5. Method for mapping classification codes to domains

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5.1 Criteria
5.2 Where the standards and the framework do not align: partials and multi-domain
5.3 Mapping culture industries
5.4 Mapping culture products
5.5 Measuring culture occupations
5.6 Mapping culture instructional programs

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This classification guide examines how well the standard classification systems map to the culture framework. It was important to develop a method for mapping the standards to the framework so that the process can be replicated for different classification systems and repeated when standards are updated. This method involved developing logical criteria to evaluate if and how a standard code could be categorized according to the structure of the CFCS. The final goal of this classification project was to produce a set of tables, which map each standard code (at the various levels of aggregation) to the domains and sub-domains of the framework.

5.1 Criteria

The most logical approach for building the tables of codes is to employ the methodology implicit in each of the standard classification systems. By combining the standard methods of classification with the framework definition of culture, the following proposed criteria were developed for determining if an industry, product, occupation, or instructional program is in scope for culture. This approach is based on the approach used by the Tourism Satellite Account and the proposed Culture Satellite Account; those projects classify industries as in scope if they would cease to exist or would continue to exist only at a significantly reduced level of activity, as a direct result of an absence of tourism or, in this case, culture.

Following this approach, the following rules were used to determine if a code is in scope for the CFCS:

NAICS: culture industries must rely on creative artistic activity or heritage to exist, or they would cease to exist in the absence of creative artistic activity or heritage.

NAPCS: goods and services are in scope if they are based on the output of creative artistic activity, and meet at least one of the framework criteria. Their primary use or purpose should be the transmission of culture content to audiences, or the preservation of heritage, or to support those activities.

NOC-S: culture occupations would cease to exist without primary tasks and responsibilities that involve or support creative artistic activity or the preservation of heritage.

CIP: culture instructional programs provide education and training in culture disciplines such as music, fine arts, and literature. This instruction may serve to train creators, or to educate consumers.

5.2 Where the standards and the framework do not align: partials and multi-domain

The goal of this classification guide was to map each industry, product, occupation, and instructional program classification code to a domain and sub-domain of the CFCS and to identify areas where the standards do and do not fit the framework. In most cases, there is a clear one-to-one concordance; the book publishing industry, for example, maps directly to the Books sub-domain. In some cases, only parts of industry, product, or occupation categories (codes) can be mapped to a sub-domain. These are referred to as "partials". In other cases, one code may represent a number of domains or sub-domains. These are referred to as "multi-domain".

It should be noted that, while this document identifies the areas where the standards do not fit with the framework, it does not examine actual data sources to determine whether and how these situations can be resolved for the purposes of measurement. In addition, in many cases, especially with NAPCS, the standards may provide more detail than surveys are able to collect.

5.2.1 Partials

The term 'partial' is used when only a subset of units within an industry, product, or occupation is defined as part of culture. For example, Hobby, Toy and Game Stores (NAICS 45112) is a partial industry for the Interactive Media sub-domain because only some of its activities are in scope for culture. In this case, it is theoretically possible to identify a subset of industry units (establishments) which are engaged primarily in the retailing of video games (video game stores). Finding ways to "extract" each of these partials will depend on the availability of detailed data from any number of sources and will differ in each individual case.

It is important to note that a partial industry is not defined by product. The Computer and Software Stores (NAICS 44312) industry is not included as a culture industry because, although they may sell some video games, this is not the primary activity of any establishments in this industry.

Similarly, Pharmacies are not a partial industry for culture: they often sell books, but no subset of pharmacies exists that primarily sells books. Therefore, there would be no way to measure a partial culture industry within pharmacies. Instead, book sales by pharmacies would need to be captured at the product level. A partial for occupations would be a subset of jobs. A partial product would require a subset of products.

For the tables, partials are identified by "*".

5.2.2 Multi-domain and unallocated

While there are instances where industries, products or occupations are related to more than one domain, in order to avoid duplication, the code is counted only once. For example, sound recording services are relevant to a variety of sub-domains, such as film, digital media, television, radio, and sound recording, but they are only coded in the Sound recording sub-domain. However, if it is not possible to map a classification to a single domain or sub-domain because of its broad definition, it is presented as a multiple category.

In some cases, multiple categories reflect codes that, by definition, cover more than one domain and cannot be readily allocated to a single domain. A multiple category might be required because the definition does not provide sufficient detail to distinguish, for example, between Book, Periodical and Music Stores (NAICS 4512). Multiples are identified as "multi-domain" in the domain column of the tables.

There are some cases where a code such as writers can be readily mapped to a domain, but not to the more detailed sub-domains. In these cases, the sub-domain is identified as "unallocated" in the sub-domain column of the tables.

5.3 Mapping culture industries

Industries are the categories used to describe the establishments involved in the production and delivery of culture products. For each of the domains, we have identified the NAICS industries that are involved primarily in the creative chain related to that domain. The NAICS industry classification is used for business and enterprise sample surveys and for administrative sources, such as the Business Register and tax records.

5.3.1 Method for mapping NAICS industries to domains

Industries are mapped to culture domains according to their primary activity, not their output. This approach is particularly important for the treatment of industries that produce electronic products and interactive media. For example, a publisher of an e-book belongs conceptually in Books, not in Interactive media. It is not the format of a product that links an industry to a domain, but the creation and production activity of establishments in the industry.

In order to avoid confusion and double counting, we have attempted to allocate NAICS industries to single domains. This is particularly important for methods involving aggregate measures of culture such as the Culture Satellite Account. In some cases, where individual establishments in an industry tend to be involved in more than one domain (e.g. Music Groups and Artists (NAICS 71113) is related to Live Performance, Audio-visual and Interactive media, and Sound Recording), the code is allocated to the one domain that is considered the primary location of the industry. In the case of Musical Groups and Artists, that domain is Live Performance, based on the logic that the performance is the primary activity and precedes the recording of the performance. In some cases, separate groups of establishments in a single industry can be linked logically to different domains, such as Book, Periodical and Music Stores (NAICS 4512), a code for a retail industry that relates to both Written and Published works and Sound recording. We refer to these industry codes as "multi-domain". This treatment is different from the 2004 Framework where individual industries were sometimes listed in more than one domain with no guidance on how to implement this duplication in analysis.

5.3.2 How NAICS relates to the CFCS

Much of the culture framework is well served by the standard industry definitions. In fact, NAICS itself is a much better designed classification system for supporting culture statistics than its predecessor, the Standard Industry Classification (SIC). In particular, NAICS 1997 was the first classification to recognize Information and Culture industries. However, there are still some key areas, such as Crafts, where NAICS 2007 does not map directly to the CFCS.

In the case of the Crafts sub-domain, there are no distinct industry codes that distinguish artisanal production processes from other industrial manufacturing.NAICS 2007 includes craft establishments with a variety of manufacturing industries. For example, artisan pottery studios are included in Pottery, Ceramics and Plumbing Fixture Manufacturing (NAICS 32711). This issue has been partly resolved as artisans as an industry are now explicitly included with Independent Artists, Visual Artists (711511) in the NAICS 2012 revision.

Another area of current interest is the treatment of Internet-based dissemination of culture. In the CFCS, there is no distinction, for example, between online dissemination of a newspaper and the print edition However, NAICS currently classifies establishments that are Internet-only publishers into a single and different industry.Any publishing company that publishes only on the Internet (without a print version) is currently classified to Internet Publishing and Broadcasting, and Web Search Portals (NAICS 51913). This is a NAICS industry, which groups together a wide variety of culture and non-culture activity with no means to disaggregate the activities. Currently there are few newspaper, periodical or book publishers that do not provide a print product. However, as Internet publishing expands and some publishers cease to print (as some small city newspapers have contemplated), this industry could conceivably capture a significant amount of publishing activity.

5.4 Mapping culture products

Products (sometimes referred to as commodities) are the unit of analysis used to describe the goods and services that result from the creation, production, and delivery of culture content. Culture products (goods and services) are the result of creative artistic activity and the preservation of heritage, as defined by the criteria in the framework. They include individual works of art, handcrafted work, or mass-produced goods. They also include unique services tied to the creation and dissemination of culture content, such as museum admissions, concert tickets, editorial services, film post-production services, etc.

5.4.1 Method for mapping NAPCS products to domains

Rather than classify products according to their physical attributes, NAPCS identifies products that can be measured both at the point of production and in their subsequent use. Subsequently they are to be grouped according to characteristics of economic demand. For example, a CD or DVD is not identified by its plastic content, but as a tool for storing information, software or music.

In order to categorize products to culture domains and sub-domains, a two-stage process was carried out. First, a full list of NAPCS codes was reviewed to determine whether a product or service was to be considered in-scope as 'culture' or out-of-scope, according to the overall definition and criteria for culture contained in the framework. The resulting list of culture products was then reviewed and products were classified to core or ancillary sub-domains, where possible.

For the most part, goods and services are classified according to their culture content; they are also classified in a manner that is consistent with the domain where they represent a primary output or revenue source. This is most important for licensing and rights. For example, the Licensing of rights to use musical works in audiovisual works (NAPCS 512023.1.1.3) is classified to Music publishing, not Film and video, because this is a product related to music publishing and the intellectual content of a musical product, even though the product may be used in a film.

As NAPCS coding is based on the nature or purpose of the product itself, rather than on the industry that produced it, certain products may be important for a culture establishment, but may not qualify for analysis as a culture product. For example, while the rental of parking space might be an important source of revenue for a theatre in an urban centre, parking is not defined as a culture product as it is not the output of creative activity and is not related primarily to the delivery of culture content to audiences. Therefore, while research on performing arts as an industry might look at reliance on parking revenues, these would be treated as revenues from the provision of non-culture services.

While some products might be produced in more than one domain, the tables attempt to list the product only once, in order to clarify prime domain and ensure that there will be no double counting. In some cases, where products are defined too broadly to be allocated to a single domain, such as Intellectual property protected by copyright (NAPCS 512011.5), we have identified them as "multi-domain".

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Identifying culture products from the Broadcasting, Newspaper and Periodical sub-domains

In the Broadcasting, Newspapersand Periodicals sub-domains, the associated culture products have been identified as cable subscriptions, subscriptions and newsstand sales. However, these products make up only part of the total value of the culture output of these sub-domains. There are also earnings associated with production activity that is paid for through the sales of airtime and advertising space. This is particularly true for conventional radio broadcasters (over-the-air) and free-circulation magazines as there are no direct paid transactions that would allow their value to be measured. Instead, the delivery of their culture content is paid for indirectly through the sale of air time and advertising space.

For periodical and newspaper publishers and for broadcasters, air time and advertising space are important sources of revenue. In a sense, advertising space and air time are a market 'proxy' for culture output as they indicate demand for the culture product where advertisements are placed. The value of advertising sales by the publishing or broadcasting sub-domains is an important indicator of the value of their products. This is especially true in those cases where there are no monetary transactions for the content itself, such as radio or television broadcasts, free newspapers, etc.

In the framework, advertising space and air time are not identified as culture products because they do not meet the criteria. However, they represent important products for these industries and they may be used in analysis for the measurement of these core culture sub-domains. The NAPCS codes for these products are not included in the classification tables, but are listed below.

NAPCS codes for air time and advertising space

Table for NAPCS codes for air time and advertising space
NAPCS NAPCS description
515021 Radio air time
515021.1 Conventional radio air time
515021.2 Satellite and other pay radio air time
515022 Conventional television air time
515022.1 Conventional television air time
515023 Specialty and pay television air time
515023.1 Specialty and pay television air time
511021 Advertising space in print newspapers
511021.1 Advertising space in general newspapers, daily, print
511021.2 Advertising space in general newspapers, other than daily, print
511021.3 Advertising space in specialized newspapers, daily, print
511021.4 Advertising space in specialized newspapers, other than daily, print
511022 Advertising space in print periodicals
511022.1 Advertising space in arts, culture, leisure and entertainment magazines, printed
511022.2 Advertising space in home and living periodicals, printed
511022.3 Advertising space in periodicals on general interest political, social and business news, printed
511022.4 Advertising space in other general interest periodicals, printed
511022.5 Advertising space in business (including farming), professional and academic periodicals, printed
511022.6 Advertising space in other periodicals n.e.c., printed

Why advertising space and air time are not part of the Advertising sub-domain

Advertising is an ancillary culture sub-domain; therefore, only the design (creation) and production of advertisements is in scope for culture. Other activities, related to dissemination, such as media buying, the leasing of billboards, and ad placement are excluded. From the perspective of the advertising industry, the purchase of advertising space and air time are expenses incurred by the advertiser for the display or broadcasting of advertising content. The content itself, produced by an advertiser, is a culture product, mapped to Advertising, but dissemination through the purchase of advertising space or air time is not.

Venue naming rights, sponsorship and endorsement

A similar issue arises for sponsorship, endorsement and naming rights, which play a similar role to the sales of advertising space and air time. Corporate sponsorship is an important source of support for Heritage and Libraries and Live performance domains. In this case, however, the related NAPCS are not exclusive to culture (because they are related to sports as well) and must be treated as partials, but not as culture products.

541082.3 Venue naming rights
541082.4 Sponsorship rights
541082.5 Endorsement services

Advertising space on the Internet

Advertising space on the Internet is also an important source of revenue linked to the dissemination of culture content. Unlike the NAPCS codes for print advertising space and airtime, however, the code for advertising space on the Internet is not limited to culture, but encompasses many other types of Internet activity. While this code is available, it is not clear what proportion represents services related to culture. Further exploration is required before this code can be used in the measurement of culture.

519021.1 Advertising space on the Internet

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5.4.2 How NAPCS relates to the CFCS

NAPCS provides a large number of detailed codes that support substantive mapping of culture products to the framework. In some cases, the available detail exceeds what is required to map a product to sub-domains. The detail in the classification, however, does not always result in equally detailed data. There are cases when data are collected at more aggregate levels, so that survey data are not always available at the level of detail suggested by the codes. This may reflect the inability of respondents to provide information at the level of detail requested. The result can be that information will be aggregated (grouped) at a higher level than is required for identifying and extracting culture products.

As noted, the version of NAPCS used for the CFCS is still provisional, so only selected goods and services from a variety of service industries can be included in the framework. While this includes products from the Information and Cultural Industries (NAICS 51), and Arts, Entertainment and Recreation (NAICS 71), the list is not comprehensive enough to capture all culture products. For example, many tangible craft products produced by manufacturing industries, as well as retail products, will not be classified in NAPCS until the 2012 publication.

Another characteristic of NAPCS, which is important to culture, is that it is based on observable, market transactions. When there is no market transaction for a product, such as the lending or borrowing of library books or peer-sharing of video content on the Internet, there is no identifiable NAPCS good or service. The effect is that there will be no economic data available for non-market transactions.

5.5 Measuring culture occupations

Occupations are the unit of analysis used to describe the type of work performed by individuals directly involved with culture goods and services. Occupations are classified according to the nature of the occupational tasks, not the industry where the workers are employed. A culture occupation is one where the majority of the work involves creation and/or production of culture products in either a culture industry or elsewhere. Therefore, for example, sound technicians are defined as culture occupations because they are involved in the production of a sound recording, but office secretaries are not culture occupations since their primary tasks are not uniquely tied to culture production.

This guide groups and allocates occupations, like products and industries, according to the CFCS domains. In addition, occupations are grouped by type of occupation. The 2004 framework identified three main categories of occupation (creators, technical support and management support); two new categories have been added in the 2011 Framework.

These new occupational support categories, which are found in the two transversal domains of Education and training and Governance, funding and professional support, include culture policy analysts and researchers in government, and culture educators in schools and postsecondary institutions. These individuals carry out important work in the support of culture, but are not clearly identifiable in occupational classifications. While their activities do not appear to be intrinsically cultural and they do not work in culture industries, they provide support to the culture sector. There is, therefore, interest in measuring their activity. This is especially true when one considers that government and education jobs related to culture could logically be counted as jobs "created" by the culture sector, since they would not exist without culture.

These new support occupations may be included or excluded in measurement, depending upon analytical requirements. The preferred analytical approach would be to include them in analysis but keep them distinct from the 'core' occupational groups traditionally measured for the culture sector. This way it will be possible to ensure that studies produced using the framework are comparable, but that new approaches can also be explored. This distinction is important because no individual codes exist to identify culture workers in government and education. For this reason, further work is required to develop means to measure these occupations. It is preferable to retain a distinction between these new occupational categories and the traditional categories to ensure a consistent approach to analysis.

5.5.1 Method for mapping NOC-S to occupations

In order to categorize occupations to culture domains and sub-domains, a two-stage process was carried out. First, a full list of NOC-S codes was reviewed to determine if an occupation is in-scope according to the framework definition of culture. The resulting list of culture occupations was then reviewed and placed in a core or ancillary culture sub-domain, where possible, or to a transversal domain.

The rationale for allocating the various occupation classifications to the CFCS domains is based on the criteria outlined in the framework. The occupation must be directly linked to the definition of culture and meet at least one of the criteria for culture to be in scope. Of primary importance is that the occupation be aligned sufficiently to the criteria to the extent that the occupation would cease to exist if it were not for the culture content produced by that domain.

Most occupations involved in the creation and dissemination of culture and the preservation of heritage can be identified either by occupational definition (e.g. writer) or, in the case of transversal domains, by a combination of industry and occupation (managers in culture industries). It is important to remember that the classification of occupations is based on the nature of the occupational tasks, not the industry where the workers are employed. Culture workers, such as writers, are employed across the Canadian economy, including parts of the non-culture sector. Research has shown that just under half of all culture workers have been employed in the non-culture sector of the economy (Schimpf 2008 p 16-17). Knowledge of this demand for culture workers, particularly visual artists, designers, and writers, who are employed across the economy, is an essential ingredient for understanding patterns in culture worker training and employment.

Linking NOC-S to the CFCS requires consideration of the nature of the creative activity or output of the occupation. For example, translators may work in many domains, but their primary task is related generally to written published works. Musicians are connected to sound recording, film, broadcasting, and the performing arts, but the first creative output is related primarily to performance, so they are coded to Live Performance. As a result, the primary task is defined and the occupation is allocated to the domain that is most closely linked to the creative output of the task.

This type of allocation may seem unsatisfactory but is essential. While it may appear arbitrary to place all musicians in the Live Performance domain, it is necessary to ensure that there is no duplication across the framework. It may be possible, however, for researchers to produce ratios that would allow for the distribution of data on musicians to the relevant domains to ensure that they reflect the contribution of musicians across the culture sector. In the end, the needs of the analysis will determine how to treat them.

Occupations such as managers and economists in government culture programs, and teachers in culture education programs, are jobs that cannot be measured within culture industries. Standard classifications do not allow for an identification of these specific groups in the data, however, codes are allocated to the relevant transversal domain as "partial" occupations in order to allow for their measurement.

Information requirements related to culture occupations will demand a different set of culture occupations depending upon the analysis planned. Depending on the topic, all or some of the culture framework domains will be included in analysis. If, for example, a study includes the two transversal domains in the measurement of the economics of culture, then these domains should be included in analysis of how many jobs that economic activity produces in government, professional support and education. On the other hand, it may not be useful to include these transversal occupations in a policy analysis of the education and training of culture workers.

The addition of transversal domain occupations creates new opportunities for a fuller picture of culture occupations, but also creates risks related to a break in series for culture labour force data. The inclusion of these domains will produce results that are considerably different from culture labour force research produced using only the core and ancillary sub-domains.1 In the end, the choice of sub-domains for analysis of the culture labour force will depend upon the requirements of the analyst. Information requirements related to occupations in culture may need to reflect both of these universes, depending on the portion of the framework being examined.

5.5.2 How NOC-S relates to the CFCS

NOC-S codes were grouped according to the framework's occupational categories: Creative occupations, Technical support, Manufacturing support, and Management support occupations, as well as Government and Education occupations.

In some cases, culture workers are included in broad standard categories, causing challenges for measurement. For example, arts educators are aggregated with all other educators in the categories of university, college, secondary school, etc. Specialized training in culture occupations can be teased out only by linking NOC-S categories with educational program data. Similarly, the codes for authors, writers and editors are shown only at the Written and Published works domain level, rather than to its sub-domains, because these occupations are broad by definition and by nature, and cannot be disaggregated.

5.6 Mapping culture instructional programs

Mapping CIP codes to domains was not an issue since all instructional programs are included in the Education and training transversal domain. However, many programs can also be linked to associated domains and sub-domains.

A very large proportion of instructional programs cannot be linked to an associated sub-domain. For example, all instructional programs linked to Writing and Published Works can be categorized only at the domain level rather than linked to a specific sub-domain (e.g.Books, Periodicals, Newspapers) as the courses are not categorized according to a specific type of writing. In other cases, some sub-domains (e.g.Festivals and Celebrations) do not have any instructional programs indicated, as no relevant instructional program categories exist.


Note

  1. The Culture Human Resources Council (CHRC) and the Canada Council for the Arts have always used different definitions for culture occupations than does Statistics Canada, particularly in the exclusion of some occupations related to manufacturing, such as printing support. Statistics Canada has included creators (core creative and artistic production culture occupations), technical support and culture management, as well as jobs in culture manufacturing (e.g. printing support). While there has been no standard definition of the culture labour force used in Canada, there is a sense of it as the universe of workers and jobs directly related to culture. For policy purposes, the core and ancillary culture sub-domain occupations are the ones used by all to obtain information about education, skills, and training, labour market outcomes, job stability and quality, etc.
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