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1. Health Canada. Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults (Catalogue H49-179) Ottawa: Health Canada, 2003.

2. Lau DC, Douketis JD, Morrison KM, et al. 2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children [summary]. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2007; 176: S1-13.

3. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. The Canadian Physical Activity,Fitness and Lifestyle Approach3rd edition. Ottawa: Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, 2003.

4. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. The Revision of the Measurement of Waist Circumference in the CPAFLA, November 2008.
Available at: [Home -> Publications -> Knowledge Translation].

5. World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic.Report of a WHO consultation on obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.

6. Giroux, S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Sampling strategy. Health Reports. 2007; 18(supplement): 7-20.

7. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data User Guide: Cycle 2, September 2012.
Available at:

8. National Institutes of Health. The Practical Guide to the Identification, Evaluation and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institutes of Health, 2000.

9. Jolliffe CJ, Janssen I. Development of age-specific adolescent metabolic syndrome criteria that are linked to the Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation criteria. Journal of the American College of  Cardiology 2007; 49: 891-8.

10. de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, et al. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007; 85(9): 660-7.

11. World Health Organization. Training Course on Child Growth Assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
Available at:

12. Wang J, Thornton JC, Bari S, et al. Comparisons of waist circumferences measured at 4 sites. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 77: 379-84.

13. Mason C, Katzmaryzyk PT. Variability in waist circumference measurements according to anatomic measurement site. Obesity 2009; 17(9): 1789-95.

14. Ross R, Berentzen T, Bradshaw AJ, et al. Does the relationship between waist circumference, morbidity and mortality depend on measurement protocol for waist circumference? Obesity Reviews 2007; 9: 312-25.

15. Willis LH, Slentz CA, Houmard JA, et al. Minimal versus umbilical waist circumference measures as indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. Obesity 2007; 15: 753-9.

16. Perini TA, de Oliveira GL, dos Santos Ornellas J, Palha de Oliveira F. Technical error of measurement in anthropometry.  Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 2005; 11(1): 81-90.