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All (15) (15 of 15 results)

  • Articles and reports: 91F0015M1996002
    Description:

    This paper attempts to rescue a small but nonetheless important segment of the Canadian population from neglect, those classified by the census as long-term residents in collective dwellings. In 1991, 440,000 Canadians belonged to this population, living in nursing homes, correctional institutions, rooming houses and the like. The changing age-sex structure of the Canadian population caused their number to increase between 1971 and 1991, despite the fact that Canadian men and women were less likely at most ages to live in collective dwellings in the latter year.

    Non-census data on several segments of this population are reviewed, especially for people in health-related institutions and in correctional facilities, and reveal that long-term residents are in each case a small fraction of a much larger population with a relatively brief contact with the institution on average. This review concludes that non-census data can provide a useful context for the study of the population in collective dwellings, but that the census is at present the only data source providing a comprehensive overview, despite the limited data collected and the even more limited data published.

    Special tabulations from the 1971, 1981 and 1991 censuses are used to explore its changing size and age-sex structure with particular attention to three of its components, people in health-related institutions, in service collective dwellings and in religious institutions. A significant difference between people in collective dwellings and those in private dwellings is that the former have, whether willingly or unwillingly, left the family circle. Hence, marital status is a key variable, and is used to show the close relationship between the changing marital status of the population, in particular the declining numbers of the never married and the growing numbers of separated, widowed or divorced older women, and structural changes.

    Release date: 1996-12-20

  • Public use microdata: 89M0005X
    Description:

    The objective of this survey was to collect attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral information regarding drinking and driving.

    Release date: 1996-10-21

  • Articles and reports: 91F0015M1996001
    Description:

    This paper describes the methodology for fertility projections used in the 1993-based population projections by age and sex for Canada, provinces and territories, 1993-2016. A new version of the parametric model known as the Pearsonian Type III curve was applied for projecting fertility age pattern. The Pearsonian Type III model is considered as an improvement over the Type I used in the past projections. This is because the Type III curve better portrays both the distribution of the age-specific fertility rates and the estimates of births. Since the 1993-based population projections are the first official projections to incorporate the net census undercoverage in the population base, it has been necessary to recalculate fertility rates based on the adjusted population estimates. This recalculation resulted in lowering the historical series of age-specific and total fertility rates, 1971-1993. The three sets of fertility assumptions and projections were developed with these adjusted annual fertility rates.

    It is hoped that this paper will provide valuable information about the technical and analytical aspects of the current fertility projection model. Discussions on the current and future levels and age pattern of fertility in Canada, provinces and territories are also presented in the paper.

    Release date: 1996-08-02

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114389
    Description:

    There are a number of asymptotically equivalent procedures for deriving the Taylor series approximation of variances for complex statistics. In Binder and Patak (1994) the theoretical justification for one class of methods was derived. However, many of these methods can be derived for practical examples using straightforward techniques that are not clearly described in Binder and Patak. In this paper we give a “cookbook” approach that can be used for many examples, and that has been shown to have good finite sample properties. Normally the method of choice becomes clear through arguments such as model-assisted methods or linearizing the jackknife; however, using our approach yields the desired results more directly. As well, we present new results on the application of these techniques to two-phase samples.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114384
    Description:

    The Lavallée-Hidiroglou (L-H) method of finding stratification boundaries has been used in the Census Bureau’s Annual Capital Expenditures Survey (ACES) to stratify part of its universe in the pilot study and the subsequent preliminary survey. This iterative method minimizes the sample size while fixing the desired reliability level by constructing appropriate boundary points. However, we encountered two problems in our application. One problem was that different starting boundaries resulted in different ending boundaries. The other problem was that the convergence to locally-optimal boundaries was slow, i.e., the number of iterations was large and convergence was not guaranteed. This paper addresses our difficulties with the L-H method and shows how they were resolved so that this procedure would work well for the ACES. In particular, we describe how contour plots were constructed and used to help illustrate how insignificant these problems were once the L-H method was applied. This paper describes revisions made to the L-H method; revisions that made it a practical method of finding stratification boundaries for ACES.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114386
    Description:

    In some surveys, many auxiliary variables are available for respondents and nonrespondents for use in nonresponse adjustment. One decision that arises is how to select which of the auxiliary variables should be used for this purpose and another decision involves how the selected variables should be used. Several approaches to forming weighting adjustments for nonresponse are considered in this research. The methods include those based on logistic regression models, categorical search algorithms, and generalized raking. These methods are applied to adjust for panel nonresponse in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). The estimates from the alternative adjustments are assessed by comparing them to one another and to benchmark estimates from other sources.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114383
    Description:

    The estimation of the trend-cycle with the X-11-ARIMA method is often done using the 13-term Henderson filter applied to seasonally adjusted data modified by extreme values. This filter however, produces a large number of unwanted ripples in the final or “historical” trend-cycle curve which are interpreted as false turning points. The use of a longer Henderson filter such as the 23-term is not an alternative for this filter is sluggish to detect turning points and consequently is not useful for current economic and business analysis. This paper proposes a new method that enables the use of the 13-term Henderson filter with the advantages of: (i) reducing the number of unwanted ripples; (ii) reducing the size of the revisions to preliminary values and (iii) no increase in the time lag to detect turning points. The results are illustrated with nine leading indicator series of the Canadian Composite Leading Index.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114381
    Description:

    Problems arising from statistical disclosure control, which aims to prevent that information about individual respondents is disclosed by users of data, have come to the fore rapidly in recent years. The main reason for this is the growing demand for detailed data provided by statistical offices caused by the still increasing use of computers. In former days tables with relatively little information were published. Nowadays the users of data demand much more detailed tables and, moreover, microdata to analyze by themselves. Because of this increase in information content statistical disclosure control has become much more difficult. In this paper the authors give their view on the problems which one encounters when trying to protect microdata against disclosure. This view is based on their experience with statistical disclosure control acquired at Statistics Netherlands.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114382
    Description:

    A general algorithm with equal probabilities is presented. The author provides the second order inclusion probabilities that correspond to the algorithm, which generalizes the selection-rejection method, so that a sample may be drawn using simple random sampling without replacement. Another particular case of the algorithm, called moving stratification algorithm, is discussed. A smooth stratification effect can be obtained by using, as a stratification variable, the serial number of the observation units. The author provides approximations of first and second order inclusion probabilities. These approximations lead to a population mean estimator and to an estimator of the variance of this mean estimator. The algorithm is then compared to a classical stratified plan with proportional allocation.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114385
    Description:

    The multiple capture-recapture census is reconsidered by relaxing the traditional perfect matching assumption. We propose matching error models to characterize error-prone matching mechanisms. The observed data take the form of an incomplete 2^k contingency table with one missing cell and follow a multinomial distribution. We develop a procedure for the estimation of the population size. Our approach applies to both standard log-linear models for contingency tables and log-linear models for heterogeneity of catchability. We illustrate the method and estimation using a 1988 dress rehearsal study for the 1990 census conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114387
    Description:

    In this paper, we consider analysis of variance methodology for inverse Gaussian distribution and adapt it for estimation of small area parameters in finite populations. It is demonstrated, through a Monte Carlo study, that these estimators offer a competitive choice for positively skewed survey data such as income or yield of a particular sector.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114388
    Description:

    Variance estimation for the poststratified estimator and the generalized regression estimator of a total under stratified multi-stage sampling is considered. By linearizing the jackknife variance estimator, a jackknife linearization variance estimator is obtained which is different from the standard linearization variance estimator. This variance estimator is computationally simpler than the jackknife variance estimator and yet leads to values close to the jackknife. Properties of the jackknife linearization variance estimator, the standard linearized variance estimator, and the jackknife variance estimator are studied through a simulation study. All of the variance estimators performed well both unconditionally and conditionally given a measure of how far away the estimated totals of auxiliary variables are from the known population totals. A jackknife variance estimator based on incorrect reweighting performed poorly, indicating the importance of correct reweighting when using the jackknife method.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960022891
    Description:

    Last November, Statistics Canada hosted its 12th annual International Symposium on Methodology Issues. This report outlines selected speakers' observations about the radical changes taking place in the creation and delivery of statistical information.

    Release date: 1996-06-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996091
    Description:

    Introduction: In the current economic context, all partners in health care delivery systems, be they public or private, are obliged to identify the factors that influence the utilization of health care services. To improve our understanding of the phenomena that underlie these relationships, Statistics Canada and the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy and Evaluation have just set up a new database. For a representative sample of the population of the province of Manitoba, cross-sectional microdata on individuals' health and socio-economic characteristics were linked with detailed longitudinal data on utilization of health care services.

    Data and methods: The 1986-87 Health and Activity Limitation Survey, the 1986 Census and the files of Manitoba Health were matched (without using names or addresses) by means of the CANLINK software. In the pilot project, 20,000 units were selected from the Census according to modern sampling techniques. Before the files were matched, consultations were held and an agreement was signed by all parties in order to establish a framework for protecting privacy and preserving the confidentiality of the data.

    Results: A matching rate of 74% was obtained for private households. A quality evaluation based on the comparisons of names and addresses over a small subsample established that the overall concordance rate among matched pairs was 95.5%. The match rates and concordance rates varied according to age and household composition. Estimates produced from the sample accurately reflected the socio-demographic profile, mortality, hospitalization rate, health care costs and consumption of health care by Manitoba residents.

    Discussion: The matching rate of 74% was satisfactory in comparison with the response rates reported in most population surveys. Because of the excellent concordance rate and the accuracy of the estimates obtained from the sample, this database will provide an adequate basis for studying the association between socio-demographic characteristics, health and health care utilization in province of Manitoba.

    Release date: 1996-03-30

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950032450
    Description:

    Abridged life tables centred on 1991 were produced from the 1991 Canadian census, net census undercoverage estimates, and death data from 1990 to 1992. The sensitivity of life table values to differing methods of estimation and population estimates was investigated. The results from four methods by Greville, Chiang, and Keyfitz were compared, and population undercoverage, were used to test the effects of method and type of population estimate on life table values. The results indicate that the method used to derive the estimates had much less influence on the life table values than did the choice of population estimate. The change life expectancy at birth due to the method of calculation chosen was at most 15 days, whereas the change due to the population estimate chosen was about 73 days. Since there are age, sex and provincial variations in net undercoverage rates, life expectancies differed accordingly.

    Release date: 1996-02-09

Data (1)

Data (1) (1 result)

Analysis (14)

Analysis (14) (14 of 14 results)

  • Articles and reports: 91F0015M1996002
    Description:

    This paper attempts to rescue a small but nonetheless important segment of the Canadian population from neglect, those classified by the census as long-term residents in collective dwellings. In 1991, 440,000 Canadians belonged to this population, living in nursing homes, correctional institutions, rooming houses and the like. The changing age-sex structure of the Canadian population caused their number to increase between 1971 and 1991, despite the fact that Canadian men and women were less likely at most ages to live in collective dwellings in the latter year.

    Non-census data on several segments of this population are reviewed, especially for people in health-related institutions and in correctional facilities, and reveal that long-term residents are in each case a small fraction of a much larger population with a relatively brief contact with the institution on average. This review concludes that non-census data can provide a useful context for the study of the population in collective dwellings, but that the census is at present the only data source providing a comprehensive overview, despite the limited data collected and the even more limited data published.

    Special tabulations from the 1971, 1981 and 1991 censuses are used to explore its changing size and age-sex structure with particular attention to three of its components, people in health-related institutions, in service collective dwellings and in religious institutions. A significant difference between people in collective dwellings and those in private dwellings is that the former have, whether willingly or unwillingly, left the family circle. Hence, marital status is a key variable, and is used to show the close relationship between the changing marital status of the population, in particular the declining numbers of the never married and the growing numbers of separated, widowed or divorced older women, and structural changes.

    Release date: 1996-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 91F0015M1996001
    Description:

    This paper describes the methodology for fertility projections used in the 1993-based population projections by age and sex for Canada, provinces and territories, 1993-2016. A new version of the parametric model known as the Pearsonian Type III curve was applied for projecting fertility age pattern. The Pearsonian Type III model is considered as an improvement over the Type I used in the past projections. This is because the Type III curve better portrays both the distribution of the age-specific fertility rates and the estimates of births. Since the 1993-based population projections are the first official projections to incorporate the net census undercoverage in the population base, it has been necessary to recalculate fertility rates based on the adjusted population estimates. This recalculation resulted in lowering the historical series of age-specific and total fertility rates, 1971-1993. The three sets of fertility assumptions and projections were developed with these adjusted annual fertility rates.

    It is hoped that this paper will provide valuable information about the technical and analytical aspects of the current fertility projection model. Discussions on the current and future levels and age pattern of fertility in Canada, provinces and territories are also presented in the paper.

    Release date: 1996-08-02

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114389
    Description:

    There are a number of asymptotically equivalent procedures for deriving the Taylor series approximation of variances for complex statistics. In Binder and Patak (1994) the theoretical justification for one class of methods was derived. However, many of these methods can be derived for practical examples using straightforward techniques that are not clearly described in Binder and Patak. In this paper we give a “cookbook” approach that can be used for many examples, and that has been shown to have good finite sample properties. Normally the method of choice becomes clear through arguments such as model-assisted methods or linearizing the jackknife; however, using our approach yields the desired results more directly. As well, we present new results on the application of these techniques to two-phase samples.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114384
    Description:

    The Lavallée-Hidiroglou (L-H) method of finding stratification boundaries has been used in the Census Bureau’s Annual Capital Expenditures Survey (ACES) to stratify part of its universe in the pilot study and the subsequent preliminary survey. This iterative method minimizes the sample size while fixing the desired reliability level by constructing appropriate boundary points. However, we encountered two problems in our application. One problem was that different starting boundaries resulted in different ending boundaries. The other problem was that the convergence to locally-optimal boundaries was slow, i.e., the number of iterations was large and convergence was not guaranteed. This paper addresses our difficulties with the L-H method and shows how they were resolved so that this procedure would work well for the ACES. In particular, we describe how contour plots were constructed and used to help illustrate how insignificant these problems were once the L-H method was applied. This paper describes revisions made to the L-H method; revisions that made it a practical method of finding stratification boundaries for ACES.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114386
    Description:

    In some surveys, many auxiliary variables are available for respondents and nonrespondents for use in nonresponse adjustment. One decision that arises is how to select which of the auxiliary variables should be used for this purpose and another decision involves how the selected variables should be used. Several approaches to forming weighting adjustments for nonresponse are considered in this research. The methods include those based on logistic regression models, categorical search algorithms, and generalized raking. These methods are applied to adjust for panel nonresponse in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). The estimates from the alternative adjustments are assessed by comparing them to one another and to benchmark estimates from other sources.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114383
    Description:

    The estimation of the trend-cycle with the X-11-ARIMA method is often done using the 13-term Henderson filter applied to seasonally adjusted data modified by extreme values. This filter however, produces a large number of unwanted ripples in the final or “historical” trend-cycle curve which are interpreted as false turning points. The use of a longer Henderson filter such as the 23-term is not an alternative for this filter is sluggish to detect turning points and consequently is not useful for current economic and business analysis. This paper proposes a new method that enables the use of the 13-term Henderson filter with the advantages of: (i) reducing the number of unwanted ripples; (ii) reducing the size of the revisions to preliminary values and (iii) no increase in the time lag to detect turning points. The results are illustrated with nine leading indicator series of the Canadian Composite Leading Index.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114381
    Description:

    Problems arising from statistical disclosure control, which aims to prevent that information about individual respondents is disclosed by users of data, have come to the fore rapidly in recent years. The main reason for this is the growing demand for detailed data provided by statistical offices caused by the still increasing use of computers. In former days tables with relatively little information were published. Nowadays the users of data demand much more detailed tables and, moreover, microdata to analyze by themselves. Because of this increase in information content statistical disclosure control has become much more difficult. In this paper the authors give their view on the problems which one encounters when trying to protect microdata against disclosure. This view is based on their experience with statistical disclosure control acquired at Statistics Netherlands.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114382
    Description:

    A general algorithm with equal probabilities is presented. The author provides the second order inclusion probabilities that correspond to the algorithm, which generalizes the selection-rejection method, so that a sample may be drawn using simple random sampling without replacement. Another particular case of the algorithm, called moving stratification algorithm, is discussed. A smooth stratification effect can be obtained by using, as a stratification variable, the serial number of the observation units. The author provides approximations of first and second order inclusion probabilities. These approximations lead to a population mean estimator and to an estimator of the variance of this mean estimator. The algorithm is then compared to a classical stratified plan with proportional allocation.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114385
    Description:

    The multiple capture-recapture census is reconsidered by relaxing the traditional perfect matching assumption. We propose matching error models to characterize error-prone matching mechanisms. The observed data take the form of an incomplete 2^k contingency table with one missing cell and follow a multinomial distribution. We develop a procedure for the estimation of the population size. Our approach applies to both standard log-linear models for contingency tables and log-linear models for heterogeneity of catchability. We illustrate the method and estimation using a 1988 dress rehearsal study for the 1990 census conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114387
    Description:

    In this paper, we consider analysis of variance methodology for inverse Gaussian distribution and adapt it for estimation of small area parameters in finite populations. It is demonstrated, through a Monte Carlo study, that these estimators offer a competitive choice for positively skewed survey data such as income or yield of a particular sector.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X199600114388
    Description:

    Variance estimation for the poststratified estimator and the generalized regression estimator of a total under stratified multi-stage sampling is considered. By linearizing the jackknife variance estimator, a jackknife linearization variance estimator is obtained which is different from the standard linearization variance estimator. This variance estimator is computationally simpler than the jackknife variance estimator and yet leads to values close to the jackknife. Properties of the jackknife linearization variance estimator, the standard linearized variance estimator, and the jackknife variance estimator are studied through a simulation study. All of the variance estimators performed well both unconditionally and conditionally given a measure of how far away the estimated totals of auxiliary variables are from the known population totals. A jackknife variance estimator based on incorrect reweighting performed poorly, indicating the importance of correct reweighting when using the jackknife method.

    Release date: 1996-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19960022891
    Description:

    Last November, Statistics Canada hosted its 12th annual International Symposium on Methodology Issues. This report outlines selected speakers' observations about the radical changes taking place in the creation and delivery of statistical information.

    Release date: 1996-06-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1996091
    Description:

    Introduction: In the current economic context, all partners in health care delivery systems, be they public or private, are obliged to identify the factors that influence the utilization of health care services. To improve our understanding of the phenomena that underlie these relationships, Statistics Canada and the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy and Evaluation have just set up a new database. For a representative sample of the population of the province of Manitoba, cross-sectional microdata on individuals' health and socio-economic characteristics were linked with detailed longitudinal data on utilization of health care services.

    Data and methods: The 1986-87 Health and Activity Limitation Survey, the 1986 Census and the files of Manitoba Health were matched (without using names or addresses) by means of the CANLINK software. In the pilot project, 20,000 units were selected from the Census according to modern sampling techniques. Before the files were matched, consultations were held and an agreement was signed by all parties in order to establish a framework for protecting privacy and preserving the confidentiality of the data.

    Results: A matching rate of 74% was obtained for private households. A quality evaluation based on the comparisons of names and addresses over a small subsample established that the overall concordance rate among matched pairs was 95.5%. The match rates and concordance rates varied according to age and household composition. Estimates produced from the sample accurately reflected the socio-demographic profile, mortality, hospitalization rate, health care costs and consumption of health care by Manitoba residents.

    Discussion: The matching rate of 74% was satisfactory in comparison with the response rates reported in most population surveys. Because of the excellent concordance rate and the accuracy of the estimates obtained from the sample, this database will provide an adequate basis for studying the association between socio-demographic characteristics, health and health care utilization in province of Manitoba.

    Release date: 1996-03-30

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19950032450
    Description:

    Abridged life tables centred on 1991 were produced from the 1991 Canadian census, net census undercoverage estimates, and death data from 1990 to 1992. The sensitivity of life table values to differing methods of estimation and population estimates was investigated. The results from four methods by Greville, Chiang, and Keyfitz were compared, and population undercoverage, were used to test the effects of method and type of population estimate on life table values. The results indicate that the method used to derive the estimates had much less influence on the life table values than did the choice of population estimate. The change life expectancy at birth due to the method of calculation chosen was at most 15 days, whereas the change due to the population estimate chosen was about 73 days. Since there are age, sex and provincial variations in net undercoverage rates, life expectancies differed accordingly.

    Release date: 1996-02-09

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