutive time periods, or waves. In an independent design, two cluster samples in two waves are taken independently from one another. In a cluster-panel design, the same clusters are used in both waves, but samples within clusters are taken independently in two time periods. In an observation-panel design, both clusters and observations are retained from one wave of data collection to another. By assuming a simple population structure, we derive design variances and costs of the surveys conducted according to these designs. We first consider a situation in which the interest lies in estimation of the change in the population mean between two time periods, and derive the optimal sample allocations for the three designs of interest. We then propose the utility maximization framework borrowed from microeconomics to illustrate a possible approach to the choice of the design that strives to optimize several variances simultaneously. Incorporating the contemporaneous means and their variances tends to shift the preferences from observation-panel towards simpler panel-cluster and independent designs if the panel mode of data collection is too expensive. We present numeric illustrations demonstrating how a survey designer may want to choose the efficient design given the population parameters and data collection cost.

    Release date: 2011-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100111404
    Description:

    This study assesses three child-reported parenting behaviour scales (nurturance, rejection and monitoring) in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.

    Release date: 2011-02-16

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201000111252
    Description:

    Nonresponse bias has been a long-standing issue in survey research (Brehm 1993; Dillman, Eltinge, Groves and Little 2002), with numerous studies seeking to identify factors that affect both item and unit response. To contribute to the broader goal of minimizing survey nonresponse, this study considers several factors that can impact survey nonresponse, using a 2007 Animal Welfare Survey Conducted in Ohio, USA. In particular, the paper examines the extent to which topic salience and incentives affect survey participation and item nonresponse, drawing on the leverage-saliency theory (Groves, Singer and Corning 2000). We find that participation in a survey is affected by its subject context (as this exerts either positive or negative leverage on sampled units) and prepaid incentives, which is consistent with the leverage-saliency theory. Our expectations are also confirmed by the finding that item nonresponse, our proxy for response quality, does vary by proximity to agriculture and the environment (residential location, knowledge about how food is grown, and views about the importance of animal welfare). However, the data suggests that item nonresponse does not vary according to whether or not a respondent received incentives.

    Release date: 2010-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200800210761
    Description:

    Optimum stratification is the method of choosing the best boundaries that make strata internally homogeneous, given some sample allocation. In order to make the strata internally homogenous, the strata should be constructed in such a way that the strata variances for the characteristic under study be as small as possible. This could be achieved effectively by having the distribution of the main study variable known and create strata by cutting the range of the distribution at suitable points. If the frequency distribution of the study variable is unknown, it may be approximated from the past experience or some prior knowledge obtained at a recent study. In this paper the problem of finding Optimum Strata Boundaries (OSB) is considered as the problem of determining Optimum Strata Widths (OSW). The problem is formulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP), which minimizes the variance of the estimated population parameter under Neyman allocation subject to the restriction that sum of the widths of all the strata is equal to the total range of the distribution. The distributions of the study variable are considered as continuous with Triangular and Standard Normal density functions. The formulated MPPs, which turn out to be multistage decision problems, can then be solved using dynamic programming technique proposed by Bühler and Deutler (1975). Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the computational details. The results obtained are also compared with the method of Dalenius and Hodges (1959) with an example of normal distribution.

    Release date: 2008-12-23

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200800110615
    Description:

    We consider optimal sampling rates in element-sampling designs when the anticipated analysis is survey-weighted linear regression and the estimands of interest are linear combinations of regression coefficients from one or more models. Methods are first developed assuming that exact design information is available in the sampling frame and then generalized to situations in which some design variables are available only as aggregates for groups of potential subjects, or from inaccurate or old data. We also consider design for estimation of combinations of coefficients from more than one model. A further generalization allows for flexible combinations of coefficients chosen to improve estimation of one effect while controlling for another. Potential applications include estimation of means for several sets of overlapping domains, or improving estimates for subpopulations such as minority races by disproportionate sampling of geographic areas. In the motivating problem of designing a survey on care received by cancer patients (the CanCORS study), potential design information included block-level census data on race/ethnicity and poverty as well as individual-level data. In one study site, an unequal-probability sampling design using the subjectss residential addresses and census data would have reduced the variance of the estimator of an income effect by 25%, or by 38% if the subjects' races were also known. With flexible weighting of the income contrasts by race, the variance of the estimator would be reduced by 26% using residential addresses alone and by 52% using addresses and races. Our methods would be useful in studies in which geographic oversampling by race-ethnicity or socioeconomic characteristics is considered, or in any study in which characteristics available in sampling frames are measured with error.

    Release date: 2008-06-26

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X200700210490
    Description:

    The European Union's Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) survey was introduced in 2004 as a replacement for the European Panel. It produces annual statistics on income distribution, poverty and social exclusion. First conducted in France in May 2004, it is a longitudinal survey of all individuals over the age of 15 in 16,000 dwellings selected from the master sample and the new-housing sample frame. All respondents are tracked over time, even when they move to a different dwelling. The survey also has to produce cross-sectional estimates of good quality.

    To limit the response burden, the sample design recommended by Eurostat is a rotation scheme consisting of four panels that remain in the sample for four years, with one panel replaced each year. France, however, decided to increase the panel duration to nine years. The rotating sample design meets the survey's longitudinal and cross-sectional requirements, but it presents some weighting challenges.

    Following a review of the inference context of a longitudinal survey, the paper discusses the longitudinal and cross-sectional weighting, which are designed to produce approximately unbiased estimators.

    Release date: 2008-01-03

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20050018092
    Description:

    When there is auxiliary information in survey sampling, the design based "optimal (regression) estimator" of a finite population total/mean is known to be (at least asymptotically) more efficient than the corresponding GREG estimator. We will illustrate this by some simulations with stratified sampling from skewed populations. The GREG estimator was originally constructed using an assisting linear superpopulation model. It may also be seen as a calibration estimator; i.e., as a weighted linear estimator, where the weights obey the calibration equation and, with that restriction, are as close as possible to the original "Horvitz-Thompson weights" (according to a suitable distance). We show that the optimal estimator can also be seen as a calibration estimator in this respect, with a quadratic distance measure closely related to the one generating the GREG estimator. Simple examples will also be given, revealing that this new measure is not always easily obtained.

    Release date: 2005-07-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20040027752
    Description:

    The Best Linear Unbiased (BLU) estimator (or predictor) of a population total is based on the following two assumptions: i) the estimation model underlying the BLU estimator is correctly specified and ii) the sampling design is ignorable with respect to the estimation model. In this context, an estimator is robust if it stays close to the BLU estimator when both assumptions hold and if it keeps good properties when one or both assumptions are not fully satisfied. Robustness with respect to deviations from assumption (i) is called model robustness while robustness with respect to deviations from assumption (ii) is called design robustness. The Generalized Regression (GREG) estimator is often viewed as being robust since its property of being Asymptotically Design Unbiased (ADU) is not dependent on assumptions (i) and (ii). However, if both assumptions hold, the GREG estimator may be far less efficient than the BLU estimator and, in that sense, it is not robust. The relative inefficiency of the GREG estimator as compared to the BLU estimator is caused by widely dispersed design weights. To obtain a design-robust estimator, we thus propose a compromise between the GREG and the BLU estimators. This compromise also provides some protection against deviations from assumption (i). However, it does not offer any protection against outliers, which can be viewed as a consequence of a model misspecification. To deal with outliers, we use the weighted generalized M-estimation technique to reduce the influence of units with large weighted population residuals. We propose two practical ways of implementing M-estimators for multipurpose surveys; either the weights of influential units are modified and a calibration approach is used to obtain a single set of robust estimation weights or the values of influential units are modified. Some properties of the proposed approach are evaluated in a simulation study using a skewed finite population created from real survey data.

    Release date: 2005-02-03

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20030026780
    Description:

    Coverage errors and other coverage issues related to the population censuses are examined in the light of the recent literature. Especially, when the actual population census count of persons are matched with their corresponding post enumeration survey counts, the aggregated results in a dual record system setting can provide some coverage error statistics.

    In this paper, the coverage error issues are evaluated and alternative solutions are discussed in the light of the results from the latest Population Census of Turkey. By using the Census and post enumeration survey data, regional comparison of census coverage was also made and has shown greater variability among regions. Some methodological remarks are also made on the possible improvements on the current enumeration procedures.

    Release date: 2004-01-27

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20030016612
    Description:

    In the present investigation, we introduce new calibration equations to estimate the population mean in stratified simple random sampling, making use of second order moments of the auxiliary character. We also suggest ways for estimating the variance of the proposed estimator. The resultant new estimator can be more efficient in stratified sampling than the combined regression estimator. Thus, we have extended the idea to double sampling in a stratified population and have studied the simulation results.

    Release date: 2003-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016413
    Description:

    Leslie Kish long advocated a "rolling sample" design, with non-overlapping monthly panels which can be cumulated over different lengths of time for domains of different sizes. This enables a single survey to serve multiple purposes. The Census Bureau's new American Community Survey (ACS) uses such a rolling sample design, with annual averages to measure change at the state level, and three-year or five-year moving averages to describe progressively smaller domains. This paper traces Kish's influence on the development of the American Community Survey, and discusses some practical methodological issues that had to be addressed in implementing the design.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010015859
    Description:

    In 2001, the INSEE conducted a survey to better understand the homeless population. Since there was no survey frame to allow direct access to homeless persons, the survey principle involved sampling the services they received and questioning the individuals who used those services. Weighting the individual input to the survey proved difficult because a single individual could receive several services within the designated reference period. This article shows how it is possible to apply the weight sharing method to resolve this problem. In this type of survey, a single variable can produce several parameters of interest corresponding to populations varying with time. A set of weights corresponds to each definition of parameters. The article focuses, in particular, on "an average day" and "an average week" weight calculation. Information is also provided on the use data to be collected and the nonresponse adjustment.

    Release date: 2001-08-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X19980024355
    Description:

    Two sampling strategies have been proposed for estimating the finite population total for the most recent occasion, based on the samples selected over two occasions involving varying probability sampling schemes. Attempts have been made to utilize the data collected on a study variable, in the first occasion, as a measure of size and a stratification variable for selection of the matched-sample on the second occasion. Relative efficiencies of the proposed strategies have been compared with suitable alternatives.

    Release date: 1999-01-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X19980013904
    Description:

    Many economic and agricultural surveys are multi-purpose. It would be convenient if one could stratify the target population of such a survey in a number of different purposes and then combine the samples for enumeration. We explore four different sampling methods that select similar samples across all stratifications thereby reducing the overall sample size. Data from an agriculture survey is used to evaluate the effectiveness of these alternative sampling strategies. We then show how a calibration (i.e., reweighted) estimator can increase statistical efficiency by capturing what is known about the original stratum sizes in the estimation. Raking, which has been suggested in the literature for this purpose, is simply one method of calibration.

    Release date: 1998-07-31

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199400214427
    Description:

    A generalized regression estimator for domains and an approximate estimator of its variance are derived under two-phase sampling for stratification with Poisson selection at each phase. The derivations represent an application of the general framework for regression estimation for two-phase sampling developed by Särndal and Swensson (1987) and Särndal, Swensson and Wretman (1992). The empirical efficiency of the generalized regression estimator is examined using data from Statistics Canada’s annual two-phase sample of tax records. Three particular cases of the generalized regression estimator - two regression estimators and a poststratified estimator - are compared to the Horvitz-Thompson estimator.

    Release date: 1994-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300214459
    Description:

    Record linkage is the matching of records containing data on individuals, businesses or dwellings when a unique identifier is not available. Methods used in practice involve classification of record pairs as links and non-links using an automated procedure based on the theoretical framework introduced by Fellegi and Sunter (1969). The estimation of classification error rates is an important issue. Fellegi and Sunter provide a method for calculation of classification error rate estimates as a direct by-product of linkage. These model-based estimates are easier to produce than the estimates based on manual matching of samples that are typically used in practice. Properties of model-based classification error rate estimates obtained using three estimators of model parameters are compared.

    Release date: 1993-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199300214460
    Description:

    Methods for estimating response bias in surveys require “unbiased” remeasurements for at least a subsample of observations. The usual estimator of response bias is the difference between the mean of the original observations and the mean of the unbiased observations. In this article, we explore a number of alternative estimators of response bias derived from a model prediction approach. The assumed sampling design is a stratified two-phase design implementing simple random sampling in each phase. We assume that the characteristic, y, is observed for each unit selected in phase 1 while the true value of the characteristic, \mu, is obtained for each unit in the subsample selected at phase 2. We further assume that an auxiliary variable x is known for each unit in the phase 1 sample and that the population total of x is known. A number of models relating y, \mu and x are assumed which yield alternative estimators of E (y - \mu), the response bias. The estimators are evaluated using a bootstrap procedure for estimating variance, bias, and mean squared error. Our bootstrap procedure is an extension of the Bickel-Freedman single phase method to the case of a stratified two-phase design. As an illustration, the methodology is applied to data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service reinterview program. For these data, we show that the usual difference estimator is outperformed by the model-assisted estimator suggested by Särndal, Swensson and Wretman (1991), thus indicating that improvements over the traditional estimator are possible using the model prediction approach.

    Release date: 1993-12-15

Reference (32)

Reference (32) (25 of 32 results)

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014735
    Description:

    Microdata dissemination normally requires data reduction and modification methods be applied, and the degree to which these methods are applied depend on the control methods that will be required to access and use the data. An approach that is in some circumstances more suitable for accessing data for statistical purposes is secure computation, which involves computing analytic functions on encrypted data without the need to decrypt the underlying source data to run a statistical analysis. This approach also allows multiple sites to contribute data while providing strong privacy guarantees. This way the data can be pooled and contributors can compute analytic functions without either party knowing their inputs. We explain how secure computation can be applied in practical contexts, with some theoretical results and real healthcare examples.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014714
    Description:

    The Labour Market Development Agreements (LMDAs) between Canada and the provinces and territories fund labour market training and support services to Employment Insurance claimants. The objective of this paper is to discuss the improvements over the years in the impact assessment methodology. The paper describes the LMDAs and past evaluation work and discusses the drivers to make better use of large administrative data holdings. It then explains how the new approach made the evaluation less resource-intensive, while results are more relevant to policy development. The paper outlines the lessons learned from a methodological perspective and provides insight into ways for making this type of use of administrative data effective, especially in the context of large programs.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014738
    Description:

    In the standard design approach to missing observations, the construction of weight classes and calibration are used to adjust the design weights for the respondents in the sample. Here we use these adjusted weights to define a Dirichlet distribution which can be used to make inferences about the population. Examples show that the resulting procedures have better performance properties than the standard methods when the population is skewed.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014743
    Description:

    Probabilistic linkage is susceptible to linkage errors such as false positives and false negatives. In many cases, these errors may be reliably measured through clerical-reviews, i.e. the visual inspection of a sample of record pairs to determine if they are matched. A framework is described to effectively carry-out such clerical-reviews based on a probabilistic sample of pairs, repeated independent reviews of the same pairs and latent class analysis to account for clerical errors.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014718
    Description:

    This study assessed whether starting participation in Employment Assistance Services (EAS) earlier after initiating an Employment Insurance (EI) claim leads to better impacts for unemployed individuals than participating later during the EI benefit period. As in Sianesi (2004) and Hujer and Thomsen (2010), the analysis relied on a stratified propensity score matching approach conditional on the discretized duration of unemployment until the program starts. The results showed that individuals who participated in EAS within the first four weeks after initiating an EI claim had the best impacts on earnings and incidence of employment while also experiencing reduced use of EI starting the second year post-program.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014709
    Description:

    Traffic congestion is not limited to large cities but is also becoming a problem in medium-size cities and to roads going through cities. Among a large variety of congestion measures, six were selected for the ease of aggregation and their capacity to use the instantaneous information from CVUS-light component in 2014. From the selected measures, the Index of Congestion is potentially the only one not biased. This measure is used to illustrate different dimension of congestion on the road network.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014740
    Description:

    In this paper, we discuss the impacts of Employment Benefit and Support Measures delivered in Canada under the Labour Market Development Agreements. We use linked rich longitudinal administrative data covering all LMDA participants from 2002 to 2005. We Apply propensity score matching as in Blundell et al. (2002), Gerfin and Lechner (2002), and Sianesi (2004), and produced the national incremental impact estimates using difference-in-differences and Kernel Matching estimator (Heckman and Smith, 1999). The findings suggest that, both Employment Assistance Services and employment benefit such as Skills Development and Targeted Wage Subsidies had positive effects on earnings and employment.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014257
    Description:

    The Canadian Vehicle Use Study is a survey conducted by Transport Canada in partnership with Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada and the provincial registrars. The study is divided in two components: the light vehicles like cars, minivans, SUVs and trucks with gross vehicle weight (GVW) less than 4.5 metric tons; the medium and heavy component with trucks of GVW of 4.5 metric tons and more. The study is the first that collects vehicle activity directly from the vehicle using electronic collection methods exclusively. This result in more information, which is very timely and reliable.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010957
    Description:

    Business surveys differ from surveys of populations of individual persons or households in many respects. Two of the most important differences are (a) that respondents in business surveys do not answer questions about characteristics of themselves (such as their experiences, behaviours, attitudes and feelings) but about characteristics of organizations (such as their size, revenues, policies, and strategies) and (b) that they answer these questions as an informant for that organization. Academic business surveys differ from other business surveys, such as of national statistical agencies, in many respects as well. The one most important difference is that academic business surveys usually do not aim at generating descriptive statistics but at testing hypotheses, i.e. relations between variables. Response rates in academic business surveys are very low, which implies a huge risk of non-response bias. Usually no attempt is made to assess the extent of non-response bias and published survey results might, therefore, not be a correct reflection of actual relations within the population, which in return increases the likelihood that the reported test result is not correct.

    This paper provides an analysis of how (the risk of) non-response bias is discussed in research papers published in top management journals. It demonstrates that non-response bias is not assessed to a sufficient degree and that, if attempted at all, correction of non-response bias is difficult or very costly in practice. Three approaches to dealing with this problem are presented and discussed:(a) obtaining data by other means than questionnaires;(b) conducting surveys of very small populations; and(c) conducting surveys of very small samples.

    It will be discussed why these approaches are appropriate means of testing hypotheses in populations. Trade-offs regarding the selection of an approach will be discussed as well.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110414
    Description:

    In Finland the first national health examination surveys were carried out in the 1960s. Comprehensive surveys of nationally representative population samples have been carried out in 1978 to 1980 (The Mini-Finland Health Survey) and in 2000 to 2001 (Health 2000). Surveys of cardiovascular risk factors, so called FinRisk surveys, have assessed their trends every five years. The health examination surveys are an important tool of health monitoring, and, linked with registers also a rich source of data for epidemiological research. The paper also gives examples on reports published from several of these studies.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110425
    Description:

    Suppose data for a survey with multi-stage design is to be collected in two periods of time. This paper assesses the relative merits of keeping the same clusters in the sample vs. sampling new clusters, under different statistical (correlation between clusters and over time) and logistical (costs of survey) scenarios. The design effect of re-using the same clusters from the master sample over time is of the form "1 - Ap(pi)/n" where "p" is intertemporal correlation of the cluster totals, "n" is the number of clusters, "pi" is the proportion of clusters retained from the previous round, and "A>0" is a fixed constant. As long as the efficiency gains appear to be minor, the value of the designs that reuse the clusters comes from the logistical (cost of the survey) considerations. Empirical demonstration that uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for Bangladesh, 1996 and 2000, is provided.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20040018745
    Description:

    The testing of questionnaires with specialized populations such as Aboriginal people, homosexuals, bisexuals, children, victims of abuse brings challenges: identifying respondents, testing methodology, location of testing, respondent rapport and trust.

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20040018733
    Description:

    A survey on injecting drug users is designed to use the information collected from needle exchange centres and from sampled injecting drug users. A methodology is developed to produce various estimates.

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20040018738
    Description:

    This paper describes the efforts made during the 2001 UK Census to both maximise and measure the response in the hardest to count sectors of the population. It also discusses the research that will be undertaken for the 2011 UK Census.

    Release date: 2005-10-27

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20030017605
    Description:

    This paper reviews various field-based approaches to monitoring field interviewing techniques, including training certification, post-training field observations, reviews of computer-assisted recorded interviews and externally recorded interviews, GPS data, and case verifications.

    Release date: 2005-01-26

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20030017598
    Description:

    This paper looks at descriptive statistics to evaluate non-response in the Labour Force Survey (LFS) and also at ways of improving the current methodology of making non-response adjustments.

    Release date: 2005-01-26

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20030017704
    Description:

    This paper describes the method used to weight France's Construction des identités Survey. The system involved overlapping survey frames and had problems randomly selecting some individuals.

    Release date: 2005-01-26

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20030017594
    Description:

    This article describes the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC), which will replace the European Panel beginning in 2004. It also looks at the use of the weight share method in the longitudinal and cross-sectional weightings of the SILC.

    Release date: 2005-01-26

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20020016726
    Description:

    Although the use of school vouchers is growing in the developing world, the impact of vouchers is an open question. Any sort of long-term assessment of this activity is rare. This paper estimates the long-term effect of Colombia's PACES program, which provided over 125,000 poor children with vouchers that covered half the cost of private secondary school.

    The PACES program presents an unusual opportunity to assess the effect of demand-side education financing in a Latin American country where private schools educate a substantial proportion of pupils. The program is of special interest because many vouchers were assigned by lottery, so program effects can be reliably assessed.

    We use administrative records to assess the long-term impact of PACES vouchers on high school graduation status and test scores. The principal advantage of administrative records is that there is no loss-to-follow-up and the data are much cheaper than a costly and potentially dangerous survey effort. On the other hand, individual ID numbers may be inaccurate, complicating record linkage, and selection bias contaminates the sample of test-takers. We discuss solutions to these problems. The results suggest that the program increased secondary school completion rates, and that college-entrance test scores were higher for lottery winners than losers.

    Release date: 2004-09-13

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20020016723
    Description:

    Categorical outcomes, such as binary, ordinal and nominal responses, occur often in survey research. Logistic regression investigates the relationship between such categorical responses variables and a set of explanatory variables. The LOGISTIC procedure can be used to perform a logistic analysis on data from a random sample. However, this approach is not valid if the data come from other sample designs, such as complex survey designs with stratification, clustering and/or unequal weighting. In these cases, specialized techniques must be applied in order to produce the appropriate estimates and standard errors.

    The SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure, experimental in Version 9, brings logistic regression for survey data to the SAS System and delivers much of the functionality of the LOGISTIC procedure. This paper describes the methodological approach and applications for this new software.

    Release date: 2004-09-13

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016235
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Police records collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) through the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program are the leading source of national crime statistics. Recently, audits to correct UCR records have raised concerns as to how to handle the errors discovered in these files. Concerns centre around the methodology used to detect errors and the procedures used to correct errors once they have been discovered. This paper explores these concerns, focusing on sampling methodology, establishment of a statistical-adjustment factor, and alternative solutions. The paper distinguishes the difference between sample adjustment and sample estimates of an agency's data, and recommends sample adjustment as the most accurate way of dealing with errors.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016289
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Increasing demand for electronic reporting in establishment surveys has placed additional emphasis on incorporating usability into electronic forms. We are just beginning to understand the implications surrounding electronic forms design. Cognitive interviewing and usability testing are analogous in that both types of testing have similar goals: to build an end instrument (paper or electronic) that reduces both respondent burden and measurement error. Cognitive testing has greatly influenced paper forms design and can also be applied towards the development of electronic forms. Usability testing expands on existing cognitive testing methodology to include examination of the interaction between the respondent and the electronic form.

    The upcoming U.S. 2002 Economic Census will offer businesses the ability to report information using electronic forms. The U.S. Census Bureau is creating an electronic forms style guide outlining the design standards to be used in electronic form creation. The style guide's design standards are based on usability principles, usability and cognitive test results, and Graphical User Interface standards. This paper highlights the major electronic forms design issues raised during the preparation of the style guide and describes how usability testing and cognitive interviewing resolved these issues.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016295
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    In order to compensate for unreported, missing, unreasonable, or unusable data, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program conducts data estimations and imputations using a variety of statistical methods. This paper illustrates how offence and arrest data are estimated using a variety of different approaches. The paper also points out the strengths and the shortcomings of each approach.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016236
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program has devoted a considerable amount of resources in a continuous effort to improve the quality of its data. In this paper, the authors introduce and discuss the use of the cross-ratios and chi-square measures to evaluate the rationality of the data. The UCR data is used to empirically illustrate this approach.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016300
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) produces many statistics that help the government and the wider community make more informed decisions. However, if these decisions are to be truly informed, it is essential that the users are able to understand the limitations of the statistics and how to use the data in an appropriate context. As a result, the ABS has initiated a project entitled Qualifying Quality, which focuses on two key directions: presentation and education. Presentation provides people with information about the quality of the data in order to help them answer the question "Are the data fit for the purpose?"; while education assists those people in appreciating the importance of information on quality and knowing how to use such information. In addressing these two issues, the project also aims to develop and identify processes and technical systems that will support and encourage the appropriate use of data.

    This paper provides an overview of the presentation and education initiatives which have arisen from this project. The paper then explores the different methods of presentation, the systems that support them, and how the education strategies interact with each other. In particular, the paper comments on the importance of supporting education strategies with well developed systems and appropriate presentation methods.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

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