Police resources in Canada, 2016

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by Jacob Greenland and Sarah Alam

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Highlights

  • There were 68,773 police officers in Canada on May 15, 2016. This represents a rate of police strength of 190 officers per 100,000 population and a decline of 1% from the previous year. This marks the fifth consecutive year of decline in the rate of police strength.
  • The 28,422 civilians employed by police services across Canada on May 15, 2016 represented 29% of all police personnel. Civilian personnel as a proportion of all personnel employed by police services has consistently and gradually increased since the 1960s. Growth has been seen predominantly in the management and professional categories which includes managers, administrators, systems/computer analysts, scientists, and other skilled civilian personnel.
  • On May 15, 2016, women accounted for over 21% of all sworn officers. Women continued to be increasingly represented in the higher ranks of police services. They represented 13% of senior officers in 2016—the highest proportion ever recorded—compared with 6% in 2006 and less than 1% in 1986.
  • The proportion of police officers aged 40 years and older has grown from 50% in 2012 to 55% in 2016.
  • In 2015/2016, there were 2,630 police hired by police services in Canada. The majority (86%) were recruit graduates, up from 80% in the previous year.
  • Police reported that 2,652 officers departed their service in 2015/2016, with 69% leaving for retirement and the remaining 31% leaving for other reasons such as a job with another service, a career change, or other reasons. In 2015/2016, 10% of officers in Canada were eligible to retire but did not.
  • Year-end operating expenditures for police services in Canada in 2015/2016 totaled $14.2 billion in current dollars. Accounting for inflation, total operating expenditures rose by 1% from the previous year. Police spending increased annually from 1997/1998 to 2010/2011, but has since varied by less than 1% other than somewhat larger increases in 2012/2013 and 2015/2016.
  • When accounting for population and inflation, policing operational costs in 2015/2016 amounted to $313 per capita, almost unchanged from $312 per capita in 2014/2015.

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The changing nature of society, the economy, and technology has created new challenges for police services as they adapt their responsibilities in crime prevention, law enforcement, public assistance and maintenance of public order.

The economics of policing and community safety have been at the forefront of these discussions with a focus on the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of policing practices, training, and education as societal and technological changes unfold (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is argued that it is no longer sufficient to simply compare the crime rate with police expenditures or the number of officers in order to evaluate the effectiveness of policing as police responsibilities have broadened beyond responding to traditional crime. These responsibilities include, for example, the complexities of and costs of investigating cybercrime; calls for service to respond to non-criminal matters; missing persons; and traffic safety. Some studies estimate that up to 80% of calls for service are not related to any criminal offence and that initiatives such as proactive and community policing, alongside administrative tasks can occupy around half of an officer’s time (Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police 2015; Waterloo Regional Police Service 2011).

To better inform discussions about the economics of policing and community safety, the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics is examining ways to capture new data from police services that would permit a better understanding of crime complexity, responses to calls for service, policing cost-drivers and changing human resource structures within police services. This Juristat article presents the most recent data from the Police Administration Survey. These data include the number of police officers and civilian personnel, as well as demographic and financial data at the national, provincial and territorial, and municipal levels. In certain sections, data are presented according to the different types of police services.

The rate of police strength down slightly from 2015

On May 15, 2016, there were 68,773 police officers in Canada (Chart 1). This represents a rate of police strength of 190 officers per 100,000 populationNote 1 and a decline of 1% from the previous year.Note 2 This marks the fifthNote 3 consecutive year of decline in the rate of police strength and the lowest rate since 2005 (Table 1).

Among Canada’s provinces, the rate of police strength varied from 153 officers per 100,000 population in Prince Edward Island, to 200 officers per 100,000 population in Saskatchewan (Chart 2). In 2016, the provincial and territorial rate, which excludes the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) headquarters and Training Academy, was 187 officers per 100,000 population. The rate of police strength in Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Alberta, and British Columbia was lower than the provincial and territorial rate (Table 2).

Across the country in 2016 there were 50 stand-alone municipal police services which served a population greater than 100,000. Of these services, 17 saw an increase in their rate of police strength, 24 saw a decrease in strength, while 9 reported no notable change from 2015 to 2016. The largest increases in police strength were seen in the municipalities of Coquitlam, British Columbia (+15%), Surrey, British Columbia (+13%), and Terrebonne, Quebec (+9%). Among the 50 municipal services, the municipality of Delta, located in British Columbia, reported the largest decrease in rate of strength, declining 13% to a rate of 143 per 100,000 population (Table 3).

Among the 50 municipal police services, the highest rates of police strength were reported by Victoria, British Columbia (236 per 100,000 population), Montréal, Quebec (229), and Halifax, Nova Scotia (219). For the second consecutive year, the lowest rates of strength were observed in British Columbia’s municipality of Richmond (97 per 100,000 population), and in Richelieu Saint-Laurent (105 per 100,000 population) and Lévis (106 per 100,000 population) which are both located in Quebec.

Chart 1

Description for Chart 1
Data table for Chart 1
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 1. The information is grouped by Years (appearing as row headers), Police officers and Civilian personnel, calculated using Personnel per 100,000 population units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Years Police officers Civilian personnel
Personnel per 100,000 population
1962 140.6 30.7
1963 144.4 31.4
1964 149.4 34.5
1965 153.5 36.3
1966 160.3 37.9
1967 165.8 39.3
1968 168.5 40.3
1969 173.0 42.7
1970 178.2 46.7
1971 182.8 48.3
1972 185.5 52.9
1973 191.8 54.7
1974 198.5 53.0
1975 206.2 59.6
1976 205.6 61.3
1977 205.5 64.2
1978 203.2 65.7
1979 202.4 62.0
1980 203.3 66.9
1981 203.7 68.5
1982 201.2 70.6
1983 197.4 68.4
1984 195.3 68.4
1985 194.8 68.5
1986 197.0 70.0
1987 198.5 73.9
1988 199.0 72.4
1989 198.7 71.6
1990 202.3 69.5
1991 202.5 69.4
1992 200.9 70.7
1993 198.4 69.6
1994 192.6 67.2
1995 187.7 65.7
1996 183.5 66.2
1997 183.0 65.8
1998 181.6 64.3
1999 182.0 66.3
2000 182.3 64.9
2001 184.0 64.4
2002 186.3 66.1
2003 187.8 67.9
2004 187.2 69.5
2005 189.3 72.5
2006 191.8 73.4
2007 195.0 76.9
2008 196.4 77.1
2009 200.0 80.5
2010 203.1 80.4
2011 202.2 81.9
2012 200.0 81.2
2013 197.0 79.3
2014 193.6 80.0
2015Note r: revised 191.8 79.1
2016 189.5 78.3

Chart 2

Description for Chart 2
Data table for Chart 2
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2 Rate of police strength and Provincial and territorial total, calculated using Police officers per 100,000 population units of measure (appearing as column headers).
  Rate of police strength Provincial and territorial total
Police officers per 100,000 population
N.L. 172 187
P.E.I. 153 187
N.S. 192 187
N.B. 170 187
Que. 191 187
Ont. 187 187
Man. 194 187
Sask. 200 187
Alta. 172 187
B.C. 184 187
Y.T. 368 187
N.W.T. 448 187
Nvt. 353 187

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Text box 1
Types of police services in Canada

Policing in Canada is administered on 3 levels: municipal, provincial, and federal services. In 2016, at the municipal level, there were 144 stand-alone police services and 36 First Nations self-administered services. Self-administered First Nations services are created under agreements with the federal, provincial, and territorial governments along with the communities looking to administer their own police service, under a cost-sharing agreement between the federal government (52%) and provincial/territorial governments (48%) (Kiedrowski et al. 2016). The communities are responsible for governing the police service through a police board, band council, or other authority (Lithopoulos and Ruddell 2013).

The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary provides policing services to St. John's, Corner Brook and Labrador West. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police provides provincial, municipal and First Nation policing to the remainder of the province, in addition to their federal policing role.

The other two provincial services—Ontario Provincial Police and Sûreté du Québec—are responsible for serving communities in those provinces without stand-alone municipal forces. They are also responsible for provincial highways and other areas under provincial jurisdiction. Provinces without a provincial service have these duties provided by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is also responsible for all federal policing matters such as serious and organized crime and financial crime, as well as specialized policing services such as the Canadian Firearms Program and the National Child Exploitation Coordination Centre.

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The proportion of managers and professionals employed by police services continues to increase

Police services are increasingly made up of civilian members such as clerks, communications staff, and managers and professionals. This increase in civilian membership is referred to as civilianization. Civilianization is “the practice of assigning non-sworn employees to conduct police work that does not require the authority, special training, or credibility of a sworn police officer (Griffiths et al. 2006). It has been argued that through redistributing duties to civilian members, effectiveness and economic efficiency may be increased (Griffiths et al. 2014). At the same time, caution has been expressed that civilianization be implemented in a way that is mindful of the duties that require sworn officers and that ensures that the police service and the work environment benefit (Morrell 2014; Peak 2010).

On May 15, 2016, police services employed 28,422 civilians, 51 more than the previous year. The number of civilian personnel as a proportion of all personnel employed by police services has gradually increased since data were first collected in 1962. At that time, civilian personnel accounted for 18% of personnel employed by police services, compared with 29% in 2016 (Chart 3). Civilian personnel can be categorized as clerical staff, management and professional staff, communications and dispatch staff, and other civilian staff, which include security officers, cadets, special constables, and school crossing guards. Among these four categories, growth has been seen predominantly in the category of managers and professionals, which accounted for 10% of all police personnel in 2016, compared with 4% in 1996 (Chart 4). The management and professional category includes managers, administrators, systems/computer analysts, scientists, and other skilled civilian personnel.

In 2016, 35% of the RCMP personnel were civilian, the largest proportion among the different types of police services. Civilians also made up a notable proportion of large and small municipal police services (28% and 29%, respectively). Just under one quarter of police personnel in each of the three provincial services were civilian (23% each). First NationsNote 4 police services constituted 21% civilian employees.

Chart 3

Description for Chart 3
Data table for Chart 3
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 3 Senior officers, Non-commissioned officers, Constables, Other and Total, calculated using percent of all personnel units of measure (appearing as column headers).
  Senior officers Non-commissioned officers Constables Other Total
percent of all personnel
Police officers 2.7 18.0 50.1 Note ...: not applicable 70.8
  Clerical Management/professionals Communications/dispatch Other Total
percent of all personnel
Civilian personnel 10.0 10.4 3.8 5.1 29.2

Chart 4

Description for Chart 4
Data table for Chart 4
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 4. The information is grouped by Years (appearing as row headers), Clerical staff, Management/professionals, Communications/dispatch, Other civilian personnel and Total civilian personnel, calculated using percent of total personnel units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Years Clerical staff Management/professionals Communications/dispatch Other civilian personnel Total civilian personnel
percent of total personnel
1996 11.3 4.3 4.2 6.7 26.5
1997 11.2 4.4 4.3 6.6 26.5
1998 11.2 4.6 4.3 6.1 26.1
1999 11.2 4.8 4.4 6.3 26.7
2000 11.2 4.9 4.4 5.7 26.2
2001 11.2 5.2 4.3 5.2 25.9
2002 11.0 5.6 4.3 5.3 26.2
2003 11.2 6.1 4.3 5.0 26.6
2004 11.4 6.3 4.2 5.2 27.1
2005 11.5 6.5 4.5 5.1 27.7
2006 11.4 6.9 4.2 5.2 27.7
2007 11.4 7.4 4.2 5.2 28.3
2008 11.1 7.8 4.0 5.3 28.2
2009 11.2 8.1 3.9 5.5 28.7
2010 11.0 8.3 3.8 5.2 28.4
2011 10.8 9.1 3.8 5.1 28.8
2012 10.9 9.1 3.8 5.0 28.9
2013 10.2 9.4 3.8 5.2 28.7
2014 10.3 9.7 3.9 5.2 29.2
2015Note r: revised 10.2 9.9 4.0 5.1 29.2
2016 10.0 10.4 3.8 5.1 29.2

Proportion of female police officers continues to increase

On May 15, 2016, there were 14,545 female police officers, accounting for over 21% of all sworn officers, compared with just under 4% in 1986. Since collection began in 1986, the proportion of sworn officers who are female has grown annually (Chart 5).

Although women account for a smaller proportion of senior and non-commissioned officers when compared with constables, their presence in the higher ranks continues to increase. In 2016, 13% of senior officers were women, compared with 6% in 2006 and less than 1% in 1986. Among non-commissioned officers in 2016, 18% were women, compared with 11% in 2006 and less than 1% in 1986.

Chart 5

Description for Chart 5
Data table for Chart 5
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 5. The information is grouped by Years (appearing as row headers), Senior officers, Non-commissioned officers and Constables, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Years Senior officers Non-commissioned officers Constables
percent
1986 0.2 0.5 5.4
1987 0.2 0.6 6.1
1988 0.2 0.8 7.0
1989 0.3 1.1 7.9
1990 0.4 1.3 8.6
1991 0.4 1.4 9.5
1992 0.7 1.6 10.2
1993 1.2 1.8 10.8
1994 1.3 2.2 12.0
1995 1.6 2.7 12.8
1996 1.7 3.0 13.5
1997 2.1 3.4 14.3
1998 2.2 3.9 15.5
1999 2.8 4.7 16.2
2000 3.1 5.5 17.0
2001 3.5 6.3 17.8
2002 4.0 7.1 18.6
2003 4.7 7.7 19.1
2004 5.2 8.9 19.8
2005 5.5 9.7 20.7
2006 6.1 10.8 21.1
2007 7.2 12.0 21.5
2008 7.7 13.3 21.2
2009 8.3 14.4 21.4
2010 8.7 15.1 21.4
2011 9.5 15.8 21.6
2012 9.9 16.4 21.8
2013 10.4 17.1 21.9
2014 10.9 17.6 22.2
2015Note r: revised 12.4 18.0 22.3
2016 13.3 18.2 22.6

Overall proportion of officers aged 40 years and older has grown

In 2012, the Police Administration Survey began collecting additional information on the socio-demographic characteristics of police officers to inform human resources planning. Based on these additional data, officers aged 40 to 44 years continue to account for the largest proportion of sworn officers of any five-year age group, representing 19% to 20% of officers annually since 2012 (Chart 6).

Overall, the proportion of officers aged 40 years and older has grown since 2012, when data were first collected. That year, they accounted for 50% of all officers. In 2016, the proportion grew to 55%.

The age profile among the different types of police services varies. For instance, among the RCMP, the Sûreté du Québec (SQ), small and large municipal police services, those aged 40 years and older accounted for 50% to 55% of officers in 2016, and the proportion has been growing since 2012 (Chart 7).

The Ontario Provincial Police (OPP), on the other hand, presents a much older profile compared with all other types of police services. In 2016, 68% of the OPP’s sworn officers were aged 40 years or older, and this proportion has grown since 2012 when it was reported at 60%.

While showing an increase since 2012, First NationsNote 5 police services also reported that 44% of their sworn police officers were aged 40 years and older. Prior to 2016, First Nations police services reported having a younger police service than all other types of services.

In contrast, those aged 40 and older account for a smaller proportion of officers within the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary (RNC), and this proportion has decreased over time. In 2016, 44% of officers within the RNC were 40 years of age or older, compared with 51% in 2013 (the first year age related data were reported from the RNC).

Chart 6

Description for Chart 6
Data table for Chart 6
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 6. The information is grouped by Age group (years) (appearing as row headers), 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016, calculated using percent of police officers units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age group (years) 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
percent of police officers
Under 25 2.3 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7
25 to 29 11.8 10.9 10.0 9.4 9.1
30 to 34 16.9 16.8 16.8 16.3 16.0
35 to 39 18.6 18.5 18.2 18.2 18.2
40 to 44 18.9 19.3 19.6 19.5 19.3
45 to 49 16.6 16.8 16.8 17.1 17.6
50 to 54 10.5 11.4 12.2 12.8 13.0
55 and older 4.4 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.2

Chart 7

Description for Chart 7
Data table for Chart 7
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 7. The information is grouped by Years (appearing as row headers), Large municipal police service, First Nations police service, Small municipal police service, Ontario Provincial Police, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Royal Newfoundland Constabulary and Sûreté du Québec, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Years Large municipal police service First Nations police service Small municipal police service Ontario Provincial Police Royal Canadian Mounted Police Royal Newfoundland Constabulary Sûreté du Québec
percent
2012 49.9 36.3 50.9 60.1 49.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 43.9
2013 51.5 39.5 53.6 62.3 50.5 50.7 47.3
2014 53.1 41.1 54.3 64.5 51.9 48.5 48.5
2015 53.9 43.7 53.8 68.2 53.2 47.6 49.8
2016 54.7 43.9 55.5 67.7 53.3 44.0 50.9

Recruits comprise increased proportion of hiring

In 2015/2016, there were 2,630 police officers hired by police services in Canada. The majority (86%) were recruit graduates, up from 80% in the previous year. The remaining 14% of hires were experienced officers. To be considered a recruit graduate, an individual must have successfully completed a training program where they achieved the status of fully sworn officer in the previous calendar or fiscal year (Table 4).

When looking at the number of experienced officers hired nationally, just over half (52%) were individuals with less than 5 years of service. Contrary to the national trend, this was true for 6% of experienced officers hired by the OPP and 8% by the SQ (Chart 8).

With the financial and personnel investments associated with training police officers, officer retention is an emerging area of research. Some research suggests that turnover can lead to disruption in the workplace, can have a negative impact on police work and crime control, and may hinder the development of leadership within the ranks (Scheer 2014). Police reported that 2,652 officers departed their service in 2015/2016, with 69% leaving for retirement and the other 31% leaving for other reasons such as a job with another police service, a career change, or other reasons (Table 4).

In 2015/2016, 10% of officers in Canada were eligible to retire but did not. Across the jurisdictions, the proportion of officers eligible to retire ranged from 7% in Ontario and Alberta to 18% in Prince Edward Island, 19% in Manitoba and 20% in Newfoundland and Labrador (Table 4).

Chart 8

Description for Chart 8
Data table for Chart 8
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 8. The information is grouped by Service type (appearing as row headers), Percent (appearing as column headers).
Service type Percent
Large municipal police service 64.7
First Nations police service 51.3
Small municipal police service 52.9
Ontario Provincial
Police
5.9
Royal Canadian Mounted
Police
38.6
Royal Newfoundland Constabulary 50.0
Sûreté du Québec 8.5
Canada 52.2

Majority of officers who left First Nations police services have less than 10 years of service

Based on data covering the period from 2012 to 2016, 16% of all officers who departed their police service had less than 10 years of experience.

Of departures from small municipal police services, however, 33% had less than 10 years of service. Among First NationsNote 6 police services, 65% of all departures were officers with under 10 years of service. Of sworn officers leaving First Nations police services with less than 10 years’ service, just over 50% had left for another service, while 49% left for other reasons.Note 7 Among officers who left the OPP, the RNC, and the SQ, much smaller proportions left after fewer than 10 years of service (Chart 9).

When looking at all departures, the provincial police services reported the largest proportions of officers leaving for retirement. From 2012 to 2016, 93% of officers who left the RNC retired. This was true for 88% of departures from the OPP and 86% from the SQ. Among municipal police services, 73% of officers left for retirement among large municipals, whereas this was true for 54% of departures from small municipal police services. Among the RCMP, 61% of officers left for retirement, and among First Nations police services,Note 8 9% of officers left due to retirement.

Chart 9

Description for Chart 9
Data table for Chart 9
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 9. The information is grouped by Service type (appearing as row headers), Percent (appearing as column headers).
Service type Percent
Large municipal police service 14.6
First Nations police service 65.3
Small municipal police service 33.4
Ontario Provincial
Police
6.2
Royal Canadian Mounted
Police
13.1
Royal Newfoundland Constabulary 7.2
Sûreté du Québec 7.6
Canada 15.6

Salaries among First Nations police services have been consistently lower compared with other services, but gap is narrowing

Overall, the average annual salary for police personnel in Canada in 2015/2016, including both officers and civilians, was $96,231.Note 9 When controlling for inflation, this amount has generally grown since 1998/1999, with a slight increase (+1%) from 2014/2015 to 2015/2016.

However, the average salaries reported by First Nations police services (when accounting for inflation) have been consistently lower than for other types of police services. In recent years, though, the gap has narrowed (Chart 10). In 2015/2016, the average salary in constantNote 10 dollars for personnel of First Nations police services was $66,536 compared with $76,024 for personnel of non-First Nations police services.

Average salariesNote 11Note 12 are driven predominantly by the RCMP, the OPP and municipal police services serving a population greater than 90,000. According to inflation-adjusted ten year average salaries for the years 2006/2007 to 2015/2016, salaries for the RCMP were 43% higher than for First Nations police services, with OPP and large municipals salaries being 29% and 20% higher, respectively. This gap, however, has closed in recent years. In 2015/2016, the average salary of personnel in the RCMP was 16% higher compared with First Nations police services. For the OPP and large municipals, average salaries that year were 23% and 15% higher. Historically, while still lower, salaries among First Nations police services have been closer to those of the RNC and smaller municipals. According to ten year average salaries for the years 2006/2007 to 2015/2016, salaries for the RNC were 7% higher than for First Nations police services and salaries for smaller municipal police services were 12% higher.

Chart 10

Description for Chart 10
Data table for Chart 10
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 10. The information is grouped by Years (appearing as row headers), First Nations police service and Non-First Nations police service, calculated using constant dollars units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Years First Nations police service Non-First Nations police service
constant dollars
1998 30,687 63,025
1999 33,767 62,056
2000 48,552 61,809
2001 43,401 63,903
2002 42,758 62,397
2003 45,474 64,896
2004 46,742 66,063
2005 47,376 66,726
2006 54,220 67,863
2007 52,604 68,372
2008 53,735 69,573
2009 53,405 71,034
2010 59,205 73,550
2011 54,393 75,217
2012 58,785 75,377
2013 63,592 78,456
2014 59,419 76,596
2015 64,883 75,499
2016 66,536 76,024

Operating expenditures $14.2 billion in 2015/2016

Total operating expenditures for all police services across Canada in 2015/2016 amounted to $14.2 billion in current dollars (Table 5). The total expenditures comprise salaries and wages (66%), benefits (15%), and other operating expenditures (19%).

Accounting for inflation,Note 13 total operating expenditures rose by 1% from the previous year, with the largest increases reported in Saskatchewan (+5%), Ontario (+3%), and Alberta (+3%). Saskatchewan and Alberta experienced increases in both their municipal policing and RCMP expenditures. Ontario reported a 3% increase in municipal expenditures, coupled with a 6% increase in provincial policing costs. Police spending increased annually from 1997/1998 to 2010/2011, but has since varied by less than 1% other than somewhat larger increases in 2012/2013 and 2015/2016 (Table 6, Chart 11).

On a per capita basis, using constant dollars,Note 14 policing expenditures amounted to a cost of $313 per person in 2015/2016. This was virtually unchangedNote 15 from 2014/2015 ($312 per capita), which followed two consecutive yearly declines. The per capita cost, however, was 16% higher than 2005/2006 (Chart 11).

With $4.5 billion reported in 2015/2016, the RCMP accounted for 32% of total police operating expenditures in the country. The total operating expenditures for the RCMP decreased by 1% from the previous year. The RCMP expenditures are accounted in three categories: contract policing (56%); federal and international policing (18%); and operational support and services (25%) (Table 5).

Chart 11

Description for Chart 11
Data table for Chart 11
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 11. The information is grouped by Years (appearing as row headers), Current dollars and Constant dollars, calculated using dollars–per capita expenditures units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Years Current dollars Constant dollars
dollars–per capita expenditures
1986/1987 144 220
1987/1988 152 222
1988/1989 164 230
1989/1990 172 230
1990/1991 189 242
1991/1992 194 234
1992/1993 202 240
1993/1994 202 236
1994/1995 199 233
1995/1996 198 226
1996/1997 198 222
1997/1998 200 222
1998/1999 206 226
1999/2000 210 226
2000/2001 222 232
2001/2002 234 240
2002/2003 250 250
2003/2004 263 256
2004/2005 274 262
2005/2006 288 269
2006/2007 303 278
2007/2008 321 288
2008/2009 344 302
2009/2010 366 320
2010/2011 372 319
2011/2012 377 315
2012/2013 390 320
2013/2014 387 315
2014/2015 391 312
2015/2016 396 313

Survey description

The Police Administration Survey collects data on police personnel and expenditures from each municipal, provincial and federal police services in Canada. The following security agencies are excluded from the survey: the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, railway and military police, and government departments enforcing specific statutes in the areas of income tax, customs and excise, immigration, fisheries and wildlife. Additionally, private security services and private investigators are not included in the survey.

Data presented in this report represent police personnel as of May 15, 2016 and year-end operating expenditures for the 2015 calendar year or the 2015/2016 fiscal year. Police officers include the actual number of permanent sworn police officers available for active duty as of May 15, 2016. Part-time personnel are converted to a full-time equivalent. Police expenditures represent actual operating expenditures and include salaries and wages, benefits, and other operating expenses such as accommodation costs, fuel, and maintenance. Expenditure data represent gross expenditure, and does not include capital expenditures, funding from external sources, or cost recovery dollars.

Since 2012, the Police Administration Survey has included a Supplemental questionnaire which captures detailed information on hires, departures, eligibility to retire, years of service, age, education, visible minority status, and language. Due to data quality issues, some of this information is not published.

Detailed data tables

Table 1 Trends in police personnel, Canada, 1962 to 2016

Table 2 Police officers by level of policing, by province and territory, 2016

Table 3 Municipal police services serving a population of 100,000 or more, Canada, 2016

Table 4 Hirings and departures of police officers, by province and territory, Canada, 2015/2016

Table 5 Total expenditures on policing, current dollars, by province and territory, 2015/2016

Table 6 Current and constant (2002) dollar expenditures on policing, Canada, 1986/1987 to 2015/2016

References

Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police. 2015. The Dollars and Sense of Policing, Public Safety and Well-Being in Your Community.

Griffiths, Curt Taylor, Adam Palmer, Larry Weeks and Brian Polidore. 2006. Civilianization in the Vancouver Police Department. Public Safety Canada.

Griffiths, Curt Taylor, Nahanni Pollard and Tom Stamatakis. 2014. “Assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of a police service: The analytics of operational reviews.” Police Practice and Research, 2014. Vol. 16, no. 2. p. 175-187.

Kiedrowski, John, Michael Petrunik and Rick Ruddell. 2016. Illustrative Case Studies of First Nations Policing Program Models. Public Safety Canada.

Lithopoulos, Savvas and Rick Ruddell. 2013. “Aboriginal policing in rural Canada: Establishing a research agenda.” International Journal of Rural Criminology. Vol. 2, no. 1.

Morrell, Kevin. 2014. "Civilianization and its discontents." Academy of Management Proceedings. Vol. 2014, no. 1.

Peak, Kenneth. 2010. “Police issues and practices.” Justice Administration: Police, Courts, and Corrections Management. Sixth Edition. Pearson Education, 2010.

Scheer, Charlie. 2014. “Current trends in police retention: Strategies for keeping good talent.” RCMP Gazette. Vol. 76, no.3.

Waterloo Regional Police Service. 2011. Neighbourhood Policing: Rebuilding to Meet the Needs of Our Changing and Growing Community.

Notes

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