Trends in the use of remand in Canada, 2004/2005 to 2014/2015

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by Correctional Services Program

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Highlights

  • In 2014/2015, on an average day, there were more adults in custody awaiting trial than there were convicted offenders serving time in sentenced custody. Provincial and territorial correctional facilities across the country supervised an average of 24,014 adults per day in sentenced custody and pre-trial detention; 13,650 of them, or 57%, were in pre-trial custody (remand).
  • In provincial and territorial correctional facilities, the average daily number of adults awaiting trial in remand has exceeded the number in sentenced custody since 2004/2005.
  • Six provinces and territories, led by Nova Scotia (68%), Alberta (67%), Manitoba (65%), Ontario (65%), Yukon (59%) and British Columbia (57%) had, on average, a higher proportion of adults in remand than in sentenced custody in 2014/2015.
  • In comparison to ten years earlier, the number of adults in remand has grown almost six times more than the number in sentenced custody. From 2004/2005 to 2014/2015, the average daily adult remand population increased 39%, while the average daily sentenced custody population was up 7%.
  • All provinces and territories saw their adult remand numbers climb between 2004/2005 and 2014/2015. There have been particularly large increases in average daily counts in Nova Scotia (+192%), Northwest Territories (+139%), Manitoba (+134%) and Alberta (+109%). Prince Edward Island was the only jurisdiction to report a larger increase in its sentenced custody population than in its remand population.
  • One in four adults (25%) admitted to remand in 2014/2015 were Aboriginal persons (excluding Alberta and Prince Edward Island). This is about 8 times greater than the representation of Aboriginal persons in the overall population (3%). It is also up 9 percentage points from 2004/2005 when 16% of adults admitted to remand were Aboriginal persons. These findings are not unlike those for admissions to sentenced custody.
  • Similar to the situation for adults, on an average day in 2014/2015, there were more youth aged 12 to 17 in pre-trial detention (561 or 56%) than were in sentenced custody (448 or 44%) (excluding Quebec). There have been, on average, more youth in pre-trial detention than sentenced custody since 2007/2008.
  • Unlike the findings for adults, the average number of youth in pre-trial detention has been declining, mirroring the notable drop in the number of youth charged with a crime in recent years. The youth remand count in 2014/2015 (excluding Quebec) was down 33% from 10 years earlier, while the decline in the number of youth in sentenced custody was greater at -60%. Nine provinces and territories registered declines in the average number of youth in pre-trial detention.
  • In 2014/2015, more than one-third (36%) of youth admissions to pre-trial detention (in the eight jurisdictions where information was available) was an Aboriginal youth. This was about five times their representation in the general population (7%). In 2004/2005, Aboriginal youth accounted for 21% of admissions to pre-trial detention. In comparison to pre-trial detention, Aboriginal youth accounted for a larger share of admissions to sentenced custody in both 2004/2005 (26%) and 2014/2015 (40%).

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Remand, or pre-trial detention, refers to the temporary detention of accused persons in provincial or territorial custody prior to trial or a finding of guilt.Note 1 The Criminal Code sets out the conditions under which an accused can be detained in remand. These include: to ensure attendance in court; for the protection and safety of the public, including any victims of or witness to the offence; and to maintain public confidence in the justice system.

The remand population can pose challenges for the provincial and territorial correctional system. Remand tends to require higher levels of security and more intensive supervision; it can be more costly; and planning correctional space can be difficult given that the length of time spent in remand is not predictable (Johnson 2003).

Studies have shown that many individuals in pre-trial custody are housed in maximum security facilities where they are held in small cells with two or three other people. They often do not have access to rehabilitative or recreational programs, and face a high degree of uncertainty regarding the length of time they will be incarcerated (John Howard Society of Ontario 2007). Apart from the potential loss of employment and accommodation, other possible consequences for persons held in remand include separation from family, need to find emergency child care, and missed medication or medical treatments (Canadian Civil Liberties Association and Education Trust 2014).

The situation for youth held in pre-trial detention differs from the one described above for adults. In many jurisdictions, overcrowding is not an issue and youth held in pre-trial detention are offered the same range of programs as are sentenced youth—including educational programs, life skills programs, recreational programming, and medical services. The focus is on preparing youth for reintegration into the community.

This Juristat article explores trends in the use of remand in Canada over the decade, from 2004/2005 to 2014/2015, in order to better understand the recent evolution in the use of pre-trial custody across the country. Separate analyses are presented for adults and youth as the administration and legislation governing pre-trial detention are different for the two groups.

Two measures of correctional services activity are used in the article: average counts and admissions. Average counts provide a snapshot of the corrections population on any given day, while admissions represent the number of entries of persons during a fiscal year to pre-trial detention, sentenced custody or a community supervision program, regardless of the previous legal status. The number of admissions to remand, coupled with the length of time spent in remand, will impact the average number of persons in remand on a given day (see Text box 1).

Data on average counts come from the Corrections Key Indicator Report, while data on admissions come from the Adult Correctional Services Survey, the Youth Custody and Community Services Survey and the Integrated Correctional Services Survey. Data coverage for these surveys for some years is incomplete. Exclusions are noted where applicable (see Text box 1).

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Text box 1
Corrections surveys concepts and coverage

Average counts provide a snapshot of the adult and youth correctional populations and represent the number of persons in custody or under community supervision on any given day. Corrections officials typically perform daily counts of persons in their facilities and monthly counts of persons under community supervision. These are used to calculate the annual average daily custody and community counts.

Admissions for both adult and youth corrections are counted each time a person begins any period of supervision in a correctional facility or in the community. These data describe and measure the flow of persons through correctional services over time. The same person may be included several times in the admission counts where he or she moves from one correctional program to another (e.g., from remand to sentenced custody). Admissions therefore represent the number of entries of persons, during a fiscal year, to remand, sentenced custody or a community supervision program, regardless of the previous legal status.

These data are administrative data. Although the correctional services surveys report according to nationally agreed upon, standardized concepts and definitions, limitations in jurisdictional comparability exist due to differences in their operations which can affect the uniform application of the definitions. Therefore, caution is required when making comparisons between jurisdictions.

It should be noted that some of the counts presented in this analysis, particularly those for youth in custody, are small, meaning small changes in the count can result in large percentage changes.

The present analysis focuses on pre-trial detention (remand) and sentenced custody in the provincial and territorial correctional system. “Other temporary detention”, which includes immigration holds is not included in the analysis. Also excluded is the federal correctional system because it does not supervise remand.

Not all provinces and territories reported complete data for every reference year. Jurisdictions excluded from particular analyses due to non-reporting are noted throughout the article. Within the period of 2004/2005 through to 2014/2015, the following data are not available:

  • Average counts data for Prince Edward Island for 2005/2006 (adult).
  • Average counts data for Quebec for 2011/2012 to 2014/2015 (youth).
  • Average counts data for Alberta for 2013/2014 (adult and youth).
  • Admissions data for Prince Edward Island for 2004/2005 (adult and youth).
  • Admissions data for Alberta for 2014/2015 (adult and youth).
  • Admissions data for Nova Scotia, Quebec, Saskatchewan and Alberta for 2014/2015 (youth).

Information on the type of offence associated with remand or custody admissions is not available.

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Number of adults in remand has grown since 2004/2005

On an average day in 2014/2015, there were 13,650 adults held in remand awaiting trial in a provincial or territorial correctional facility in Canada, compared to 10,364 adults held in sentenced custody (Table 1). In comparison to the year before, the average daily number of adults held in sentenced custody decreased 6%, while the average daily remand population held steady.Note 2

Over the longer term, however, the remand population has been growing. Between 2004/2005 and 2014/2015, the number of adults held in remand on a typical day increased 39%. This was nearly 6 times the increase in the sentenced custody population (+7%). In contrast, between 2004 and 2014, the number of adults charged with a crime by police in Canada declined (-2.4%) and the Crime Severity Index, which measures the volume and severity of police-reported crime in Canada, declined 36%.Note 3

The number of adults in custody awaiting trial has outnumbered the sentenced custody population since 2004/2005 (Chart 1). In 2004/2005, the remand population accounted for 51% of the custodial population.Note 4 The gap between the number of adults in remand and those in sentenced custody widened steadily from that point up until 2009/2010 when 57% of the custodial population was made up of remanded adults. Since that time, the gap has narrowed slightly.

Chart 1

Description for Chart 1
Data table for Chart 1
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 1. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), Sentenced custody and Remand, calculated using average daily number of adults units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year Sentenced custody Remand
average daily number of adults
2004/2005 8,423 8,768
2005/2006 8,348 9,728
2006/2007 8,672 10,665
2007/2008 8,708 11,290
2008/2009 8,772 11,736
2009/2010 8,858 11,934
2010/2011 9,575 11,335
2011/2012 9,765 11,565
2012/2013 9,854 11,869
2013/2014 9,795 11,473
2014/2015 9,223 11,533

The remand picture across the country varies. In 2014/2015, the average adult remand population exceeded the sentenced population in six jurisdictions (Table 1). At 68% and 67% respectively, Nova Scotia and Alberta reported the highest proportions of their custodial population in remand. Conversely, Prince Edward Island posted the lowest proportion at 16%.

The number of adults being held in remand on a typical day declined from the previous year in 7 out of the 12 provinces and territories for which previous year data were available, with Prince Edward Island (-21%) and the Northwest Territories (-20%) displaying the greatest reductions (Table 1).Note 5 For the five jurisdictions where there were increases, Newfoundland and Labrador reported the highest at 11%.

In comparison to 10 years earlier, all jurisdictions had larger remand populations in 2014/2015. The growth ranged from 2% in Prince Edward Island to 192% in Nova Scotia (Table 1). In all but one jurisdiction (Prince Edward Island), these increases outpaced the growth in the sentenced custody population. As a result, in every jurisdiction except Prince Edward Island, the remand population accounted for a larger share of the custodial population in 2014/2015 than it did 10 years earlier (Chart 2).Note 6 Nova Scotia saw the largest change, with the average remand population going from 38% of the total custodial population in 2004/2005 to 68% in 2014/2015.

Chart 2

Description for Chart 2
Data table for Chart 2
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2. The information is grouped by Province and territory (appearing as row headers), 2014/2015 and 2004/2005, calculated using percent of adult custodial population in remand units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province and territory 2014/2015 2004/2005
percent of adult custodial population in remand
Nunavut 45 45
Northwest Territories 43 14
Yukon 59 52
British Columbia 57 49
Alberta 67 45
Saskatchewan 39 31
Manitoba 65 57
Ontario 65 62
Quebec 45 42
New Brunswick 36 31
Nova Scotia 68 38
Prince Edward Island 16 24
Newfoundland and Labrador 32 21

Adult admissions to remand continue to surpass admissions to sentenced custody

Admissions measure the number of times adults begin any type of supervision in a correctional institution or in the community. They offer a different view of the corrections population, but in this case present a similar story to that for average counts. In particular, there were almost twice as many admissions to remand (117,211) in 2014/2015 as there were to sentenced custody (62,279) in the 12 reporting provinces and territories overall.Note 7 This was the pattern throughout the previous decade—higher remand admissions overall than admissions to sentenced custody. This was also the case in all but three reporting jurisdictions (Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick) in 2014/2015: remand admissions exceeded sentenced custody admissions (Table 2).

In comparison to the previous year, admissions to sentenced custody declined more (-4%) than those to remand (-1%). Compared to 10 years previously, admissions to remand increased 1%, while admissions to sentenced custody were down 2% (Table 2).Note 8

Apart from Ontario, all reporting jurisdictions experienced an increase in remand admissions between 2004/2005 and 2014/2015. Nunavut led the way with an increase of 105%. Newfoundland and Labrador topped all provinces at 54% (Table 2).

Women account for small share of adult admissions to remand

In 2014/2015, women accounted for 13% of adult admissions to remand.Note 9 This was up from 11% in 2004/2005. These proportions were similar to that for sentenced custody, which were 11% in 2014/2015 and 10% in 2004/2005.

Aboriginal adults account for one-quarter of all admissions to remand

Aboriginal adults are overrepresented in provincial and territorial correctional services. The findings for remand and sentenced custody are quite similar. In 2014/2015, Aboriginal adults accounted for one-quarter (25%) of all adult admissions to remand and 26% of admissions to sentenced custody.Note 10 Overall, Aboriginal persons represent about 3% of the adult population in Canada (Table 3).Note 11

The proportion of adults in remand who were Aboriginal persons varied substantially by jurisdiction, ranging from 6% in Prince Edward Island and Quebec, to over 70% in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and the three Territories. The 2014/2015 figures for sentenced custody were very similar with Aboriginal persons representing 3% of admissions in Prince Edward Island and Quebec and over 70% of admissions in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and the three Territories. In part, these differences are related to the relative size of the Aboriginal population in each jurisdiction.

Overall, the proportion of remanded Aboriginal adults in 2014/2015, at 25%, was up 9 percentage points from 2004/2005 when it stood at 16%. The increase in the proportion of Aboriginal adults in sentenced custody was similar, at 8 percentage points (from 18% in 2004/2005 to 26% in 2014/2015).

Time spent in remand by adults changed little between 2004/2005 and 2014/2015

Almost eight out of ten adults (78%) released from remand in the 11 reporting jurisdictions in 2014/2015 were held for one month or less, including 53% that were held for one week or less.Note 12 An additional 13% served up to 3 months. These figures were slightly lower than the proportions for 2004/2005 (79%, 55% and 14%, respectively).

The median number of days spent in remand in 2014/2015 ranged from 4 days in Quebec to 29 days in the Northwest Territories (Chart 3). In comparison to 10 years earlier, the median number of days served changed very little in six jurisdictions. There were declines in the Northwest Territories (-6 days) and Newfoundland and Labrador (-5 days). There were notable increases, however, in three jurisdictions: Nunavut (+20 days), Yukon (+5 days) and British Columbia (+5 days).

Chart 3

Description for Chart 3
Data table for Chart 3
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 3. The information is grouped by Province and territory (appearing as row headers), 2014/2015 and 2004/2005, calculated using median number of days units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province and territory 2014/2015 2004/2005
median number of days
Nunavut 23 3
Northwest Territories 29 35
Yukon 13 8
British Columbia 12 7
Saskatchewan 6 7
Manitoba 7 6
Ontario 8 7
Quebec 4 3
New Brunswick 5 6
Nova Scotia 6 6
Newfoundland and Labrador 25 30

Number of youth in pre-trial detention is falling

Correctional services for youth aged 12 to 17 years at the time of an offence have been guided by the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) since 2003. The Preamble of this Act indicates, among other things, that the youth justice system should reserve its most serious interventions for the most serious crimes and reduce the over-reliance on incarceration. Furthermore, the use of pre-trial detention should be limited to particular grounds, including: the youth has been charged with a serious offence; there is a likelihood that the youth will not appear in court; or detention is necessary to ensure public safety (Youth Criminal Justice Act 2002).

In 2014/2015, there were, on a typical day, a total of 1,009 young persons aged 12 to 17Note 13 in custody in the 12 reporting jurisdictions, of which 561 (56%) were in pre-trial detention and 448 were in sentenced custody (Table 4).Note 14 Counts for pre-trial detention were down 6% from the previous year, while the drop in sentenced custody was three times that at -18%.Note 15 Counts were also down compared with a decade earlier and once again, the decline in average daily counts for sentenced custody (-60%) was much greater than that for pre-trial detention (-33%).Note 16 Over this period, between 2004 and 2014, the number of youth charged with a crime by police in Canada fell 46% and the youth Crime Severity Index, which measures the volume and severity of crime involving youth accused, declined 39%.Note 17

The number of youth in pre-trial detention on an average day has outnumbered youth in sentenced custody since 2007/2008 (Chart 4).Note 18 The gap between the two widened up until 2010/2011 when there were on average 1.21 youth in pre-trial detention for every youth in sentenced custody. After 2010/2011, the gap began to narrow. However, in 2014/2015, it climbed again and returned to 1.21.

Chart 4

Description for Chart 4
Data table for Chart 4
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 4. The information is grouped by Year (appearing as row headers), Sentenced custody and Pre-trial detention, calculated using average daily number of youth units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year Sentenced custody Pre-trial detention
average daily number of youth
2004/2005 997 762
2005/2006 877 710
2006/2007 798 758
2007/2008 767 822
2008/2009 693 790
2009/2010 648 762
2010/2011 600 726
2011/2012 598 675
2012/2013 565 615
2013/2014 481 509
2014/2015 396 481

Among the reporting jurisdictions, there were substantial variations in the number of youth in pre-trial detention as a proportion of all youth in custody in 2014/2015. Pre-trial detention accounted for more than half of youth in custody in Yukon (66%),Note 19 Manitoba (64%), Ontario (62%), Alberta (61%) and British Columbia (55%). Conversely, in 7 of the 12 reporting jurisdictions, a minority of youth were in pre-trial detention, with New Brunswick posting the smallest proportion at 27% (Table 4).

With the exception of Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, and Yukon, all reporting jurisdictions have experienced a decline in the average daily count of youth in pre-trial detention when compared to 10 years earlier. Declines ranged from -67% in the Northwest TerritoriesNote 20 to -1% in Alberta.

Despite these declines, however, the number of youth in pre-trial detention accounted for a greater share of the total custody population in 2014/2015, than it did in 2004/2005 because the number of youth in sentenced custody fell more (or increased less) (Chart 5). The largest change was in Yukon, where youth in pre-trial detention went from 26% of the total custody population in 2004/2005 to 66% ten years later. The one exception was Nunavut where pre-trial detention declined from 34% of the youth population in custody in 2004/2005 to 29% in 2014/2015.

Chart 5

Description for Chart 5
Data table for Chart 5
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 5. The information is grouped by Province and territory (appearing as row headers), 2014/2015 and 2004/2005, calculated using percent of youth custodial population in pre-trial detention units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province and territory 2014/2015 2004/2005
percent of youth custodial population in pre-trial detention
Nunavut 29 34
Northwest Territories 47 28
Yukon 66 26
British Columbia 55 43
Alberta 61 39
Saskatchewan 37 32
Manitoba 64 51
Ontario 62 50
Quebec 0 31
New Brunswick 27 17
Nova Scotia 33 28
Prince Edward Island 28 16
Newfoundland and Labrador 39 16

The vast majority of youth admissions to custody are to pre-trial detention

As with adults, admissions measure the number of times youth begin any type of supervision in a correctional institution or in the community (see Text box 1). Both the average daily count and admissions present a similar picture. In 2014/2015, there were 6,365 youth admitted to pre-trial detention in the nine jurisdictions for which youth admissions information is available (Table 5).Note 21 This was almost five times the number admitted to sentenced custody (1,307) and is typical of the difference for the previous 10 years.

In all reporting jurisdictions except two, the share of youth admissions to pre-trial detention represented more than half the custodial admissions in 2014/2015. Ontario and Manitoba led the way with admissions to pre-trial detention representing 86% of total custody admissions. Conversely, just over one-third of youth admissions in Prince Edward Island and Nunavut were to pre-trial detention (Table 5).

Youth admissions to both pre-trial detention and sentenced custody are falling, with sentenced custody exhibiting larger declines.Note 22 In 2014/2015, admissions to pre-trial detention were down 10% from 2013/2014 and 46% from 2004/2005. The comparable figures for sentenced custody were -13% and -65%, respectively (Table 5).

The majority of reporting jurisdictions experienced declines in admissions of youth to pre-trial detention. However, New Brunswick and Yukon experienced increases between 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, while Manitoba and Yukon registered increases between 2004/2005 and 2014/2015 (Table 5).

Female youth account for one-quarter of admissions to pre-trial detention

Female youth accounted for 25% of total admissions to pre-trial detention in eight reporting jurisdictions in 2014/2015.Note 23 This represented an increase from 2004/2005 when the figure was 21%. The figures for sentenced custody were somewhat lower, with female youth representing 20% of admissions in 2014/2015, up from 16% in 2004/2005.

Aboriginal youth account for a growing proportion of admissions to pre-trial detention

Aboriginal youth accounted for 36% of total admissions to pre-trial detention in 2014/2015.Note 24 This was up from 10 years earlier when it stood at 21% (Table 6). Both these figures are considerably higher than the representation of Aboriginal youth aged 12 to 17 in the general population, which stood at about 7% of the youth population in the nine jurisdictions that provided admissions data in 2014/2015.Note 25

In comparison to their representation in the youth pre-trial detention population, Aboriginal youth comprised a larger proportion of youth admitted to sentenced custody in both 2004/2005 (26% versus 21% for pre-trial detention) and 2014/2015 (40% versus 36% for pre-trial detention).Note 26

Time spent by youth in pre-trial detention changed little

More than 8 in 10 youth (81%) released from pre-trial detention in nine reporting jurisdictions in 2014/2015 spent one month or less in pre-trial detention in 2014/2015, a proportion unchanged from 10 years earlier.Note 27 More specifically, the majority of youth (56%) were there for one week or less. This was up slightly from 2004/2005 when the figure was 53%.

In most reporting jurisdictions, the median time spent by youth in pre-trial detention in 2014/2015 tended to be about 1 week. Figures ranged from 3 days in Newfoundland and Labrador to 44 days in the Northwest Territories. Northwest Territories (+6 days) and Nunavut (+4 days) were the only two reporting jurisdictions to register an increase in median days served between 2004/2005 and 2014/2015 (Chart 6).

Chart 6

Description for Chart 6
Data table for Chart 6
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 6. The information is grouped by Province and territory (appearing as row headers), 2014/2015 and 2004/2005, calculated using median number of days units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Province and territory 2014/2015 2004/2005
median number of days
Nunavut 18 14
Northwest Territories 44 38
Yukon 6 8
British Columbia 8 8
Alberta 0 7
Manitoba 6 7
Ontario 6 6
New Brunswick 5 15
Nova Scotia 0 4
Newfoundland and Labrador 3 7

Summary

In Canada, the average number of adults being held in custody awaiting trial exceeded the average number of offenders being supervised in sentenced custody from 2004/2005 to 2014/2015. In addition, the increase in the average adult remand population was almost six times that of the increase in the sentenced custody count between 2004/2005 and 2014/2015.

The average number of youth aged 12 to 17 being held in pre-trial detention in 12 reporting jurisdictions also exceeded the sentenced population in 2014/2015 and has done so since 2007/2008. However, the average count of youth in pre-trial detention fell between 2004/2005 and 2014/2015. The decline was less than the decrease in the average number of youth being supervised in sentenced custody.

Survey description

The Adult Correctional Services (ACS) Survey collects aggregate data on the number and case characteristics (e.g., sex, age group, Aboriginal identity, length of time served) of admissions to and releases from adult correctional services. The following jurisdictions responded to the ACS in 2014/2015: Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Manitoba, Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Alberta was not able to provide adult admissions data in 2014/2015.

The Youth Custody and Community Services (YCCS) Survey collects aggregate data on the number and characteristics (e.g., age, sex, Aboriginal identity) of youth admissions to and releases from correctional services. The following jurisdictions reported survey data in 2014/2015: Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Alberta and Quebec did not provide youth admissions data in 2014/2015.

The Integrated Correctional Services Survey (ICSS) collects microdata on adults and youth under the responsibility of the federal and provincial/territorial correctional systems. Data include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., age, sex, Aboriginal identity) as well as information pertaining to correctional supervision, including admissions and releases by legal hold status (e.g., remand, sentenced, probation). The following jurisdictions provided data to the ICSS in 2014/2015: Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Saskatchewan, British Columbia and Correctional Service Canada.

The Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth collects aggregate data on average daily custody counts and month-end supervised community corrections counts in the provincial/territorial (adult and youth) and federal adult systems. With the exception of Quebec youth, all 13 provinces and territories provided data in 2014/2015.

Detailed data tables

Table 1 Average daily counts of adults in provincial/territorial custody, by type of custody and jurisdiction, 2014/2015

Table 2 Admissions of adults to provincial/territorial custody, by type of custody and jurisdiction, 2014/2015

Table 3 Admissions of Aboriginal adults to provincial/territorial custody, by type of custody and jurisdiction, 2004/2005 and 2014/2015

Table 4 Average daily counts of youth in custody, by type of custody and jurisdiction, 2014/2015

Table 5 Admissions of youth to custody, by type of custody and jurisdiction, 2014/2015

Table 6 Admissions of Aboriginal youth to custody, by type of custody and jurisdiction, 2004/2005 and 2014/2015

References

Canadian Civil Liberties Association and Education Trust. 2014. Set Up to Fail: Bail and the Revolving Door of Pre-trial Detention. July 2014.

Criminal Code of Canada. R.S.C, 1985, c. C-46. (Current to June 21, 2016).

John Howard Society of Ontario. 2007. Remand in Ontario. Second Report to the Board, Standing Committee on Prison Conditions in Ontario. December 1, 2007. p. 6-7.

Johnson, S. 2003. “Custodial remand in Canada, 1986/1987 to 2000/2001.” Juristat. Vol. 23, no. 7. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-X.

Youth Criminal Justice Act, S.C, 2002. c.1, S 29 (2). (Current to June 21, 2016).

Notes

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