Data sources, methods and definitions

The principal data source used in this article is the Labour Force Survey (LFS). The LFS collects information on the labour market activities of the population 15 years of age and over, excluding residents of collective dwellings and native reserves, and full-time members of the Canadian Forces. Employed individuals are defined as those who worked at a job or business during the survey reference week.

Since 1997, the LFS has also collected more detailed information on the nature of the jobs held, notably wages and employment conditions. To provide comparisons over a longer period, other data sources were also used. Wage data prior to 1997 are based on the 1981 Survey of Work History, the 1984 Survey of Union Membership and the Labour Market Activity Survey from 1986 to 1990. Data on pension coverage were compiled using the Survey of Union Membership as well as the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics.

In this article, provinces were categorized based on whether they were oil-producing or non-oil-producing. Although there was sufficient detail in the above-mentioned surveys to examine the observed trends in wages of young men and women in both types of provinces, this could not be done for each province due to the sample size. Therefore readers should keep in mind that not all findings for both categories of provinces necessarily apply to each province. The oil-producing provinces are Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador.

The demographic and education data were primarily compiled using census and National Household Survey data as well as Statistics Canada Demosim projections.Note1


  1. See Caron-Malenfant et al. (2010).
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