Thematic Series on Ethnicity, Language and Immigration
Portrait of French-language workers in Atlantic Canada’s agriculture and agri-food industries, 2011

by Émilie Lavoie

Release date: July 12, 2017

Acknowledgments

This project was carried out as part of a collaboration between Statistics Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. The author wishes to thank Jacinthe Robichaud and her team at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada for their helpful suggestions and comments.

This project was made possible thanks to the contribution of Jean-Pierre Corbeil, Chief for the Centre for Ethnocultural, Language and Immigration Statistics at Statistics Canada. Thanks also go to Jean-François Lepage for his advice. The author would like to thank them warmly for their involvement and their availability throughout this project.

Finally, the author thanks Deniz Do, Alejandro Paez Silva and Julie Bertrand for their collaboration in finalizing the report.

Atlantic Canada’s agriculture industry and the French-language minority

In 2011, there were 23,700 workers aged 15 and over in the Atlantic Canadian agricultural sector,Note 1 concentrated mainly in Nova Scotia (8,610 workers) and New Brunswick (8,455 workers).Note 2 In the four Atlantic provinces, there were 2,505 French-language agricultural workers, including 2,300 in New Brunswick alone. As such, this province is home to approximately 92% of the French-language workers in all the Atlantic provinces. In addition, in 2011, just over one in four (27.2%) agricultural workers in New Brunswick was a French-language worker.

The Atlantic provinces comprise 15 agricultural regions. Map 2 shows these regions, along with the geographical distribution of the French-language minority within these regions. As in Table 1, the French-language minority was mainly concentrated in three agricultural regions in New Brunswick: Agricultural Region 1, which accounts for 40.7% (935 workers) of the province’s French-language agricultural workers; Agricultural Region 3, which accounts for 14.6% (335 workers) of the province’s French-language agricultural workers; and Agricultural Region 4, which accounts for 42.4% (975 workers) of the province’s French-language agricultural workers. In addition, one in four agricultural workers in New Brunswick’s Agricultural Region 1, 3 in 10 in Agricultural Region 3, and three in four in Agricultural Region 4 were French-language workers. Finally, Map 1 shows that the majority of French-language agricultural workers in Atlantic Canadian agricultural regions can be found in relatively few municipalities (17 municipalities with an average or strong concentration of official-language minority populations and agricultural workersNote 3).

Atlantic Canada’s agri-food industry and the French-language minority

In 2011, there were 164,660 workers aged 15 and over in the Atlantic Canadian agri-food sector,Note 4 concentrated mainly in Nova Scotia (62,195 workers) and New Brunswick (51,805 workers). In the four Atlantic provinces, there were 19,705 French-language agri-food workers, including 17,235 in New Brunswick alone. As such, this province is home to approximately 87% of the French-language workers in all the Atlantic provinces. In addition, in 2011, one in three (33.3%) workers in New Brunswick’s agri-food sector was French-language workers. There were also French-language workers in the agri-food sector in Nova Scotia (2,135 workers) and Prince Edward Island (245 workers).

Map 4 shows the 15 agricultural regions in Atlantic Canada and the geographical distribution of the French-language minority within these regions. As in Table 2, it can be seen that French-language workers in the agri-food sector were mainly concentrated in five agricultural regions: Agricultural Regions 1, 3, and 4 in New Brunswick and Agricultural Regions 1 and 5 in Nova Scotia. A significant proportion of the agri-food workers in these regions were francophone. Finally, Map 3 reveals that the majority of French-language agri-food workers in Atlantic Canada’s agricultural regions can be found in relatively few municipalities (12 municipalities with a strong presence and 83 municipalities with an average presence of official-language minority populations and agricultural workersNote 5).

Part 1: Portrait of Atlantic Canada’s agricultural industry and its French-language workers

Table 1 and Maps 1 and 2 clearly illustrate that French-language agricultural workers in Atlantic Canada were concentrated in three of New Brunswick’s agricultural regions. The following portraits will therefore deal with Regions 1, 3, and 4 in New Brunswick.

Socioeconomic portrait of French-language workers in Atlantic Canada’s agricultural industry

Chart 1 Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agricultural sector, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011.

Data table for Chart 1
Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agricultural sector, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agricultural sector Agricultural region 1, Agricultural region 3, Agricultural region 4, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1 Agricultural region 3 Agricultural region 4
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
15 to 19 years 16.6 24.4 22.4 22.3 17.4 21.9
30 to 49 years 33.2 36.7 40.3 21.7 32.3 45.3
50 to 64 years 46.0 27.8 16.4 25.5 39.5 23.4
65 and over 3.7 11.1 20.9 31.2 11.3 12.5

Linguistic portrait of French-language workers in Atlantic Canada’s agriculture industry

Chart 2 Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011.

Data table for Chart 2
Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over Agricultural region 1, Agricultural region 3, Agricultural region 4, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1 Agricultural region 3 Agricultural region 4
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
English Only 0.0 93.3 0.0 85.4 0.0 76.6
French Only 28.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 36.4 0.0
English and French 71.1 6.7 95.5 14.6 63.6 25.0

Chart 3 Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011

Data table for Chart 3
Language spoken most often at homeChart 3 Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Language spoken most often at home by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over Agricultural region 1, Agricultural region 3, Agricultural region 4, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1 Agricultural region 3 Agricultural region 4
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
English 3.7 98.9 0.0 93.0 5.6 84.4
French 70.1 0.0 67.2 0.0 73.8 15.6
Other Languages 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
English and French 26.2 0.0 28.4 5.7 21.0 0.0

Chart 4 Language(s) used at work by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011

Data table for Chart 4
Language used most often at workChart 4 Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Language used most often at work by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over Agricultural region 1, Agricultural region 3, Agricultural region 4, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1 Agricultural region 3 Agricultural region 4
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
English 8.6 99.1 0.0 94.3 9.2 84.4
French 65.2 0.0 38.8 0.0 59.5 0.0
Other Languages 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
English and French 22.5 0.0 50.7 5.1 29.7 17.2

Agricultural portrait of four regions in Atlantic Canada

Unlike the previous sections, this agricultural portrait focuses on the characteristics of farms and farm operators—rather than on agricultural workersNote 14—in New Brunswick’s three agricultural regions.

Part 2: Socioeconomic and linguistic portraits of workers in New Brunswick’s agri-food industry

As shown in Table 3 and Maps 3 and 4, agri-food workers were concentrated in the Atlantic’s six agricultural regions. This section focusses solely on official language minority workers in New Brunswick’s agri-food sector; the next section (Part 3 of this document) will focus on French-language workers in the agricultural regions of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

Socioeconomic portrait of French-language workers in New Brunswick’s agri-food industry

Chart 5 Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agri-food sector, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011

Data table for Chart 5
Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agri-food sector, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agri-food sector Agricultural region 1, Agricultural region 3, Agricultural region 4, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1 Agricultural region 3 Agricultural region 4
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
15 to 29 years 38.8 45.6 37.2 39.2 29.5 40.0
30 to 49 years 35.8 35.4 32.2 37.1 38.1 37.4
50 to 64 years 24.0 16.6 27.8 21.6 30.2 21.1
65 and over 1.3 2.3 2.9 2.1 2.3 1.4

Linguistic portrait of French-language workers in New Brunswick’s agri-food industry

Knowledge of official languages

Chart 6 Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011

Data table for Chart 6
Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 and over Agricultural region 1, Agricultural region 3, Agricultural region 4, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1 Agricultural region 3 Agricultural region 4
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
English Only 0.0 83.3 0.0 74.4 0.0 72.7
French Only 24.2 0.0 3.8 0.0 46.7 0.0
English and French 75.8 16.7 96.2 25.6 53.3 27.3

Languages spoken at home

Chart 7 Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011

Data table for Chart 7
Language(s) spoken most often at homeChart 7 Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Language(s) spoken most often at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Agricultural region 1, Agricultural region 3, Agricultural region 4, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1 Agricultural region 3 Agricultural region 4
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
English 3.4 93.6 7.5 89.3 1.7 87.9
French 67.6 0.3 57.0 0.9 83.1 0.9
Other languages 0.0 3.3 0.7 3.8 0.0 1.4
English and French 28.5 2.8 34.9 6.0 15.1 9.8

Languages used at work

Chart 8 Language(s) used at work by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011

Data table for Chart 8
Language used most often at workChart 8 Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of New Brunswick, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Language used most often at work by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Agricultural region 1, Agricultural region 3, Agricultural region 4, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1 Agricultural region 3 Agricultural region 4
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
English 10.1 94.0 15.3 84.2 6.9 77.2
French 37.0 0.0 19.2 0.7 58.4 1.0
Other languages 5.2 1.1 5.7 2.3 3.6 2.6
English and French 47.8 4.8 59.9 12.8 31.1 19.1

Part 3: Socioeconomic and linguistic portraits of workers in Atlantic Canada’s agri-food industry outside New Brunswick

Socioeconomic portrait of French-language workers in Atlantic Canada’s agri-food industry outside New Brunswick

Chart 9 Age group by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector, three agricultural regions of the Atlantic (Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island), 2011

Data table for Chart 9
Age group by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector, three agricultural regions of the Atlantic (Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island), 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector Agricultural region 1
Nova Scotia, Agricultural region 5
Nova Scotia, Agricultural region 3
Prince Edward Island, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1
Nova Scotia
Agricultural region 5
Nova Scotia
Agricultural region 3
Prince Edward Island
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
15 to 29 years 22.8 31.2 21.5 39.4 20.5 34.9
30 to 49 years 36.6 35.9 26.9 36.8 28.2 39.6
50 to 64 years 32.1 27.9 45.2 21.7 53.8 21.9
65 and over 8.0 5.0 6.5 2.1 0.0 3.8

Linguistic portrait of French-language workers in Atlantic Canada’s agri-food industry outside New Brunswick

Knowledge of official languages

Chart 10 Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of the Atlantic (Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island), 2011

Data table for Chart 10
Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of the Atlantic (Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island), 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Agricultural region 1
Nova Scotia, Agricultural region 5
Nova Scotia, Agricultural region 3
Prince Edward Island, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1
Nova Scotia
Agricultural region 5
Nova Scotia
Agricultural region 3
Prince Edward Island
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
English only 0.0 91.6 0.0 91.8 0.0 91.8
French only 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
English and French 99.6 8.4 98.9 8.2 100.0 8.3

Languages spoken at home

Chart 11 Language(s) spoken most often at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of the Atlantic (Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island), 2011

Data table for Chart 11
Language spoken most often at homeChart 11 Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of the Atlantic (Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island), 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Language spoken most often at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Agricultural region 1
Nova Scotia, Agricultural region 5
Nova Scotia, Agricultural region 3
Prince Edward Island, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1
Nova Scotia
Agricultural region 5
Nova Scotia
Agricultural region 3
Prince Edward Island
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
English 13.8 96.4 19.4 97.1 30.8 98.6
French 35.3 0.0 36.6 0.0 20.5 0.0
Other langues 0.0 0.8 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.6
English and French 50.0 2.5 44.1 1.4 48.7 1.0

Languages used at work

Chart 12 Language(s) used at workChart 12 Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three regions of the Atlantic (Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island), 2011
Table summary

Data table for Chart 12
Language(s) spoken most often at homeChart 12 Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, three agricultural regions of the Atlantic (Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island), 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Language(s) spoken most often at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Agricultural region 1
Nova Scotia, Agricultural region 5
Nova Scotia, Agricultural region 3
Prince Edward Island, French-language workers and English-language workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Agricultural region 1
Nova Scotia
Agricultural region 5
Nova Scotia
Agricultural region 3
Prince Edward Island
French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers French-language workers English-language workers
percent
English 23.7 96.6 35.5 97.5 61.5 99.1
French 9.8 0.0 8.6 0.0 12.8 0.0
Other languages 4.9 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0
English and French 62.1 3.1 51.6 1.0 23.1 0.7

Appendices

Appendix 1 – Industries of the agricultural sector
Appendix 2 – Agricultural sector and official language minorities in the census subdivisions
Appendix 3 - Industries in the agri-food sector
Appendix 4 – Agri-food sector and official language minorities in the census subdivisions

Notes


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