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  1. Morris CE, Goli V. The physiology and biomedical aspects of chronic pain in later life. In: Roberto KA, ed. Older Women with Chronic Pain. New York: The Haworth Press, 1994: 9-24.

  2. Melzak R, Wall PD. The Challenge of Pain. Markham: Penguin Books, 1988.

  3. Sengstaken EA, King SA. The problems of pain and its detection among geriatric nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 1993; 41: 541-4.

  4. Ferrell BA. Pain evaluation and management in the nursing home. Annals of Internal Medicine 1995; 123(9): 681-7.

  5. Fox PL, Raina P, Jadad AR.  Prevalence and treatment of pain in older adults in nursing homes and other long-term care institutions: a systematic review. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1999; 160(3): 329-33.

  6. Blyth FM, March LM, Brnabic AJ, et al. Chronic pain in Australia: a prevalence study. Pain 2001; 89(2-3): 127-34.

  7. Breivik H.  World Health Organization supports global effort to relieve chronic pain. Accessed June 4, 2007.

  8. Smith BH, Elliott AM, Chambers WA, et al. The impact of chronic pain in the community.  Family Practice 2001; 18(3): 292-9.

  9. Elliott AM, Smith BH, Penny KI, et al. The epidemiology of chronic pain in the community. Lancet 1999; 354: 1248-52.

  10. Mäntyselkä PT, Turunen JHO, Ahonen RS, Kumpusalo EA. Chronic pain and poor self-rated health. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 290(18): 2435-42.

  11. Ross MM, Crook J. Elderly recipients of home nursing services: pain, disability and functional competence. Journal of Advanced Nursing 1998; 27: 1117-26.

  12. Brummel-Smith K, London MR, Drew N, et al.  Outcomes of pain in frail older adults with dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2002; 50(11): 1847-51.

  13. Cohen-Mansfield J, Lipson S. Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home residents: how well are physicians diagnosing it? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2002; 50(6): 1039-44.

  14. Jakobsson U, Hallberg IR, Westergren A. Overall and health related quality of life among the oldest old in pain. Quality of Life Research 2004; 13: 125-36.

  15. Roberto KA, Reynolds SG. Older women's experiences with chronic pain: daily challenges and self-care practices. Journal of Women and Aging 2002; 14(3-4): 5-23.

  16. Tannenbaum C, Mayo N, Ducharme F. Older women's health priorities and perceptions of care delivery: results of the WOW health survey. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2005; 173(2): 153-9.

  17. Heyland DK, Dodek P, Rocker G, et al. for the Canadian Researchers' End-of-Life Network (CARENET). What matters most in end-of-life care: perceptions of seriously ill patients and their family members. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2006; 174(5): 627.

  18. Roberto KA. The study of chronic pain in later life: where are the women? In: Roberto KA, ed. Older Women with Chronic Pain. New York: The Haworth Press, 1994: 1-7.

  19. Reyes-Gibby CC, Aday LA, Cleeland C.  Impact of pain on self-rated health in community-dwelling older adults. Pain 2002; 95: 75-82.

  20. Roy R, Thomas M. A survey of chronic pain in an elderly population. Canadian Family Physician 1986; 32: 513-6.

  21. Ferrell BA, Ferrell BR, Osterweil D. Pain in the nursing home. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1990; 38(4): 409-14.

  22. Ferrell BA, Ferrell BR, Rivera L. Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home patients. Journal of Pain Symptom Management 1995; 10(8): 591-8.

  23. Statistics Canada. Table 051-0001 – Estimates of population by age group and sex for Canada, provinces and territories, annual. Accessed July 21, 2006.

  24. Statistics Canada. Population Projections for Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2005-2031 (Catalogue 91-520). Accessed July 21, 2006.

  25. Parmelee PA, Smith B, Katz IR.  Pain complaints and cognitive status among elderly institution residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1993; 41: 517-22.

  26. Fisher SE, Burgio LD, Thorn BE, et al. Pain assessment and management in cognitively impaired nursing home residents: association of certified nursing assistant pain report, minimum data set pain report, and analgesic medication use. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2002; 50(1): 152-6.

  27. Swain L, Catlin G, Beaudet MP. The National Population Health Survey–its longitudinal nature. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 1999; 10(4): 62-82.

  28. Tambay J-L, Catlin G.  Sample design of the National Population Health Survey. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 1995; 7(1): 29-38.

  29. Statistics Canada.  National Population Health Survey, Cycle 6 (2004-2005), Household Component, Longitudinal Documentation. Ottawa: Health Statistics Division, 2006.

  30. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18(2): 209-17.

  31. Rust KF, Rao JN. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5(3): 283-310.

  32. Yeo D, Mantel H, Liu T-P. Bootstrap variance estimation for the National Population Health Survey. American Statistical Association: Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section. Baltimore: August, 1999.

  33. Malloy DC, Hadjistavropoulos T.  The problem of pain management among persons with dementia, personhood, and the ontology of relationships. Nursing Philosophy 2004; 5: 147-59.

  34. Moulin DE, Clark AJ, Speechley M, Morley-Forster PK. Chronic pain in Canada – Prevalence, treatment, impact and the role of opioid analgesia. Pain Research and  Management 2002; 7(4): 179-84.

  35. Landi F, Onder G, Cesari M, et al. on behalf of the SILVERNET-HC Study Group. Pain and its relation to depressive symptoms in frail older people living in the community: An observational study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2005; 29(3): 255-62.

  36. Proctor WR, Hirdes JP. Pain and cognitive status among nursing home residents in Canada. Pain Research and Management 2001; 6(3): 119-25.

  37. Scudds RJ, Østbye T. Pain and pain-related interference with function in older Canadians: the Canadian study of health and aging. Disability and Rehabilitation 2001; 23(1): 654-64.

  38. Jakobsson U, Hallberg IR, Westergren A. Pain management in elderly persons who require assistance with activities of daily living: a comparison of those living at home with those in special accommodations. European Journal of Pain 2004; 8: 335-44.

  39. Levy M. Pain control research in the terminally ill. Omega 1988; 18(4): 265-79.

  40. Osterweis M, Kleinman A, Mecanic D, eds. Pain and Disability: Clinical, Behavioral, and Public Policy Perspectives. Washington: National Academy Press, 1987.

  41. Ramage-Morin P.  Successful aging in health care institutions. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2006; 16(Supplement): 47-56.