Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.
M. Wisenthal, Statistics CanadaSummary Statistics (Series W1-66)
Elementary and Secondary Education (Series W67-306)
Post-secondary Education (Series W307-532)
This section is in three main parts as follows: Summary Statistics (series W1-66); Elementary and Secondary Education (series W67-306) and Post-secondary Education (series W307-532). Within each part there are series on enrolment, number and qualifications of teachers and financial data. Additional information on degrees awarded and libraries is given in the third part.
The main sources consist of the following publications of the Education, Science and Culture Division of Statistics Canada: Salaries and Qualifications of Teachers in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, (Catalogue 81-202); University and College Libraries in Canada, (Catalogue 81-206); Survey of Education Finance, (Catalogue 81-208); Elementary-Secondary School Enrolment, (Catalogue 81-210); Degrees, Diplomas, Certificates Awarded by Degree-granting Institutions, (Catalogue 81-211); Education in Canada, (Catalogue 81-229) and Historical Compendium of Education Statistics, (Catalogue 81-568 Occasional).
Several of the above titles and catalogue numbers have been altered in recent years. Additional sources are given in Statistics Canada Catalogue, (Catalogue 11-204E). An important additional source is Enrolment in Educational Institutions by Province, 1951-52 to 1980-81 by Z. Zsigmond and C. Wenaas, Staff Study Number 25, Economic Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1970. The book by Robin S. Harris, A History of Higher Education in Canada, 1663 to 1960, University of Toronto Press, 1976, was also used. A long list of sources for earlier years is given in the first edition of this volume. Many of those earlier data sources are now consolidated in the above Statistics Canada publications.
The 1960s were a period of unprecedented expansion and reorganization for Canadian education. For example, the Council of Ministers of Education was created to promote an exchange of views on educational policies among provinces, and to identify a common core of statistical information; a network of community colleges was established across the country; the structure of education in Quebec underwent a fundamental reorganization. These changes brought a demand for improved statistical information, including the development of new series, improvements in existing ones, and a limited examination and revision of data published in the past.
In general, data presented here are more inclusive than those in the previous edition, although some series have been discontinued or replaced by new ones. For example, elementary-secondary enrolment now covers not only public and private schools, but also federal schools for native people. Because the academic qualifications for teaching have been upgraded, classification of elementary and secondary teachers by type of certificate held is less relevant. Therefore, elementary and secondary teachers in this publication are not classified by type of certificate, but by the highest university degree obtained. New series include full-time enrolment in post-secondary non-university institutions, university undergraduate enrolment by field of specialization beginning with 1961, part-time university enrolment, information about centralized libraries in public elementary and secondary schools and university libraries.
Space limitations meant that some series had to be excluded. For example, enrolment in elementary and secondary schools by grade, sex and type (or control) of school proved too unwieldy for inclusion. However, this information and other detailed data may be found in a new Statistics Canada publication, Historical Compendium of Education Statistics. In most cases, if tables in this volume give data for Canada only, provincial breakdowns are in the above publication.
The form of presentation has also been altered. Fairly comprehensive information is now available for enrolment covering the period from 1951 to 1975, and for finance from 1950 to 1974. Therefore, it is possible to present trends for these two subjects over the last quarter century. Data on teachers, classified by level of instruction, are available only from 1960 to 1975.
In the following tables, data are given for school years beginning in the year shown, whereas in the first edition of Historical Statistics of Canada, data were given for school years ending in the year shown.
Statistical data reported for recent years are acceptably accurate and complete. However, the more remote the information is in time, the more likely it is to be inexact. The degree of accuracy varies considerably from province to province, and can be assessed only by comparison with other related variables, or by reference to original reports. Summary tables, covering the period from 1950 (or 1951) to 1975 are generally reliable. Data on teachers, classified by level of instruction, are given only from 1960, because it was not possible to obtain reliable information in such detail for earlier years from private and federal schools.
The tables are available as comma separated value files (csv). They may be viewed using a variety of software. You may have to create an association between your software application and the csv files. The pdf files should be used to verify table formats. For example, footnotes appear in a column to the right of the cell they reference in the csv files; while in the pdf files footnotes appear as superscript numbers.
Summary of total full-time enrolment, by level of study, Canada, selected years, 1951 to 1975
Source: 1960 to 1975, Education in Canada; 1951 to 1959, Economic Council of Canada, Staff Study No. 25; and unpublished data.
Summary of total full-time enrolment, by level of study, related to relevant population, Canada, selected years, 1951 to 1975
Source: 1960 to 1975, Education in Canada; 1951 to 1959, Economic Council of Canada, Staff Study No. 25.
Changes in the levels of enrolment must be viewed in the light of two factors that affect education, namely: (i) demography - the steep decline in the birth rate and the somewhat more gradual decline in the number of live births beginning around 1960, and (ii) enrolment rates - generally increasing rates, particularly at the secondary and, even more so, at the post-secondary levels.
Total full-time enrolment, which stood at 2,715,900 in 1951, increased 61 per cent to 4,367,500 by 1960, then grew by almost another 2 million or 46 per cent to a peak of 6,363,900 in 1970. It then began a decline, to 6,186,000 by 1975.
These fluctuations reflect the decreasing number of children in the younger age groups, but also changing enrolment rates.
Because changes in population affect enrolment, especially at the lower rungs of the education ladder, it is necessary to examine the trends by level.(i) Kindergarten
The decline in the birth rate and the number of live births has already affected the youngest age groups. The five-year-old population rose steadily from 301,200 in 1951 to a peak of 469,200 in 1966 (an increase of 168,000), then declined to a low of 359,400 in 1974 (a drop of 109,800). In 1975, it rose to 370,300, reflecting a temporary increase in the number of births in 1970. This rise in births is a random fluctuation and not a harbinger of future trends. It is, however, expected that in the second half of the 1970s the number of births will indeed increase due to the growing number of women in the child-bearing age born during the 'baby boom' era, and in spite of still decreasing birth rate.
But it is apparent that 'Pre-grade 1' enrolment has been increasing much faster than the five-year-old population. The picture is somewhat distorted by inclusion of private kindergartens and nursery schools in the Canada totals from 1965 to 1974. The number ranged from 38,000 in 1965 to a high of 52,200 in 1970, and then tapered off to 38,600 in 1974. In 1975, the survey of private kindergartens and nursery schools was discontinued. Thus, for an accurate time series, it is necessary to recast the figures.
The following tabulation contains the data as they appear in series W1-9 and series W10-20, the revised figures, and the index based on 1951. Each year in the seventies is shown since it was then that enrolment rates exceeded 100 per cent of the five-year-old population. This rapid growth in kindergarten enrolment occurred chiefly because of the creation of junior kindergartens in public schools enrolling four-year-old and even some younger children. In 1975, the four-year-old and younger children enrolled represented around 35 per cent of the four-year-old population.
|Pre-grade one enrolment and enrolment rates|
These figures indicate the extent of the distortion caused by inclusion of private kindergartens and nursery schools (the latter enrolling even three-year-olds); the adjusted enrolment rates are lower by 8 per cent to 12 per cent.
Nonetheless, the recast numbers demonstrate the rapid increases in both enrolment and enrolment rates. By 1970, enrolment had grown more than fourfold from 1951, and enrolment rates rose from 28 per cent to 79 per cent. While the numbers fell in the early 1970s as a result of the declining birth rates in the 1960s, enrolment rates kept rising and exceeded 100 per cent in the last two years.
(ii) Grades 1 to 8
The 6 to 13-year-old population has also been affected by the demographic changes. It rose to a peak of 3,702,400 in 1971, and then declined to 3,410,300 in 1975.
Elementary enrolment increased throughout the 1950s and most of the 1960s, consistently exceeding the relevant population, due to overage students. However, the rate of increase diminished: from 1951 to 1955 it was 25 per cent, from 1955 to 1960, 22 per cent, and from 1960 to 1965, 13 per cent. Peak enrolment of 3,844,100 occurred in 1968, 5 per cent above the 1965 figure and 79 per cent over 1951, producing an enrolment rate of 106 per cent. The subsequent decline was due mainly to two factors: (1) a gradual phasing out of the Grade 7 in Quebec, and (2) a faster promotion of students not only in Quebec but in most other provinces. Consequently, the proportion of overaged students declined and so did the enrolment rate.
The seeming increase in 1975 'Grades 1-8' enrolment (series W1-9) and the decrease in 'Grades 9 and higher' are entirely due to a change in the classification of Quebec 'Secondary II' enrolment. Until 1974, this level was included in 'Grades 9 and higher', but in 1975 was transferred to 'Grades 1 to 8'. Elimination of the effect of this change would produce a further decline of 'elementary' and a continued increase in 'secondary' enrolment.
If, for the sake of comparability with previous years, enrolment in Quebec 'Secondary II' (121,200) is excluded, enrolment would be 3,359,900, resulting in an enrolment rate of 99 per cent (not 102 per cent). Using the adjusted figure, the drop in enrolment from 1968 would be 484,200, or 13 per cent over the seven-year period.
(iii) Grades 9 and above
The population in the secondary education age group (14-17) is still growing but at slower rates than in the 1950s and 1960s. Thus, most rapid increases in enrolment occurred in the late 1950s and early 1960s and then tapered off.
But during the entire period enrolment increased steadily, and even more quickly than the population, hence the rising enrolment rates. The apparent decline in 1975 was caused by transfer of Quebec 'Secondary II' enrolment to the 'Grades 1 to 8' category. If Quebec 'Secondary II' were included at this level, 1975 enrolment would be 1,831,900, and the enrolment rate 98 per cent (not 91 per cent as shown in table 2). The following tabulation shows percentage increases in enrolment and population at five-year intervals:
|1951 to 1955||28.6||11.1|
|1955 to 1960||55.5||25.6|
|1960 to 1965||58.5||26.4|
|1965 to 1970||33.3||13.7|
|1970 to 19751||9.9||10.1|
1. Calculated using recast 1975 enrolment.
The population aged 18-24, from which about 80 per cent, of post-secondary students are drawn, is also still growing, and will continue to do so for several more years.
Total post-secondary enrolment increased more than sixfold between 1951 and 1975, from 91,100 to 592,100. The participation rate rose from 6 per cent of the 18 to 24-year-old population to 20 per cent. During the same period, non-university enrolment increased eight times, from 27,600 to 221,000, and university enrolment almost six times, from 63,500 to 371,100.
University education showed the fastest rate of expansion in the late 1950s and early 1960s, while non-university institutions experienced the greatest growth in the second half of the 1960s. This reflects the fact that in the early years, the non-university sector consisted mainly of teacher colleges, technical institutes and nursing schools. The most significant expansion occurred after community colleges were established across the country beginning in 1967 and 1968, in response to the need for broader post-secondary educational opportunities than those available at the time.
The following tabulation of percentage increases in enrolment in five-year intervals demonstrates relative growth:
|Percentage increases in post-secondary enrolment|
|1951 to 1955||20.7||14.5||16.4|
|1955 to 1960||48.3||56.4||52.0|
|1960 to 1965||40.5||79.6||69.8|
|1965 to 1970||139.3||51.6||73.8|
|1970 to 1975||33.1||19.9||24.5|
As a result of the popularity and rapid expansion of non-university education, the ratio of university to non-university enrolment fell from 2.3 in 1951 to 1.7 in 1975.
Source: Education in Canada, 1974 to 1976.
To keep up with escalating enrolment more teachers were needed, but the rate of increase in their number was even greater than was occasioned by enrolment growth. Since data on teachers by level of instruction are available only from 1960, the comparisons with enrolment can be made from that year on. While total enrolment increased by 42 per cent over the 15-year period, the number of teachers rose by 84 per cent.
A few corresponding percentages of teachers and enrolment illustrate the relative rates of growth. At the elementary-secondary level, the number of teachers increased by 68 per cent, enrolment by 33 per cent; at the post-secondary level the figures are 305 per cent and 263 per cent. The one exception is the sub-category of post-secondary non-university education, where enrolment grew at a faster rate than teachers; 347 per cent as opposed to 322 per cent.
Persons leaving full-time studies and potentially available to the labour force, by sex and educational attainment, Canada, 1971 to 1975
Source: Projected Potential Labour Force Entrants from the Canadian Educational System, 1971 to 1985, a study by Z.E. Zsigmond and Edith Rechnitzer, Education Division, Statistics Canada.
Source: Financial Statistics of Education, 1974-75.
Total expenditures on education, by source of funds, and percentage distribution, Canada, selected years, 1950 to 1974
Source: Financial Statistics of Education, 1974-75.
Total expenditures on education in relation to socio-economic and demographic variables, Canada, selected years, 1950 to 1974
Source: Financial Statistics of Education, 1974-75.
In no other aspect of education was the recent 'explosion' more apparent than in the field of finance. Although figures are available from 1950, expenditures in the 1950s were so small relative to later years that comparisons presented here cover only the years from 1960 to 1974.
Figures in table 5 indicate a more than sixfold rise in expenditures, from $1,706 million in 1960 to an estimated $11,049 million in 1974. Applying this yardstick to various levels of education, expenditures for elementary-secondary education increased 5.4 times (from $1,328 to $7,191 million), and for post-secondary, almost 10 times (from $331 to $3,165 million). The largest percentage rise in spending was at the post-secondary non-university level, an almost fourteenfold increase (from $58 to $792 million). Expenditures on university education increased almost ninefold (from $273 to $2,372 million).
Huge as these sums are, there are indications of an effort in recent years to restrain this rapid growth. Series W61-66 show that, in relation to leading economic indicators, expenditures on education reached their peak in 1970, amounting to 9 per cent of the GNP and 12 per cent of personal income. Thereafter, percentages declined each year, to 8 per cent and 10 per cent respectively, by 1974. These declining percentages indicate that other social concerns, notably welfare, are making greater claims on the public purse. It has been calculated that in 1968 education accounted for 22 per cent of all public expenditures, the largest single item, compared with 16 per cent for social welfare. According to estimates, by 1973 the order of priorities had been reversed: 19 per cent for education and 21 per cent for welfare.
Nevertheless, as shown in series W61-66, expenditures on education per capita of population, labour force, and full-time student, have been growing without pause. Probably the most significant ratio is that of the labour force which, after all, carries the burden of all spending in one way or another. Expenditures on education increased fourfold, from $266 per labour force member in 1960 to $1,144 by 1974.
Obviously, expenditures of that magnitude, in excess of $11 billion in 1974, could not be financed by individuals. In recognition of the national importance of education, the money had to be collected in the form of various taxes and disbursed by government. As the needs increased so did the share of funds provided by the public sector. This is clearly reflected in series W47-60. From 1960 to 1974, public funding rose from 89 per cent of the total to 92 per cent, while private contributions (fees and other private sources) fell from 11 per cent to 8 per cent. All the same, the private sector still plays an important role - its contribution increased almost fivefold, from $191 to $901 million, in this period.
Total enrolment and percentage of average daily attendance in public elementary and secondary schools, Canada and provinces, selected years, 1866 to 1975
Total enrolment and percentage of average daily attendance in public elementary and secondary schools, Canada and provinces, selected years, 1866 to 1975 CONCLUDED
Source: for 1974 to 1975, Statistics Canada, unpublished data; for 1952 to 1973, Enrolment in Elementary and Secondary Schools in Canada, various issues, and unpublished data; for 1951, Economic Council of Canada, Staff Study No. 25, unpublished summaries; for 1920 to 1950 Survey of Elementary and Secondary Education in Canada; for 1915 and prior years, Historical Statistics of Canada, first edition.
Public school enrolment shown in Series W67-93 is a continuation of series Vl-20 of the previous edition. In addition to provincial figures, those for the territories and Department of National Defence overseas schools have been added, where available. Thus the series is more complete. Since the late 1950s, more accurate information than previously available was assembled and published. As far as possible, irregular trends in the years before 1940 have been corrected, either by reference to original reports or by estimation and interpolation, so that the figures give a truer picture of the development of public schools.
Quebec's complex school system (public and private for both Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations) resulted in greatly varying figures for the period from Confederation to 1930. By reference to original annual reports in some years, and interpolation in others, figures have been revised or estimated to reflect more closely than before the development of the public school system in that province.
In other provinces, three estimates were made to fill gaps: in Prince Edward Island for 1870 and 1875, and in Manitoba for 1875.
W94-149. Total enrolment in elementary and secondary schools, by control, Canada and provinces, selected years, 1920 to 1975
Source: for 1955 to 1975, Education in Canada, various issues, and Elementary-secondary School Enrolment, 1973-74; for 1940 to 1950, Survey of Elementary and Secondary Education, 1959-60; for 1920 to 1935, annual Survey of Education.
Series W94-149 show the trends of all elementary and secondary enrolment over the last 55 years. Enrolment by grade, sex and control of schools may be found in Statistics Canada's Historical Compendium of Education Statistics.
W150-191. Full-time teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by sex, Canada and provinces, selected years, 1867 to 1975
Source: for 1972 to 1975, Education in Canada, 1974, 1975 and 1976; for 1940 to 1971, Salaries and Qualifications of Teachers in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, and Education in Canada, various issues; for 1920 to 1935, annual and biennial Surveys of Education; for 1867 to 1915 Historical Statistical Survey of Education, 1921, provincial annual reports, and Historical Statistics of Canada; for 1870 to 1950, Quebec data obtained from Quebec Yearbook, 1914 and 1954.
The number of teachers in public schools corresponds with series V68-78 of the previous edition. As with enrolment, teachers in the territories and in schools overseas are included. Previously published figures have been amended if more recent publications or new sources of information warranted a revision.
The figures for the early years of this series, mostly in the last century, are questionable for at least two provinces: Ontario and British Columbia.
The number of full-time teachers in Ontario from 1867 to 1900 appears to be under-reported, resulting in pupil-teacher ratios ranging from 77.7 in 1867 to 48.9 in 1900. Comparable ratios in three eastern provinces from 1870 to 1900 were: Nova Scotia, from 49.3 to 39.5; New Brunswick, from 35.2 to 36.8; and Quebec, from 39.2 to 26.9. Only in 1925 did Ontario's pupil-teacher ratio drop below the mid- or low-40s (37.5).
An even more striking case of teacher under-enumeration occurred in British Columbia for the years 1885 to 1910, producing obviously improbable ratios ranging from 550 in 1885 to 100.7 in 1905 and 61.4 in 1910.
Therefore, data on Ontario and British Columbia teachers are questionable up to 1920 for the former, and up to 1910 for the latter. If there are inaccuracies in other provinces, they are not apparent.
Alternatively, in Quebec the number of full-time teachers may have been overstated. This is suggested by a relatively low pupil-teacher ratio: as early as 1885 it was 28.4, and remained in the mid-20s up to modern times.
W192-247. Full-time teachers in elementary and secondary schools, by control, Canada and provinces, selected years, 1930 to 1975
Source: for 1960 to 1975, Education in Canada, various issues (revised); for 1930 to 1959, annual and biennial Surveys of Education.
The total number of teachers in all elementary and secondary schools (including private and federal) is shown in the above table.
W248-259. Percentage of full-time teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by highest university degree held and sex, provinces, selected years, 1952 to 1973
Source: 1972 to 1973 Education in Canada, 1976; for 1952 to 1971, Salaries and Qualifications of Teachers in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, various issues.
This table classifies public school teachers by sex and the highest university degree they hold. Data concerning qualifications of Quebec teachers are not available, therefore, with some exceptions (indicated in the footnotes), totals represent nine provinces.
To make the data easier to interpret, the numbers of teachers with various degrees are shown as percentages of the total, by sex and for both sexes combined. Hence, in 1952 only 22 per cent of all teachers had university degrees, while 78 per cent had none. By 1973, more than half had degrees (57 per cent).
Although there were fewer men teachers, a higher proportion of them had university degrees - at each level of degree and in all years. However, the women upgraded their educational credentials at a faster rate than men. For example, a comparison of 1952 with 1973 reveals that between those years at the 'Master and higher' level the rate of increase for men was 2.5, and 2.8 for women. At the bachelor's level, narrowing of the gap was even faster: a rate of increase of 1.6 for men and 3.7 for women. Even so, men teachers on the whole have higher educational standing. In 1973, 77 per cent of them had university degrees versus 41 per cent of the women. (The comparable percentages in 1952 were 46 per cent and 12 per cent.)
A provincial breakdown indicates that those provinces which started with the lowest percentages of teachers, men and women, with university degrees, showed the greatest rate of upgrading over the span of 21 years. The proportion of university-educated teachers in provinces where their percentages were relatively high in 1952 increased more slowly.
The following figures illustrate this point:
|Teachers qualifications - public elementary and secondary schools|
|Percentage of teachers
with university degrees
|Prince Edward Island||5.1||38.61||7.57|
1. 1972 data.
2. Excluding Prince Edward Island in 1973.
Thus, in Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, where only 4 per cent and 5 per cent of the teachers had degrees in 1952, the rates of increase were about twelvefold and eightfold, respectively. At the other end of the scale, Alberta and British Columbia, 36 per cent of whose teachers were degree-holders in 1952, had growth rates of 2.1 and 1.9, although they did retain their high standing in the overall proportions of teachers with degrees.
Probably the most significant change in the composition of the teaching force over those 21 years was a fourfold increase in the number of male teachers (from 20,341 to 80,881) while female teachers only doubled their numbers (48,077 to 105,367). As a result, the percentage of male teachers went from 30 per cent in 1952 to 43 per cent in 1973. Considering public school teachers in all provinces and territories (series W150-191), between 1950 and 1975, the number of male teachers increased 4.6 times versus 2.3 times for females, and the proportion of male teachers increased from 27 per cent to 42 per cent. Thus, teaching at the elementary and secondary levels is no longer an overwhelmingly female occupation, as was the case in the first half of the century when the percentage of men hovered between 20 per cent and 25 per cent, and in 1920 was even as low as 17 per cent. The rapid growth of secondary education since 1951 has been one of several factors contributing to this development.
Statistics of centralized public school libraries, Canada and provinces, 1958 to 1967 and 1972
Source: for 1972, Statistics Canada, unpublished data; for 1958 to 1967, Survey of Libraries, part II: Academic Libraries, various issues.
A new table, summarizing the operations of centralized libraries in publicly operated elementary-secondary schools, has been added to demonstrate how quickly this essential aid to education expanded between 1958 and 1972. Similar data for each province are shown in Historical Compendium of Education Statistics.
W275-300. Operating and capital expenditures of public school boards on elementary and secondary education, Canada and provinces, selected years, 1900 to 1974
Source: for 1959 to 1974, Financial Statistics of Education, various issues; for 1900 to 1955, Historical Statistics of Education, revised.
Expenditures on elementary and secondary education, by source of funds, Canada, selected years, 1950 to 1974
Source: for 1950 to 1974, Financial Statistics of Education, 1974-75.
These tables present expenditures on elementary and secondary education. Series W275-300 is comparable to the Series V158-170 in the original volume, except that school board expenditures are all-inclusive, i.e., they include not only provincial grants and local assessments but also income from fees and other sources. The trend in expenditures on education has already been discussed; it is sufficient to observe that while enrolment in publicly controlled schools grew by only 37 per cent, between 1960 and 1970, these expenditures increased almost fourfold, resulting in a large rise in the cost per pupil.
Series W301-306 show all expenditures on elementary and secondary education. In addition to public school boards, provincial administrative expenditures and federal funds spent on federal schools are included. School boards represent the largest part of these expenditures, amounting to almost 84 per cent in 1974. Classification by source permits a quick assessment of the importance of public funds at this level of education. In 1960, public sources provided 94 per cent of the total; by 1974, the share had increased to 96 per cent. A provincial breakdown is given in Historical Compendium of Education Statistics.
Full-time enrolment in post-secondary non-university institutions, by sex, Canada and provinces, 1955 and 1958 to 1975
Source: for 1960 to 1975 Education in Canada, 1975 and 1976; for 1955 to 1959 Statistics Canada, unpublished data.
For the first time, enrolment in post-secondary non-university institutions from 1955 to 1975 is presented. It represents students in post-secondary courses only (i.e., excludes trade courses) in community colleges (e.g., CEGEP'S in Quebec; CAAT'S in Ontario); institutes of technology; teachers' colleges, and comparable institutions.
Expansion of this type of education began in the mid-1960s. Therefore, if 1960 is used as a base year, the rapid development can be demonstrated. In 15 years, from 1960 to 1975, enrolment increased more than four times. It is interesting to note that the percentage of women enrolled declined from 71 per cent to 51 per cent. The explanation is that in the early 1960s, enrolment in teachers' colleges and schools of nursing, both predominantly female, represented a majority of the enrolment at this level. In the 1970s, teachers' colleges have been practically eliminated and teacher training transferred to universities (where it contributed to the rise in the proportion of female students). At the same time, nursing diploma courses in most provinces have been shortened from three to two years. In addition, as new types of courses were introduced, particularly technology and business programs, the proportion of male students rose steadily.
W340-438. Full-time university enrolment, by sex, Canada and provinces, selected years, 1920 to 1975
Source: for 1960 to 1975, Education in Canada, 1974, 1975 and 1976; for 1955 to 1959, Economic Council of Canada, Staff Study No. 25, unpublished summaries; for 1920 to 1950, Historical Statistics of Canada, series V184-195 and V196-206.
The above table combines series V184-195 and V196-206 of the previous edition, and extends them to 1975. Both Canada and provincial data are shown, and permit comparisons over a span of 55 years. Two features of the time series stand out: (1) total enrolment increased very rapidly after 1960 (3.3 times to 1975), and (2) the proportion of females went from 24 per cent to 44 per cent during those 15 years.
Full-time university undergraduate enrolment, by field of specialization and sex, Canada, selected years, 1861 to 1975
Source: for 1962 to 1975, Education in Canada, 1975 and 1976; for 1958 to 1961, Economic Council of Canada, Staff Study No. 25, unpublished summaries; for 1920 to 1955, Historical Statistics of Canada, series V184-195 for total Canada figures; breakdown by specialization: Survey of Higher Education, 1950 to 1955, and Survey of Education, 1919 to 1949; for 1861 to 1911, A History of Higher Education in Canada, 1663-1960, by Professor Robin S. Harris, University of Toronto Press, 1976.
Series W439-455 introduce a new series: undergraduate enrolment by field of specialization and sex. Although figures at the Canada level are presented from 1861 to 1975, developments in the 1960s and 1970s are most noteworthy. Again, the large increase in the proportion of women (from 25 per cent in 1960 to 42 per cent in 1975) is evident. In addition, this table shows the relative decline of certain professional courses, as enrolment in general arts and science increased. There were declines in the share of engineering, medicine, pharmacy and dentistry. On the other hand, certain professions underwent considerable enrolment growth, notably education and commerce.
The proportion in the general arts and science courses combined went from 51 per cent to 55 per cent.
Data in the above series appear reasonable throughout, and have been reliably reported since the 1950s. Special credit is due to Professor Robin S. Harris of the University of Toronto, from whose well-researched volume, A History of Higher Education in Canada, 1663-1960, information for the years 1861 to 1911 in this table was taken.
Provincial figures are given in Historical Compendium of Education Statistics. However, these data are available only from 1962.
Full-time graduate enrolment, by broad field of specialization and sex, Canada, 1970 to 1975
Source: for 1970 to 1975, Education in Canada, 1973 to 1976.
A similar series has been prepared for graduate students classified by broad field of specialization (series 340-438), but at this level data are available for only six years: 1970 to 1975, and only for Canada as a whole.
Source: for 1962 to 1975, Education in Canada, 1975 and 1976.
Another new series, shown in the above table, gives part-time university enrolment from 1962 to 1975. Part-time enrolment increased much faster than full-time: 32 per cent vs. 163 per cent. The proportion of females enrolled part-time also grew impressively, from 38 per cent to 51 per cent in 1975. These statistics suggest that education is increasingly becoming a continuous process throughout life.
Source: for 1960 to 1975, Education in Canada, 1973 to 1976, for 1958 to 1959, Statistics Canada, unpublished data; for 1955 to 1957, Historical Statistics of Canada; for 1920 to 1950, Survey of Higher Education, (Catalogue 81-211), various issues.
Source: for 1970 to 1974, Education in Canada, 1973 to 1976; for 1958 to 1969, Statistics Canada, unpublished data.
The above two tables deal with university teachers. Series W475-485 are a continuation to 1975 of series V215-225 in the former volume.
Series W486-503 are new series that classify university teachers according to the highest degree they hold and by sex. Since values are expressed as percentages, it is easy to observe a general trend.
Between 1960 and 1974 the percentage with doctorates increased from 44 per cent to 57 per cent, however, the proportion of women PhD's rose at a rate faster than that of men (1.5 compared with 1.3 for men). As the proportion of doctorates grew, the proportions holding lower degrees diminished in all categories and for both sexes. However, the rates of decline for men in the master's and bachelor's categories were much greater than for women. In fact, the proportion of female teachers with a master's degree declined only marginally in these 14 years, from 43 per cent to 41 per cent.
Degrees awarded by Canadian universities and colleges, by sex, Canada, selected years, 1831 to 1973
Source: for 1961 to 1973, Education in Canada, 1975 and 1976; for 1920 to 1960, Survey of Higher Education, part II; various issues; for 1831 to 1916, A History of Higher Education in Canada, 1661-1960, by Professor Robin S. Harris, University of Toronto Press, 1976.
Statistics Canada has reasonably complete and reliable data in this series from 1920. Information for 1831 to 1916 was, again, derived from Professor Harris's book.
With two significant changes, series W504-512 correspond to series V207-214 in the previous edition: bachelor's degrees have been extended from 1920 back to 1831, and honourary doctorates have been excluded.
Using 1960 as a base year, it is possible to assess the relative increase for various degrees granted. The great expansion of university education in the sixties meant that there was a concurrent demand for university teachers with higher degrees. Hence, it is not surprising that the number of doctorates and master's degrees grew at a faster rate than bachelor's degrees. From 1960 to 1973, doctorates increased 6.2 times, masters 4.6 times, and bachelors 3.8 times.
The proportion of women receiving all three types of degrees rose, but at varying rates. The proportion of masters increased most, by a factor of 1.7 (from 16 per cent to 27 per cent), and doctorates by 1.4 (from 9 per cent to 12 per cent). Thus females are approaching parity with males at the bachelor and master levels but lag considerably behind in doctorates.
Source: for 1972, Statistics Canada, unpublished data; for 1970 to 1971, University and College Libraries in Canada; for 1958 to 1967, Survey of Libraries, part II: Academic Libraries, various issues.
Table 24 is a new time series showing data on university libraries from 1958 to 1972. During that period, coverage of the survey was expanded twice. Only since 1970 have all institutions classified as 'universities' been surveyed. Nevertheless, data from 1961 are roughly comparable, as in the 1960s those omitted were small colleges, mostly schools of theology, with enrolment of less than 100.
If 1961 is used as the base year, by 1972, the student population served increased threefold (total full-time enrolment grew 2.9 times). Library holdings (books, periodicals, etc.) increased almost four times; staff, nearly six times; and operating expenditures about elevenfold.
Operating and capital expenditures of universities, by source of funds, Canada, selected years, 1920 to 1974
Source: for 1950 to 1974, Financial Statistics of Education, 1974-75; for 1920 to 1945, Statistics Canada, unpublished data.
The following percentage distributions demonstrate important changes in sources of funds:
This table presents financial statistics (operating and capital) for universities, classified by source of funds, from 1920 to 1974. Expenditures in 1920 are so insignificant relative to the 1970s that any comparison is unrealistic. Therefore, as with other variables, 1960 is taken as the base year. Operating and capital expenditures are shown separately because the latter fluctuate widely, e.g., in 1960 they amounted to $78.9 million, reached a peak of $392.2 million in 1970 and declined to $188.9 million in 1974, with considerable ups and downs between. Moreover, the methods of financing operating and capital expenditures differ significantly, especially the former which have been greatly affected by the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act of 1967.
Several points are apparent. During these 14 years, operating expenditures grew tenfold, while capital outlays increased only 2.4 times, although 1974 was not the peak of capital spending.
Public financing has become more important, with a corresponding decline in the private sector. All the increase has been at the provincial level, while the federal share dropped significantly. However, federal transfers of funds to the provinces equalled 50 per cent of total operating expenditures. These federal transfers have been rising rapidly from $422 million in 1967-68 to an estimated $1.4 billion in 1975-76. However, since the transfers to provincial governments are made unconditionally, and expenditures are made at the discretion of the provincial governments, these sums are included in provincial grants and officially treated as such. Federal departments still make significant grants for research and research facilities, but the share has declined.
Whereas student fees represented 25 per cent of all operating expenditures in 1960, they fell to 14 per cent in 1974, despite a great increase in enrolment. Other private sources also declined in relative importance, from 11 per cent to 7 per cent. However, in absolute amounts, both rose: fees fivefold, other sources 6.6 times. These shifts in the relative importance of sources testify to the fact that university education requires large-scale government support.
Most provincial governments provide operating grants, based on formulae related to enrolment. Similar schemes or budgetary grants apply to capital expenditures. In the latter field, private funds still play an important role (44 per cent in 1974 and 43 per cent in 1960). These private contributions include private and corporate donations, income from endowments, fees for services rendered, profits from the sale of assets, and even borrowing when necessary.
You need to use the free Adobe Reader to view PDF documents. To view (open) these files, simply click on the link. To download (save) them, right-click on the link. Note that if you are using Internet Explorer or AOL, PDF documents sometimes do not open properly. See Troubleshooting PDFs. PDF documents may not be accessible by some devices. For more information, visit the Adobe website or contact us for assistance.