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All (109) (25 of 109 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002181
    Description:

    We use data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to address two questions. To what extent do parents and children agree when asked identical questions about child well-being? To what extent do differences in their responses affect what one infers from multivariate analysis of the data? The correspondence between parent and child in the assessment of child well-being is only slight to fair. Agreement is stronger for more observable outcomes, such as schooling performance, and weaker for less observable outcomes, such as emotional disorders. We regress both sets of responses on a standard set of socio-economic characteristics. We also conduct formal and informal tests of the differences in what one would infer from these two sets of regressions.

    Release date: 2002-10-23

  • Articles and reports: 82-005-X20020016479
    Description:

    The Population Health Model (POHEM) is a policy analysis tool that helps answer "what-if" questions about the health and economic burden of specific diseases and the cost-effectiveness of administering new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This simulation model is particularly pertinent in an era of fiscal restraint, when new therapies are generally expensive and difficult policy decisions are being made. More important, it provides a base for a broader framework to inform policy decisions using comprehensive disease data and risk factors. Our "base case" models comprehensively estimate the lifetime costs of treating breast, lung and colorectal cancer in Canada. Our cancer models have shown the large financial burden of diagnostic work-up and initial therapy, as well as the high costs of hospitalizing those dying of cancer. Our core cancer models (lung, breast and colorectal cancer) have been used to evaluate the impact of new practice patterns. We have used these models to evaluate new chemotherapy regimens as therapeutic options for advanced lung cancer; the health and financial impact of reducing the hospital length of stay for initial breast cancer surgery; and the potential impact of population-based screening for colorectal cancer. To date, the most interesting intervention we have studied has been the use of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer among high risk women.

    Release date: 2002-10-08

  • Technical products: 11-522-X2001001
    Description:

    Symposium 2001 was the eighteenth in Statistics Canada's series of international symposia on methodological issues. Each year the symposium focuses on a particular theme. In 2001, the theme was: "Achieving Data Quality in a Statistical Agency: a Methodological Perspective".

    Symposium 2001 was held from October 17 to October 19, 2001 in Hull, Quebec and it attracted over 560 people from 21 countries. A total of 83 papers were presented. Aside from translation and formatting, the papers, as submitted by the authors, have been reproduced in these proceedings.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016258
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    To fill statistical gaps in the areas of health determinants, health status and health system usage by the Canadian population at the health region levels (sub-provincial areas or regions of interest to health authorities), Statistics Canada established a new survey called the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The CCHS consists of two separate components: a regional survey in the first year and a provincial survey in the second year. The main purpose of the regional survey, for which collection took place between September 2000 and October 2001, was to produce cross-sectional estimates for 136 health regions in Canada, based on a sample of more than 134,000 respondents. This article focuses on the various measures taken at the time of data collection to ensure a high level of quality for this large-scale survey.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016290
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Over the last five years, the United Kingdom Office for National Statistics has been implementing a series of initiatives to improve the process of collecting business statistics data in the UK. These initiatives include the application of a range of new technology solutions data collection; document imaging and scanned forms have replaced paper forms for all processes. For some inquiries, the paper form has been eliminated altogether by the adoption of Telephone Data Entry (TDE). Reporting all incoming data in electronic format has allowed workflow systems to be introduced across a wide range of data collection activities.

    This paper describes the recent history of these initiatives and covers proposals that are presently at a pilot stage or being projected for the next four years. It also examines the future strategy of TDE data collection via the Internet, and the current pilots and security issues under consideration.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016264
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Conducting a census by traditional methods is becoming more difficult. The possibility of cross-linking administrative files provides an attractive alternative to conducting periodic censuses (Laihonen, 2000; Borchsenius, 2000). This method was proposed in a recent article by Nathan (2001). The Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE) census redesign is based on the idea of a "continuous census," originally suggested by Kish (1981, 1990) and Horvitz (1986). The first approach, which could be feasible in France, can be found in Deville and Jacod's paper (1996). This particular article reviews the methodological developments and approaches used since INSEE started its population census redesign program.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016252
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The use of sample co-ordination in business surveys is crucial because it provides a way of smoothing out the survey burden. In many co-ordination methodologies, the random numbers representing the units are permanent and the sample selection method varies. In the microstrata methodology, however, it is the selection function that is permanent. On the other hand, random numbers are systematically rearranged between units for different co-ordination purposes: smoothing out the burden, updating panels or minimizing the overlap between two surveys. These rearrangements are made in the intersections of strata, known as microstrata. This microstrata method has good, mathematical properties and demonstrates a general approach to sample co-ordination in which births, deaths and strata changes are automatically handled. There are no particular constraints on stratification and rotation rates of panels. Two software programs have been written to implement this method and its evolutions: SALOMON in 1998, and MICROSTRAT in 2001.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016302
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This session provides three more contributions to the continuing discussion concerning the national statistics offices' response to the topic of quality -in particular, the subtopic of communicating quality. These three papers make the important and necessary assumption that national statistical offices have an obligation to report the limitations of the data; users should know and understand those limitations; and, as a result of understanding the limitations, users ought to be able to determine whether the data are fit for their purposes.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016247
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper describes joint research by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and Southampton University regarding the evaluation of several different approaches to the local estimation of International Labour Office (ILO) unemployment. The need to compare estimators with different underlying assumptions has led to a focus on evaluation methods that are (partly at least) model-independent. Model-fit diagnostics that have been considered include: various residual procedures, cross-validation, predictive validation, consistency with marginals, and consistency with direct estimates within single cells. These diagnostics have been used to compare different model-based estimators with each other and with direct estimators.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016306
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The paper deals with concerns regarding the problem of automatic detection and correction of inconsistent or out-of-range data in a general process of statistical data collection. The proposed approach is capable of handling both qualitative and quantitative values. The purpose of this new approach is to overcome the computational limits of the Fellegi-Holt method, while maintaining its positive features. As customary, data records must respect a set of rules in order to be declared correct. By encoding the rules with linear inequalities, we develop mathematical models for the problems of interest. As a first relevant point, by solving a sequence of feasibility problems, the set of rules itself is checked for inconsistency or redundancy. As a second relevant point, imputation is performed by solving a sequence of set-covering problems.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016236
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program has devoted a considerable amount of resources in a continuous effort to improve the quality of its data. In this paper, the authors introduce and discuss the use of the cross-ratios and chi-square measures to evaluate the rationality of the data. The UCR data is used to empirically illustrate this approach.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016263
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper describes the Annual Business Inquiry (ABI) project to integrate the Office for National Statistics' (ONS) main, annual business surveys, regardless of economic sectors. The ABI project also brings together employment and financial data surveys and is capable of generating a wide range of subnational analyses, another objective of the development. Methodological aspects covered by the paper include sample design; estimation and outlier treatment; apportionment of data from reporting units to local units (individual sites) and the methodology for subnational and small area estimation. The subnational methodology involves the use of logistic and loglinear models.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016304
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper describes a test of two alternative sets of ratio edit and imputation procedures, both using the U.S. Census Bureau's generalized editing and imputation subsystem ("Plain Vanilla") on 1997 Economic Census data. The quality of the edited and imputed data from both sets of procedures were compared - both at the micro and macro level. Discussions followed on how these quantitative methods of comparison gave rise to the recommended changes for the current editing and imputation procedures.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016253
    Description:

    The U.S. Census Bureau developed software called the Standard Economic Processing System (StEPS) to replace 16 separate systems used to process the data from over 100 current economic surveys. This paper describes the methodology and design of the StEPS modules for editing and imputation and summarizes the reactions of users to using these modules to process their surveys.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016246
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Samples sizes in small population areas are typically very small. As a result, customary, area-specific, direct estimators of Small Area Means do not provide acceptable quality in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE). Indirect estimators that borrow strength from related areas by linking models based on similar auxiliary data are now widely used for small area estimation. Such linking models are either implicit (as in the case of synthetic estimators) or explicit (as in the case of model-based estimators). In the Frequentist approach, the quality of an indirect estimator is measured by its estimated MSE while the posterior variance of the Small Area Mean is used in the Bayesian approach. This paper reviews some recent work on estimating MSE and the evaluation of posterior variance.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016249
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.The United States' Census 2000 operations were more innovative and complex than ever before. State population totals were required to be produced within nine months and, using the coverage measurement survey, adjusted counts were expected within one year. Therefore, all operations had to be implemented and completed quickly with quality assurance (QA) that had both an effective and prompt turnaround. The QA challenges included: getting timely information to supervisors (such as enumerator re-interview information), performing prompt checks of "suspect" work (such as monitoring contractors to ensure accurate data capture), and providing reports to headquarters quickly. This paper presents these challenges and their solutions in detail, thus providing an overview of the Census 2000 QA program.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016309
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper proposes a method for estimating simple and correlated measurement variance components when a re-interview is available for a subsample of respondents. However, the two measurements cannot be considered as being collected under the same conditions and, therefore, are subject to different measurement error variance. This consideration seems more realistic when, in actuality, it is impossible to ensure that the same measurement conditions are implemented in the two interviews, as in the case when operational and budget constraints suggest adopting a different survey mode for the second interview.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016248
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The Sawmill Survey is a voluntary census of sawmills in Great Britain. It is limited to fixed mills using domestically-grown timber. Three approaches to assess the coverage of this survey are described:

    (1) A sample survey of the sawmilling industry from the UK's business register, excluding businesses already sampled in the Sawmill Survey, is used to assess the undercoverage in the list of known sawmills; (2) A non-response follow-up using local knowledge of regional officers of the Forestry Commission, is used to estimate the sawmills that do not respond (mostly the smaller mills); and (3) A survey of small-scale sawmills and mobile sawmills (many of these businesses are micro-enterprises) is conducted to analyse their significance.

    These three approaches are synthesized to give an estimate of the coverage of the original survey compared with the total activity identified, and to estimate the importance of micro-enterprises to the sawmilling industry in Great Britain.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016271
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper proposes a method for short-term estimation of labour input indicators using administrative data from the Social Security Database (SSD). The rationale for developing this methodology originated from the need for national statistical offices to meet the standard quality criteria in the Regulation no. 1165/98 of the European Community concerning short-term business statistics. Information requested in the Regulation involves such a detailed disaggregation that it would be impossible to meet all the requirements through direct data collection. Administrative data, because of their timeliness and detailed coverage, represent a valuable source for obtaining estimates of business population aggregates that meet such quality requirements.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016307
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), co-ordinated by Statistics Canada, was conducted in some 20 countries between 1994 and 2000. Based on the survey's findings, a wrap-up report containing a comparative analysis of reading skills in participating countries was published in 2000 through funding from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Unfortunately, there are very serious methodological problems with this survey that make it unusable for comparative purposes.

    This presentation discusses the survey's weaknesses and, more generally, the pitfalls of applying a universal measure of skills in countries with different cultures and different languages. Analyses of the survey results reveal the extent to which translation and wording altered the difficulty of the test questions. The range of scores on the various items among the participating countries confirms this linguistic bias. Moreover, respondents' attitudes (motivation, attentiveness, refusal, etc.) are not only culturally marked and tightly bound to the survey tradition in their own countries, but are also a determining factor in a survey intended to construct a measure of skills. Only highly detailed coding could separate the respondents' attitudes toward this long and difficult survey and differentiate between a deficiency of skills or a lack of motivation or attention.

    This paper is based on an assessment of the survey within the European Community. Its findings have led to the publication of a series of articles and a book on the subject.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016256
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    From a survey of employer payroll/tax filing practices, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) determined that some businesses prepare their own tax reports using payroll/tax software developed internally or purchased, while others arrange contracts with third parties for this type of service. Subsequently, the BLS developed an electronic data collection strategy for the quarterly Multiple Worksite Report (MWR), which is filed by 112,000 legal entities representing 1.2 million worksites.

    Recently, the BLS has been working closely with payroll/tax software developers and with firms providing payroll/tax filing services in order to include the electronic transmittal of MWR data into their systems. In the past, employers with multiple establishments in different states had to manually file paper MWRs for each state. With electronic reporting, data for all states are sent directly to the BLS, where the data is edited and then forwarded on to the proper state.

    This paper discusses the background information noted above, as well as the various approaches that the BLS staff has used to solicit the co-operation of these firms in modifying their systems to include electronic reporting as an option or additional service.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016297
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects in designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists. The Danish National Institute of Social Research is an independent institution under the Ministry of Social Affairs. The Institute carries out surveys on social issues on encompassing a broad range of subjects. The Sustainable Financing Initiative Survey (SFI-SURVEY) is an economically independent section within the institute. SFI-SURVEY carries out scientific surveys both for the Institute, for other public organizations, and for the private sector as well. The SFI-SURVEY interviewer body has 450 interviewers spread throughout Denmark. There are five supervisors, each with a regional office, who are in contact with the interviewer body. On a yearly basis, SFI-SURVEY conducts 40 surveys. The average sample size (gross) is 1,000 persons. The average response rate is 75%. Since January 1999, the following information about the surveys have been recorded: · Type of method used (face-to-face or telephone) · Length of questionnaire (interviewing time in minutes) · Whether or not a folder was sent to the respondents in advance · Whether or not an interviewer instruction meeting was given · Number of interviews per interviewer per week · Whether or not the subject of the survey was of interest to the respondents · Interviewing month · Target group (random selection of the total population or special groups)

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016235
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Police records collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) through the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program are the leading source of national crime statistics. Recently, audits to correct UCR records have raised concerns as to how to handle the errors discovered in these files. Concerns centre around the methodology used to detect errors and the procedures used to correct errors once they have been discovered. This paper explores these concerns, focusing on sampling methodology, establishment of a statistical-adjustment factor, and alternative solutions. The paper distinguishes the difference between sample adjustment and sample estimates of an agency's data, and recommends sample adjustment as the most accurate way of dealing with errors.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016285
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The three papers presented in this session offer excellent insight into the issues concerning the quality of hospital morbidity data. Richards, Brown, and Homan sampled hospital records to evaluate administrative data in Canada; Hargreaves sampled persons in hospitals to evaluate administrative data in Australia; and McLemoreand Pokras describe the quality assurance practices of an ongoing sample survey of hospital records in the United States. Each paper is discussed, along with the issues and challenges for the future.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016244
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Over the past few years, Statistics New Zealand (SNZ) has experienced an increase in the volume of business survey data supplied by e-mail. However, up until now, SNZ has not had the business processes available to support electronic collection in a way that meets both the needs of SNZ and data suppliers. To this end, SNZ has invested a lot of effort over the last year in investigating how best to approach the problems and opportunities presented by electronic data collection. This paper outlines SNZ's plans to move the e-mail supplied data to a secure lodgement facility and the future development of an internet-based data collection system. It also presents a case study of the Monthly Retail Trade Survey data currently supplied by e-mail. This case study illustrates some of the benefits of electronic data, but also examines some of the costs to the organization and the data quality problems encountered. It also highlights the need to consider the data collection methodology within the wider context of the total survey cycle.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2002181
    Description:

    We use data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to address two questions. To what extent do parents and children agree when asked identical questions about child well-being? To what extent do differences in their responses affect what one infers from multivariate analysis of the data? The correspondence between parent and child in the assessment of child well-being is only slight to fair. Agreement is stronger for more observable outcomes, such as schooling performance, and weaker for less observable outcomes, such as emotional disorders. We regress both sets of responses on a standard set of socio-economic characteristics. We also conduct formal and informal tests of the differences in what one would infer from these two sets of regressions.

    Release date: 2002-10-23

  • Articles and reports: 82-005-X20020016479
    Description:

    The Population Health Model (POHEM) is a policy analysis tool that helps answer "what-if" questions about the health and economic burden of specific diseases and the cost-effectiveness of administering new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This simulation model is particularly pertinent in an era of fiscal restraint, when new therapies are generally expensive and difficult policy decisions are being made. More important, it provides a base for a broader framework to inform policy decisions using comprehensive disease data and risk factors. Our "base case" models comprehensively estimate the lifetime costs of treating breast, lung and colorectal cancer in Canada. Our cancer models have shown the large financial burden of diagnostic work-up and initial therapy, as well as the high costs of hospitalizing those dying of cancer. Our core cancer models (lung, breast and colorectal cancer) have been used to evaluate the impact of new practice patterns. We have used these models to evaluate new chemotherapy regimens as therapeutic options for advanced lung cancer; the health and financial impact of reducing the hospital length of stay for initial breast cancer surgery; and the potential impact of population-based screening for colorectal cancer. To date, the most interesting intervention we have studied has been the use of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer among high risk women.

    Release date: 2002-10-08

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016422
    Description:

    In estimating variances so as to account for imputation for item non-response, Rao and Shao (1992) originated an approach based on adjusted replication. Further developments (particularly the extension to Balanced Repeated Replication of the jackknife replication of Rao and Shao) were made by Shao, Chen and Chen (1998). In this article, we explore how these methods can be implemented using replicate weights.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020019499
    Description:

    "In this Issue" is a column where the Editor briefly presents each paper of the current issue of Survey Methodology. As well, it sometimes contains informations on structure or management changes in the journal.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016417
    Description:

    An approach to exploiting the data from multiple surveys and epochs by benchmarking the parameter estimates of logit models of binary choice and semiparametric survival models has been developed. The goal is to exploit the relatively rich source of socio-economic covariates offered by Statistics Canada's Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID), and also the historical time-span of the Labour Force Survey (LFS), enhanced by following individuals through each interview in their six-month rotation. A demonstration of how the method can be applied is given, using the maternity leave module of the LifePaths dynamic microsimulation project at Statistics Canada. The choice of maternity leave over job separation is specified as a binary logit model, while the duration of leave is specified as a semiparametric proportional hazards survival model with covariates together with a baseline hazard permitted to change each month. Both models are initially estimated by maximum likelihood from pooled SLID data on maternity leaves beginning in the period from 1993 to 1996, then benchmarked to annual estimates from the LFS from 1976 to 1992. In the case of the logit model, the linear predictor is adjusted by a log-odds estimate from the LFS. For the survival model, a Kaplan-Meier estimator of the hazard function from the LFS is used to adjust the predicted hazard in the semiparametric model.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016413
    Description:

    Leslie Kish long advocated a "rolling sample" design, with non-overlapping monthly panels which can be cumulated over different lengths of time for domains of different sizes. This enables a single survey to serve multiple purposes. The Census Bureau's new American Community Survey (ACS) uses such a rolling sample design, with annual averages to measure change at the state level, and three-year or five-year moving averages to describe progressively smaller domains. This paper traces Kish's influence on the development of the American Community Survey, and discusses some practical methodological issues that had to be addressed in implementing the design.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016408
    Description:

    Regression and regression-related procedures have become common in survey estimation. We review the basic properties of regression estimators, discuss implementation of regression estimation, and investigate variance estimation for regression estimators. The role of models in constructing regression estimators and the use of regression in non-response adjustment are also explored.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016420
    Description:

    The post-stratified estimator sometimes has empty strata. To address this problem, we construct a post-stratified estimator with post-strata sizes set in the sample. The post-strata sizes are then random in the population. The next step is to construct a smoothed estimator by calculating a moving average of the post-stratified estimators. Using this technique, it is possible to construct an exact theory of calibration on distribution. The estimator obtained is not only calibrated on distribution, it is also linear and completely unbiased. We then compare the calibrated estimator with the regression estimator. Lastly, we propose an approximate variance estimator that we validate using simulations.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016488
    Description:

    Sampling is a branch of and a tool for statistics, and the field of statistics was founded as a new paradigm in 1810 by Quetelet (Porter 1987; Stigler 1986). Statistics and statisticians deal with the effects of chance events on empirical data. The mathematics of chance had been developed centuries earlier to predict gambling games and to account for errors of observation in astronomy. Data were also compiled for commerce, banking, and government purposes. But combining chance with real data required a new theoretical view; a new paradigm. Thus, statistical science and its various branches, which are the products of the maturity of human development (Kish 1985), arrived late in history and academia. This article examines the new concepts in diverse aspects of sampling, which may also be known as new sampling paradigms, models or methods.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016421
    Description:

    Like most other surveys, non-response often occurs in the Current Employment Survey conducted monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). In a given month, imputation using reported data from previous months generally provides more efficient survey estimators than ignoring non-respondents and adjusting survey weights. However, imputation also has an effect on variance estimation: treating imputed values as reported data and applying a standard variance estimation method lead to negatively biased variance estimators. In this article, we propose some variance estimators using the Grouped Balanced Half Sample method and re-imputation to take imputation into account. Some simulation results for the finite sample performance of the imputed survey estimators and their variance estimators are presented.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016419
    Description:

    Since some individuals in a population may lack telephones, telephone surveys using random digit dialling within strata may result in asymptotically biased estimators of ratios. The impact from not being able to sample the non-telephone population is examined. We take into account the propensity that a household owns a telephone, when proposing a post-stratified telephone-weighted estimator, which seems to perform better than the typical post-stratified estimator in terms of mean squared error. Such coverage propensities are estimated using the Public Use Microdata Samples, as provided by the United States Census. Non-post-stratified estimators are considered when sample sizes are small. The asymptotic mean squared error, along with its estimate based on a sample of each of the estimators is derived. Real examples are analysed using the Public Use Microdata Samples. Other forms of no-nresponse are not examined herein.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016414
    Description:

    Census-taking by traditional methods is becoming more difficult. The possibility of cross-linking administrative files provides an attractive alternative to conducting periodic censuses (Laihonen 2000; Borchsenius 2000). This was proposed in a recent article by Nathan (2001). The Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE)' redesign is based on the idea of a 'continuous census,' originally suggested by Kish (1981, 1990) and Horvitz (1986). A first approach that would be feasible in France can be found in Deville and Jacod (1996). This article reviews methodological developments since INSEE started its population census redesign program.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20020016424
    Description:

    A variety of estimators for the variance of the General Regression (GREG) estimator of a mean have been proposed in the sampling literature, mainly with the goal of estimating the design-based variance. Under certain conditions, estimators can be easily constructed that are approximately unbiased for both the design-variance and the model-variance. Several dual-purpose estimators are studied here in single-stage sampling. These choices are robust estimators of a model-variance even if the model that motivates the GREG has an incorrect variance parameter.

    A key feature of the robust estimators is the adjustment of squared residuals by factors analogous to the leverages used in standard regression analysis. We also show that the delete-one jackknife estimator implicitly includes the leverage adjustments and is a good choice from either the design-based or model-based perspective. In a set of simulations, these variance estimators have small bias and produce confidence intervals with near-nominal coverage rates for several sampling methods, sample sizes and populations in single-stage sampling.

    We also present simulation results for a skewed population where all variance estimators perform poorly. Samples that do not adequately represent the units with large values lead to estimated means that are too small, variance estimates that are too small and confidence intervals that cover at far less than the nominal rate. These defects can be avoided at the design stage by selecting samples that cover the extreme units well. However, in populations with inadequate design information this will not be feasible.

    Release date: 2002-07-05

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20020026371
    Description:

    When constructing questions for questionnaires, one of the rules of thumb has always been "keep it short and simple." This article is the third in a series of lessons learned during cognitive testing of the pilot Knowledge Management Practices Survey. It studies the responses given to long questions, thick questionnaires and too many response boxes.

    Release date: 2002-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20020026369
    Description:

    Eliminating the "neutral" response in an opinion question not only encourages the respondent to choose a side, it gently persuades respondents to read the question. Learn how we used this technique to our advantage in the Knowledge Management Practices Survey, 2001.

    Release date: 2002-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026093
    Description:

    This paper presents weighting procedures that combine information from multiple panels of a repeated panel household survey for cross-sectional estimation. The dynamic character of a repeated panel survey is discussed in relation to estimation of population parameters at any wave of the survey. A repeated panel survey with overlapping panels is described as a special type of multiple frame survey, with the frames of the panels forming a time sequence. The paper proposes weighting strategies suitable for various multiple panel survey situations. The proposed weighting schemes involve an adjustment of weights in domains of the combined panel sample that represent identical time periods covered by the individual panels. A weight adjustment procedure that deals with changes in the panels over time is discussed. The integration of the various weight adjustments required for cross-sectional estimation in a repeated panel household survey is also discussed.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026094
    Description:

    This article reviews the methods that may be used to produce direct estimates for small areas, including stratification and oversampling, and forms of dual-frame estimation.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026089
    Description:

    Telephone surveys are a convenient and efficient method of data collection. Bias may be introduced into population estimates, however, by the exclusion of nontelephone households from these surveys. Data from the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) indicates that five and a half to six percent of American households are without phone service at any given time. The bias introduced can be significant since nontelephone households may differ from telephone households in ways that are not adequately handled by poststratification. Many households, called "transients", move in and out of the telephone population during the year, sometimes due to economic reasons or relocation. The transient telephone population may be representative of the nontelephone population in general since its members have recently been in the nontelephone population.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026091
    Description:

    The theory of double sampling is usually presented under the assumption that one of the samples is nested within the other. This type of sampling is called two-phase sampling. The first-phase sample provides auxiliary information (x) that is relatively inexpensive to obtain, whereas the second-phase sample: (b) to improve the estimate using a difference, ratio or regression estimator; or (c) to draw a sub-sample of non-respondent units. However, it is not necessary for one of the samples to be nested in the other or selected from the same frame. The case of non-nested double sampling is dealt with in passing in the classical works on sampling (Des Raj 1968, Cochrane 1977). This method is now used in several national statistical agencies. This paper consolidates double sampling by presenting it in a unified manner. Several examples of surveys used at Statistics Canada illustrate this unification.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026095
    Description:

    In this paper, we discuss the application of the bootstrap with a re-imputation step to capture the imputation variance (Shao and Sitter 1996) in stratified multistage sampling. We propose a modified bootstrap that does not require rescaling so that Shao and Sitter's procedure can be applied to the case where random imputation is applied and the first-stage stratum sample sizes are very small. This provides a unified method that works irrespective of the imputation method (random or nonrandom), the stratum size (small or large), the type of estimator (smooth or nonsmooth), or the type of problem (variance estimation or sampling distribution estimation). In addition, we discuss the proper Monte Carlo approximation to the bootstrap variance, when using re-imputation together with resampling methods. In this setting, more care is needed than is typical. Similar results are obtained for the method of balanced repeated replications, which is often used in surveys and can be viewed as an analytic approximation to the bootstrap. Finally, some simulation results are presented to study finite sample properties and various variance estimators for imputed data.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010029567
    Description:

    In this Issue is a column where the Editor biefly presents each paper of the current issue of Survey Methodology. As well, it sometimes contain informations on structure or management changes in the journal.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026097
    Description:

    A compositional time series is defined as a multivariate time series in which each of the series has values bounded between zero and one and the sum of the series equals one at each time point. Data with such characteristics are observed in repeated surveys when a survey variable has a multinomial response but interest lies in the proportion of units classified in each of its categories. In this case, the survey estimates are proportions of a whole subject to a unity-sum constraint. In this paper we employ a state space approach for modelling compositional time series from repeated surveys taking into account the sampling errors. The additive logistic transformation is used in order to guarantee predictions and signal estimates bounded between zero and one which satisfy the unity-sum constraint. The method is applied to compositional data from the Brazilian Labour Force Survey. Estimates of the vector of proportions and the unemployment rate are obtained. In addition, the structural components of the signal vector, such as the seasonals and the trends, are produced.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026092
    Description:

    To augment the amount of available information, data from different sources are increasingly being combined. These databases are often combined using record linkage methods. When there is no unique identifier, a probabilistic linkage is used. In that case, a record on a first file is associated with a probability that is linked to a record on a second file, and then a decision is taken on whether a possible link is a true link or not. This usually requires a non-negligible amount of manual resolution. It might then be legitimate to evaluate if manual resolution can be reduced or even eliminated. This issue is addressed in this paper where one tries to produce an estimate of a total (or a mean) of one population, when using a sample selected from another population linked somehow to the first population. In other words, having two populations linked through probabilistic record linkage, we try to avoid any decision concerning the validity of links and still be able to produce an unbiased estimate for a total of the one of two populations. To achieve this goal, we suggest the use of the Generalised Weight Share Method (GWSM) described by Lavallée (1995).

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026096
    Description:

    Local polynomial regression methods are put forward to aid in exploratory data analysis for large-scale surveys. The proposed regression methods are put forward to aid in exploratory data analysis for large-scale surveys. The proposed method relies on binning the data on the x-variable and calculating the appropriate survey estimates for the mean of the y-values at each bin. When binning on x has been carried out to the precision of the recorded data, the method is the same as applying the survey weights to the standard criterion for obtaining local polynomial regression estimates. The alternative of using classical polynomial regression is also considered and a criterion is proposed to decide whether the nonparametric approach to modeling should be preferred over the classical approach. Illustrative examples are given from the 1990 Ontario Health Survey.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X20010026090
    Description:

    The number of calls in a telephone survey is used as an indicator of how difficult an intended respondent is to reach. This permits a probabilistic division of the non-respondents into non-susceptibles (those who will always refuse to respond), and the susceptible non-respondents (those who were not available to respond) in a model of the non-response. Further, it permits stochastic estimation of the views of the latter group and an evaluation of whether the non-response is ignorable for inference about the dependent variable. These ideas are implemented on the data from a survey in Metropolitan Toronto of attitudes toward smoking in the workplace. Using a Bayesian model, the posterior distribution of the model parameters is sampled by Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The results reveal that the non-response is not ignorable and those who do not respond are twice as likely to favor unrestricted smoking in the workplace as are those who do.

    Release date: 2002-02-28

Reference (84)

Reference (84) (25 of 84 results)

  • Technical products: 11-522-X2001001
    Description:

    Symposium 2001 was the eighteenth in Statistics Canada's series of international symposia on methodological issues. Each year the symposium focuses on a particular theme. In 2001, the theme was: "Achieving Data Quality in a Statistical Agency: a Methodological Perspective".

    Symposium 2001 was held from October 17 to October 19, 2001 in Hull, Quebec and it attracted over 560 people from 21 countries. A total of 83 papers were presented. Aside from translation and formatting, the papers, as submitted by the authors, have been reproduced in these proceedings.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016258
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    To fill statistical gaps in the areas of health determinants, health status and health system usage by the Canadian population at the health region levels (sub-provincial areas or regions of interest to health authorities), Statistics Canada established a new survey called the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The CCHS consists of two separate components: a regional survey in the first year and a provincial survey in the second year. The main purpose of the regional survey, for which collection took place between September 2000 and October 2001, was to produce cross-sectional estimates for 136 health regions in Canada, based on a sample of more than 134,000 respondents. This article focuses on the various measures taken at the time of data collection to ensure a high level of quality for this large-scale survey.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016290
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Over the last five years, the United Kingdom Office for National Statistics has been implementing a series of initiatives to improve the process of collecting business statistics data in the UK. These initiatives include the application of a range of new technology solutions data collection; document imaging and scanned forms have replaced paper forms for all processes. For some inquiries, the paper form has been eliminated altogether by the adoption of Telephone Data Entry (TDE). Reporting all incoming data in electronic format has allowed workflow systems to be introduced across a wide range of data collection activities.

    This paper describes the recent history of these initiatives and covers proposals that are presently at a pilot stage or being projected for the next four years. It also examines the future strategy of TDE data collection via the Internet, and the current pilots and security issues under consideration.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016264
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Conducting a census by traditional methods is becoming more difficult. The possibility of cross-linking administrative files provides an attractive alternative to conducting periodic censuses (Laihonen, 2000; Borchsenius, 2000). This method was proposed in a recent article by Nathan (2001). The Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE) census redesign is based on the idea of a "continuous census," originally suggested by Kish (1981, 1990) and Horvitz (1986). The first approach, which could be feasible in France, can be found in Deville and Jacod's paper (1996). This particular article reviews the methodological developments and approaches used since INSEE started its population census redesign program.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016252
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The use of sample co-ordination in business surveys is crucial because it provides a way of smoothing out the survey burden. In many co-ordination methodologies, the random numbers representing the units are permanent and the sample selection method varies. In the microstrata methodology, however, it is the selection function that is permanent. On the other hand, random numbers are systematically rearranged between units for different co-ordination purposes: smoothing out the burden, updating panels or minimizing the overlap between two surveys. These rearrangements are made in the intersections of strata, known as microstrata. This microstrata method has good, mathematical properties and demonstrates a general approach to sample co-ordination in which births, deaths and strata changes are automatically handled. There are no particular constraints on stratification and rotation rates of panels. Two software programs have been written to implement this method and its evolutions: SALOMON in 1998, and MICROSTRAT in 2001.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016302
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This session provides three more contributions to the continuing discussion concerning the national statistics offices' response to the topic of quality -in particular, the subtopic of communicating quality. These three papers make the important and necessary assumption that national statistical offices have an obligation to report the limitations of the data; users should know and understand those limitations; and, as a result of understanding the limitations, users ought to be able to determine whether the data are fit for their purposes.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016247
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper describes joint research by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and Southampton University regarding the evaluation of several different approaches to the local estimation of International Labour Office (ILO) unemployment. The need to compare estimators with different underlying assumptions has led to a focus on evaluation methods that are (partly at least) model-independent. Model-fit diagnostics that have been considered include: various residual procedures, cross-validation, predictive validation, consistency with marginals, and consistency with direct estimates within single cells. These diagnostics have been used to compare different model-based estimators with each other and with direct estimators.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016306
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The paper deals with concerns regarding the problem of automatic detection and correction of inconsistent or out-of-range data in a general process of statistical data collection. The proposed approach is capable of handling both qualitative and quantitative values. The purpose of this new approach is to overcome the computational limits of the Fellegi-Holt method, while maintaining its positive features. As customary, data records must respect a set of rules in order to be declared correct. By encoding the rules with linear inequalities, we develop mathematical models for the problems of interest. As a first relevant point, by solving a sequence of feasibility problems, the set of rules itself is checked for inconsistency or redundancy. As a second relevant point, imputation is performed by solving a sequence of set-covering problems.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016236
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program has devoted a considerable amount of resources in a continuous effort to improve the quality of its data. In this paper, the authors introduce and discuss the use of the cross-ratios and chi-square measures to evaluate the rationality of the data. The UCR data is used to empirically illustrate this approach.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016263
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper describes the Annual Business Inquiry (ABI) project to integrate the Office for National Statistics' (ONS) main, annual business surveys, regardless of economic sectors. The ABI project also brings together employment and financial data surveys and is capable of generating a wide range of subnational analyses, another objective of the development. Methodological aspects covered by the paper include sample design; estimation and outlier treatment; apportionment of data from reporting units to local units (individual sites) and the methodology for subnational and small area estimation. The subnational methodology involves the use of logistic and loglinear models.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016304
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper describes a test of two alternative sets of ratio edit and imputation procedures, both using the U.S. Census Bureau's generalized editing and imputation subsystem ("Plain Vanilla") on 1997 Economic Census data. The quality of the edited and imputed data from both sets of procedures were compared - both at the micro and macro level. Discussions followed on how these quantitative methods of comparison gave rise to the recommended changes for the current editing and imputation procedures.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016253
    Description:

    The U.S. Census Bureau developed software called the Standard Economic Processing System (StEPS) to replace 16 separate systems used to process the data from over 100 current economic surveys. This paper describes the methodology and design of the StEPS modules for editing and imputation and summarizes the reactions of users to using these modules to process their surveys.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016246
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Samples sizes in small population areas are typically very small. As a result, customary, area-specific, direct estimators of Small Area Means do not provide acceptable quality in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE). Indirect estimators that borrow strength from related areas by linking models based on similar auxiliary data are now widely used for small area estimation. Such linking models are either implicit (as in the case of synthetic estimators) or explicit (as in the case of model-based estimators). In the Frequentist approach, the quality of an indirect estimator is measured by its estimated MSE while the posterior variance of the Small Area Mean is used in the Bayesian approach. This paper reviews some recent work on estimating MSE and the evaluation of posterior variance.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016249
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.The United States' Census 2000 operations were more innovative and complex than ever before. State population totals were required to be produced within nine months and, using the coverage measurement survey, adjusted counts were expected within one year. Therefore, all operations had to be implemented and completed quickly with quality assurance (QA) that had both an effective and prompt turnaround. The QA challenges included: getting timely information to supervisors (such as enumerator re-interview information), performing prompt checks of "suspect" work (such as monitoring contractors to ensure accurate data capture), and providing reports to headquarters quickly. This paper presents these challenges and their solutions in detail, thus providing an overview of the Census 2000 QA program.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016309
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper proposes a method for estimating simple and correlated measurement variance components when a re-interview is available for a subsample of respondents. However, the two measurements cannot be considered as being collected under the same conditions and, therefore, are subject to different measurement error variance. This consideration seems more realistic when, in actuality, it is impossible to ensure that the same measurement conditions are implemented in the two interviews, as in the case when operational and budget constraints suggest adopting a different survey mode for the second interview.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016248
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The Sawmill Survey is a voluntary census of sawmills in Great Britain. It is limited to fixed mills using domestically-grown timber. Three approaches to assess the coverage of this survey are described:

    (1) A sample survey of the sawmilling industry from the UK's business register, excluding businesses already sampled in the Sawmill Survey, is used to assess the undercoverage in the list of known sawmills; (2) A non-response follow-up using local knowledge of regional officers of the Forestry Commission, is used to estimate the sawmills that do not respond (mostly the smaller mills); and (3) A survey of small-scale sawmills and mobile sawmills (many of these businesses are micro-enterprises) is conducted to analyse their significance.

    These three approaches are synthesized to give an estimate of the coverage of the original survey compared with the total activity identified, and to estimate the importance of micro-enterprises to the sawmilling industry in Great Britain.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016271
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    This paper proposes a method for short-term estimation of labour input indicators using administrative data from the Social Security Database (SSD). The rationale for developing this methodology originated from the need for national statistical offices to meet the standard quality criteria in the Regulation no. 1165/98 of the European Community concerning short-term business statistics. Information requested in the Regulation involves such a detailed disaggregation that it would be impossible to meet all the requirements through direct data collection. Administrative data, because of their timeliness and detailed coverage, represent a valuable source for obtaining estimates of business population aggregates that meet such quality requirements.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016307
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), co-ordinated by Statistics Canada, was conducted in some 20 countries between 1994 and 2000. Based on the survey's findings, a wrap-up report containing a comparative analysis of reading skills in participating countries was published in 2000 through funding from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Unfortunately, there are very serious methodological problems with this survey that make it unusable for comparative purposes.

    This presentation discusses the survey's weaknesses and, more generally, the pitfalls of applying a universal measure of skills in countries with different cultures and different languages. Analyses of the survey results reveal the extent to which translation and wording altered the difficulty of the test questions. The range of scores on the various items among the participating countries confirms this linguistic bias. Moreover, respondents' attitudes (motivation, attentiveness, refusal, etc.) are not only culturally marked and tightly bound to the survey tradition in their own countries, but are also a determining factor in a survey intended to construct a measure of skills. Only highly detailed coding could separate the respondents' attitudes toward this long and difficult survey and differentiate between a deficiency of skills or a lack of motivation or attention.

    This paper is based on an assessment of the survey within the European Community. Its findings have led to the publication of a series of articles and a book on the subject.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016256
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    From a survey of employer payroll/tax filing practices, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) determined that some businesses prepare their own tax reports using payroll/tax software developed internally or purchased, while others arrange contracts with third parties for this type of service. Subsequently, the BLS developed an electronic data collection strategy for the quarterly Multiple Worksite Report (MWR), which is filed by 112,000 legal entities representing 1.2 million worksites.

    Recently, the BLS has been working closely with payroll/tax software developers and with firms providing payroll/tax filing services in order to include the electronic transmittal of MWR data into their systems. In the past, employers with multiple establishments in different states had to manually file paper MWRs for each state. With electronic reporting, data for all states are sent directly to the BLS, where the data is edited and then forwarded on to the proper state.

    This paper discusses the background information noted above, as well as the various approaches that the BLS staff has used to solicit the co-operation of these firms in modifying their systems to include electronic reporting as an option or additional service.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016297
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects in designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists. The Danish National Institute of Social Research is an independent institution under the Ministry of Social Affairs. The Institute carries out surveys on social issues on encompassing a broad range of subjects. The Sustainable Financing Initiative Survey (SFI-SURVEY) is an economically independent section within the institute. SFI-SURVEY carries out scientific surveys both for the Institute, for other public organizations, and for the private sector as well. The SFI-SURVEY interviewer body has 450 interviewers spread throughout Denmark. There are five supervisors, each with a regional office, who are in contact with the interviewer body. On a yearly basis, SFI-SURVEY conducts 40 surveys. The average sample size (gross) is 1,000 persons. The average response rate is 75%. Since January 1999, the following information about the surveys have been recorded: · Type of method used (face-to-face or telephone) · Length of questionnaire (interviewing time in minutes) · Whether or not a folder was sent to the respondents in advance · Whether or not an interviewer instruction meeting was given · Number of interviews per interviewer per week · Whether or not the subject of the survey was of interest to the respondents · Interviewing month · Target group (random selection of the total population or special groups)

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016235
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Police records collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) through the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program are the leading source of national crime statistics. Recently, audits to correct UCR records have raised concerns as to how to handle the errors discovered in these files. Concerns centre around the methodology used to detect errors and the procedures used to correct errors once they have been discovered. This paper explores these concerns, focusing on sampling methodology, establishment of a statistical-adjustment factor, and alternative solutions. The paper distinguishes the difference between sample adjustment and sample estimates of an agency's data, and recommends sample adjustment as the most accurate way of dealing with errors.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016285
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    The three papers presented in this session offer excellent insight into the issues concerning the quality of hospital morbidity data. Richards, Brown, and Homan sampled hospital records to evaluate administrative data in Canada; Hargreaves sampled persons in hospitals to evaluate administrative data in Australia; and McLemoreand Pokras describe the quality assurance practices of an ongoing sample survey of hospital records in the United States. Each paper is discussed, along with the issues and challenges for the future.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016244
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Over the past few years, Statistics New Zealand (SNZ) has experienced an increase in the volume of business survey data supplied by e-mail. However, up until now, SNZ has not had the business processes available to support electronic collection in a way that meets both the needs of SNZ and data suppliers. To this end, SNZ has invested a lot of effort over the last year in investigating how best to approach the problems and opportunities presented by electronic data collection. This paper outlines SNZ's plans to move the e-mail supplied data to a secure lodgement facility and the future development of an internet-based data collection system. It also presents a case study of the Monthly Retail Trade Survey data currently supplied by e-mail. This case study illustrates some of the benefits of electronic data, but also examines some of the costs to the organization and the data quality problems encountered. It also highlights the need to consider the data collection methodology within the wider context of the total survey cycle.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016243
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    Since 1996, the Census Bureau has been creating Web Computerized Self-Administered Questionnaires (CSAQs). These electronic questionnaires have some data quality advantages over paper questionnaires such as the availability of online help; pre-loaded data; the use of interactive edits (which allows respondents to correct their responses as they are entered); and, for establishment surveys, the ability to import data from spreadsheets. This paper provides an overview of the Census Bureau's Web CSAQs. Each of the Web CSAQ design features promoting data quality are explained, as well as the features that impose data quality obstacles. Finally, some recent, empirical, data quality results from both establishment and household surveys are presented.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20010016259
    Description:

    This paper discusses in detail issues dealing with the technical aspects of designing and conducting surveys. It is intended for an audience of survey methodologists.

    In cut-off sampling, part of the target population is deliberately excluded from selection. In business statistics, the frame and the sample are typically restricted to enterprises of at least a given size (e.g. a certain number of employees). The response burden is eliminated for the small enterprises, but assumptions must be used for the non-sampled part of the population. Cut-off sampling has merits but requires care when measuring size and methodological work with models.

    This paper presents some empirical Swedish results based on one survey and administrative data. Different error sources and their effects on the overall accuracy are discussed.

    Release date: 2002-09-12

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