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1 World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.

2 Coutinho T, Goel K, Correa de Sá D, et al.  Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2011; 57(19): 1877-86.

3 Czernichow S, Kengne AP, Stamatakis E, et al.  Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: which is the better discriminator of cardiovascular disease mortality risk? Evidence from an individual-participant meta-analysis of 82 864 participants from nine cohort studies. Obesity Reviews 2011; 12(9): 680-7.

4 Lee CM, Huxley RR, Wildman RP, Woodward M. Indices of abdominal obesity are better discriminators of cardiovascular risk factors than BMI: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2008; 61(7): 646-53.

5 Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27,000 participants from 52 countries:  A case-control study. Lancet 2005; 366(9497): 1640-9.

6 Browning LM, Hsieh SD, Ashwell M. A systematic review of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 0.5 could be a suitable global boundary value. Nutrition Research Reviews 2010; 23(2): 247-69.

7 de Koning L, Merchant AT, Pogue J, Anand SS. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies. European Heart Journal 2007; 28(7): 850-6.

8 Huxley R, Mendis S, Zheleznyakov E, et al.  Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk--a review of the literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010; 64(1): 16-22.

9 Qiao Q, Nyamdorj R. Is the association of type II diabetes with waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio stronger than that with body mass index? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010; 64(1): 30-4.

10 Seidell JC. Waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in relation to all-cause mortality, cancer and sleep apnea. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010; 64(1): 35-41.

11 Vazquez G, Duval S, Jacobs DR, Jr., Silventoinen K. Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis. Epidemiologic Reviews 2007; 29: 115-28.

12 Health Canada. Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults (Catalogue H49-179) Ottawa: Health Canada, 2003.

13 Lau DC, Douketis JD, Morrison KM, et al.  2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children [summary]. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2007; 176(8 Suppl.): S1-13.

14 World Health Organization. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio. Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011.

15 National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: the evidence report. Obesity Research 1998; 6: S51-210.

16 Janssen I, Shields M, Craig CL, Tremblay MS. Changes in the obesity phenotype within Canadian children and adults, 1981 to 2007-2009. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011.

17 Shields M, Tremblay MS, Connor Gorber S, Janssen I. Measures of abdominal obesity within body mass index categories, 1981 and 2007-2009. Health Reports 2012; 23(2).

18 Day B, Langlois R, Tremblay M, Knoppers BM. Canadian Health Measures Survey: ethical, legal and social issues. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.): 37-51.

19 Giroux S. Canadian Health Measures Survey:  Sampling strategy overview. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.): 31-6.

20 Tremblay MS, Wolfson M, Connor Gorber S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: rationale, background and overview. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.): 7-20.

21 Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data User Guide: Cycle 1. Available at: Accessed  September 26, 2011.

22 Janssen I. Influence of age on the relation between waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk markers. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 2009; 19(3): 163-9.

23 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP). The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Approach (CPAFLA) 3rd edition. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, 2003.

24 Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, et al.  Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 2009; 120(16): 1640-5.

25 WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. ATC/DDD Index 2011. Available at: Accessed 26 September 2011.

26 Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS): Cycle 1 Wave 1: Derived Variables (DV). Available at: Accessed August 18, 2010.

27 Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18(2): 209-17.

28 Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5: 281-310.

29 Ardern CI, Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I, Ross R. Discrimination of health risk by combined body mass index and waist circumference. Obesity Research 2003; 11(1): 135-42.

30 Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Body mass index, waist circumference, and health risk: evidence in support of current National Institutes of Health guidelines. Archives of Internal Medicine 2002; 162(18): 2074-9.

31 Elobeid MA, Desmond RA, Thomas O, et al.  Waist circumference values are increasing beyond those expected from BMI increases. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15(10): 2380-3.

32 McCarthy HD, Ellis SM, Cole TJ. Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11-16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference. British Medical Journal 2003; 326(7390): 624.

33 Seidell JC, Han TS, Feskens EJ, Lean ME. Narrow hips and broad waist circumferences independently contribute to increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Internal Medicine 1997; 242(5): 401-6.

34 Snijder MB, Dekker JM, Visser M, et al.  Associations of hip and thigh circumferences independent of waist circumference with the incidence of type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 77(5): 1192-7.

35 Snijder MB, Zimmet PZ, Visser M, et al.  Independent and opposite associations of waist and hip circumferences with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia: the AusDiab Study. International Journal of  Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2004; 28(3): 402-9.

36 Després JP, Tchernof A. Classification of overweight and obesity in adults. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2011; 176(8 Suppl.): Online 21-6.

37 The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies. Lancet 2011; 377(9771): 1085-95.

38 Paajanen TA, Oksala NK, Kuukasjarvi P, Karhunen PJ. Short stature is associated with coronary heart disease: a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis. European Heart Journal 2010; 31(14): 1802-9.