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1. Public Health Agency of Canada. Leading causes of death, Canada, 2004, males and females combined: counts (crude death rate per 100,000). Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2009.

2. Public Health Agency of Canada. Leading causes of hospitalizations, Canada, 2004, males and females combined: counts (crude rate per 100,000). Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2009.

3. SMARTRISK. The Economic Burden of Injury in Canada. Toronto: SMARTRISK, 2009.

4. Holbrook TL, Hoyt DB, Coimbra R, et al. Trauma in adolescents causes long-term marked deficits in quality of life: adolescent children do not recover preinjury quality of life or function up to two years postinjury compared to national norms. Journal of Trauma 2007; 62(3): 577-83.

5. Smilie J, Adomako P. Indigenous Children's Health Report: Health Assessment in Action. Toronto: Centre for Research on Inner City Health, 2009.

6. Health Canada. A Statistical Profile on the Health of First Nations in Canada, 2000. Ottawa: Health Canada, 2008.

7. Adelson N. The embodiment of inequity. Health disparities in Aboriginal Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2005; 96 (Suppl. 2): S45-61.

8. Karmali A, Laupland K, Robert Harrop A, et al. Epidemiology of severe trauma among status Aboriginal Canadians: a population-based study. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2005; 172(8): 1007-11.

9. Tjepkema M, Wilkins R, Senécal S, et al. Mortality of Métis and Registered Indian adults in Canada: An 11-year follow-up study. Health Reports 2009; 20: 31-51.

10. Carrière G, Garner R, Sanmartin C. Acute-care Hospitalizations and Aboriginal Identity in Canada, 2001/2002 (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-622-x) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2010.  Available at:

11. Fantus D, Shah B, Qui Feng, Hux J, Rochon P. Injury in First Nations communities in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2009; 100(4): 258-62.

12. Alaghehbandan R, Sikdar KC, MacDonald D, et al. Unintentional injuries among children and adolescents in aboriginal and non-aboriginal communities, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69(1): 61-71.

13. Public Health Agency of Canada. Injury Surveillance On-Line: ICD10-ICD9 Transition Matrix. Report. 2008.
Available at:

14. Wilkins R. PCCF + Version 4G User's Guide: Automated Geographic Coding Based on the Statistics Canada Postal Code Conversion Files Including Postal Codes to October 2005 (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82F0086-XDB) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2006.

15. Wilkins R, Uppal S, Finès, P, et al. Life expectancy in the Inuit-inhabited areas of Canada, 1989 to 2003. Health Reports 2008; 19(1): 1-13.

16. Spady DW, Saunders DL, Schopflocher DP, Svenson LW. Patterns of injury in children: A population-based approach. Pediatrics 2004; 113(3): 522-9.

17. Health Canada. Unintentional and Intentional Injury Profile for Aboriginal People in Canada. Ottawa: Health Canada, 2001.

18. Zukewich N, O'Donnell V. Aboriginal Children's Survey, 2006: Family, Community and Child Care (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 89-634-XWE2008001) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2008.

19. Oliver LN, Kohen DE. Neighbourhood variation in hospitalization for unintentional injury among children and teenagers. Health Reports 2010; 21(4): 9-17.

20. Oliver L, Kohen D. Neighbourhood income gradients in hospitalisations due to motor vehicle traffic incidents among Canadian children. Injury Prevention 2009; 15(3): 163-9.