Juristat presents data from many different surveys. Brief descriptions of these surveys are provided here. More detailed information about each survey is found in Definitions, data sources and methods.
Adult Correctional Services Survey (ACS)
The Adult Correctional Services (ACS) survey provides important indicators as to the nature and characteristics of correctional caseflow that are of use to agencies responsible for the delivery of these services, the media and the public. The survey collects annual data on the delivery of adult correctional services from both the provincial/territorial and federal correctional systems. Key themes include: new admissions (commencements) to correctional programs of sentenced custody, probation, conditional sentences and other community-based programs. The survey also captures information on conditional releases to the community including parole and statutory release. In addition, the survey collects aggregate information on the financial and human resources involved in the delivery of adult correctional services. The survey uses two collection instruments: aggregate data are entered into Excel spreadsheets; and automated extraction of microdata from local information systems. Units of count are tabulated from the microdata and included as part of the annual ACS survey process described above.
Adult Criminal Court Survey (ACCS)
The objective of the Adult Criminal Court Survey (ACCS) is to develop and maintain a national adult criminal court database of statistical information on appearances, charges, and cases in adult criminal courts. The survey is intended to be a census of federal statute charges heard in provincial and superior criminal courts in Canada. It includes information on the age and sex of the accused, case decision patterns, sentencing information regarding the length of prison and probation, and amount of fine, as well as case-processing data such as case elapsed time and number of appearances per charge.
General Social Survey on Victimization
In 2004, Statistics Canada conducted the fourth victimization cycle of the General Social Survey (GSS). The previous cycles had been conducted in 1988, 1993 and 1999. The survey is designed to produce estimates of the extent to which persons are the victims of eight types of offences (assault, sexual assault, robbery, theft of personal property, breaking and entering, motor vehicle theft, theft of household property and vandalism); to examine the risk factors associated with victimization; to examine the rates of reporting to the police; and to evaluate the fear of crime and public perceptions of crime and the criminal justice system.
The GSS target population includes all non-institutionalized persons aged 15 and older. In 2004, the GSS sample consisted of 24,000 households in the provinces. Households were selected using random digit dialling, which yielded a response rate of 75%. The use of telephones for sample selection and data collection means that the 2004 GSS sample in the provinces represents only the 96% of the population that has telephone service.
The Homicide Survey collects police-reported data on the characteristics of all homicide incidents, victims and accused persons in Canada. The Homicide Survey began collecting information on all murders in 1961 and added data collection on all manslaughters and infanticides in 1974. The survey remained virtually unchanged until 1991 when, in an effort to respond to changing information needs, it was revised and expanded. Additional changes were incorporated in 1997.
Integrated Correctional Services Survey (ICSS)
The ICCS is currently being implemented and is intended to eventually replace the Adult Correctional Services Survey (ACS). The ICCS collects person-level descriptive data and characteristics information on adult offenders. The jurisdictions not yet reporting to the ICCS continue to participate in the ACS.
Integrated Criminal Court Survey
In 2004/2005, the Integrated Criminal Court Survey (ICCS) was implemented. It integrates data collection and processing for both the Adult Criminal Court Survey and the Youth Court Survey, thus eliminating the need for two interfaces.
International Crime Vicitimization Survey
The International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) is co-ordinated by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Survey companies in different countries are selected by UNODC to conduct the survey. Data collection in Canada was conducted by Leger Marketing, a survey company in Montreal and a member of the Gallup International Association.
A total of 2,000 persons aged 16 or older were selected at random from across Canada for interviewing. All interviews were conducted by telephone, using the Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) method. The language of the interview was either English or French. The survey response rate was 60 %.
Key Indicator Report (KIR)
The Key Indicator Report (KIR) a census survey that collects monthly average counts of adults and youth in custody under the responsibility of provincial/territorial and federal correctional services as well as the month-end counts of offenders under the responsibility of provincial/territorial probation services.
Maintenance Enforcement Survey (MES)
The Maintenance Enforcement Survey (MES) and the Survey of Maintenance Enforcement Programs (SMEP), collect statistical and descriptive information on child and spousal support payments and cases. The information is collected from maintenance enforcement programs (MEPs). These programs, which exist in each province and territory, assist in the enforcement of child and spousal support payments. The data do not cover all support cases in Canada, as there are also orders that are enforced privately. Thus, while the MES does not provide information representative of all support orders, it can be considered a census of a sub-population of those cases, the ones registered in a MEP.
National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth
The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) is a long-term study of Canadian children that follows their development and well-being from birth to early adulthood. The study is designed to collect information about factors influencing a child's social, emotional and behavioural development and to monitor the impact of these factors on the child's development over time.
Survey of Maintenance Enforcement Programs
The Survey of Maintenance Enforcement Programs (SMEP) gathers information on cases enrolled in provincial/territorial Maintenance Enforcement Programs (MEPs), and on some of the key characteristics associated with those cases. Survey data provide information on caseload, characteristics of enrolled cases and profiles of MEP clients, payment obligations, payments received, the amount of arrears owing, and the tracing and enforcement actions taken by MEPs.
Currently, seven jurisdictions report data to the SMEP (New Brunswick and Saskatchewan began reporting in 2008).
Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey
The UCR Survey was developed in 1962 with the cooperation and assistance of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police. UCR Survey data reflects reported crime that has been substantiated through police investigation from all separate federal, provincial and municipal police services in Canada. There are currently two versions of the UCR Survey: aggregate and incident-based microdata.
The Aggregate UCR Survey includes the number of reported offences, actual offences, offences cleared by charge or cleared otherwise, persons charged (by sex and by adult/youth breakdown) and those not charged. It does not include victim or incident characteristics.
Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR2) Survey
The Incident-based UCR2 Survey captures detailed information on individual criminal incidents reported to police, including characteristics of victims, accused persons and incidents.
Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR2) Trend Database
The UCR2 Trend Database contains historical data, which permits the analysis of trends in the characteristics of the incidents, accused and victims, such as weapon use and accused-victim relationships.
Youth Court Survey
The objective of the Youth Court Survey (YCS) is to produce a national database of statistical information on charges, cases and persons involving accused who are aged 12 to 17 years (up to the 18th birthday) at the time of the offence. The survey is intended to be a census of charges against the Criminal Code, Narcotic Control Act, Food and Drugs Act, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Youth Criminal Justice Act, Young Offenders Act, and other federal statutes heard in youth courts in Canada. The survey excludes appeals, reviews, provincial statutes and municipal by-law infractions.
Youth Custody and Community Services (YCCS):
The Youth Custody and Community Services (YCCS) survey provides important indicators as to the nature and characteristics of correctional caseflow that are of use to agencies responsible for the delivery of these services, the media and the public. The survey collects annual data on the delivery of youth correctional services from the provincial/territorial correctional systems. Key themes include: new admissions (commencements) to correctional programs of sentenced custody, probation, and other community-based programs. The survey uses two collection instruments: aggregate data are entered into a database; and automated extraction of micro-data from local information systems. Units of count are tabulated from the micro-data and included as part of the annual YCCS survey process described above.