Evolution of the Canadian workplace:
work from home
Ernest B. Akyeampong and Richard Nadwodny
In the year 2000, approximately 2.8 million (17%) Canadian workers (1.4 million or 10% of employees, and 1.4 million or 50% of the self-employed) did some or all of their work from home, up from 2.1 million (16%) in 1995.
In 2000, work from home was slightly more common among male employees than among their female counterparts (10.6% versus 9.8%), and among part-time employees than full-timers (13.4% versus 12.8%). Higher-than-average incidences were also found among core-age (25-54) employees (12.0%), those with university degrees (22.7%, reflecting in part their occupations), and workers with pre school-age children (14.8%). Very low incidences were recorded among youths (4.6%), and employees with less than high-school education (3.9%).
Because of operational considerations, the practice is more common among social science and educational workers, and least common among processing and manufacturing; construction; accommodation and food service; trades, transport and equipment-operating; and health workers.
A large majority of home-based employees put in only a few hours of work at home each week-about 65% worked between one and 10 hours. Less than 3% put in more than 40 hours.
Innovations in information technology in the past decade or two appear to have affected home-based workers more strongly. In 2000, use of the computer, e-mail, Internet and telephone for work purposes was much higher among home-based workers than among those who worked completely outside the home.
Ernest B. Akyeampong is with the Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division. He can be reached at (613) 951-4624 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Richard Nadwodny is with Census Operations Division. He can be reached at (613) 951-3950 or email@example.com.