Thematic Series on Ethnicity, Language and Immigration
Portrait of English-language workers in Quebec’s agriculture and agri-food industries, 2011

by Émilie Lavoie

Release date: July 12, 2017

Acknowledgments

This project was carried out as part of a collaboration between Statistics Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. The author wishes to thank Jacinthe Robichaud and her team at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada for their helpful suggestions and comments.

This project was made possible thanks to the contribution of Jean-Pierre Corbeil, Chief for the Centre for Ethnocultural, Language and Immigration Statistics at Statistics Canada. Thanks also go to Jean-François Lepage for his advice. The author would like to thank them warmly for their involvement and their availability throughout this project.

Finally, the author thanks Deniz Do, Alejandro Paez Silva and Julie Bertrand for their collaboration in finalizing the report.

Quebec’s agriculture industry and the English-language minority

In 2011, there were 69,120 workers aged 15 and over in Quebec’s agricultural sector,Note 1 5.9% of whom were English-language workersNote 2 (4,045 workers). While the agriculture sector was concentrated mainly in the Montérégie, Chaudière-Appalaches, and Centre-du-Québec regions,Note 3 English-language agricultural workers in this sector were primarily found in other regions: Estrie (665 English-language agricultural workers, or 16.4% of English-language workers in Quebec), Montérégie (1,475 English-language agricultural workers, or 36.5% of English-language workers in Quebec), Montréal–Laval (580 English-language agricultural workers, or 14.3% of English-language workers in Quebec), Laurentides (370 English-language agricultural workers, or 9.1% of English-language workers in Quebec), and Outaouais (585 English-language agricultural workers, or 14.5% of English-language workers in Quebec). With the exception of the Montérégie region, the geographic distribution of Quebec’s English-language population of agricultural workers differs from the distribution of the province’s entire population of agricultural workers.Note 4 As can be seen in Map 1, the agricultural sector and the English-language minority population overlap only in a few of the province’s municipalities.Note 5

Quebec’s agri-food industry and the English-language minority

In 2011, 514,935 people aged 15 and over worked in Quebec’s agri-food sector,Note 6 13.6% of whom were English-language workers (70,245). The agri-food sector was concentrated in two main regions: Montréal–Laval and Montérégie. Nearly 70% of Quebec’s English-language workers agri-food workers were in the Montréal–Laval region (48,860 workers), and 15.0% were in the Montérégie region (10,545 workers). In these regions, English was the first language of 33.9% and 10.2%, respectively, of agri-food workers. As can be seen in Table 2 and Map 4, there was also a significant population of English-language workers in the following regions: Gaspésie–Îles-de-la-Madeleine (570 English-language agri-food workers, representing 7.3% of the sector’s workers in the region), Estrie (910 English-language agri-food workers, or 5.3% of the sector’s workers in the region), Laurentides (2,100 English-language agri-food workers, or 5.7% of the region’s workers in this sector), Outaouais (3,505 English-language agri-food workers, or 18.5% of the region’s workers in this sector), and Abitibi-Témiscamingue–Nord-du-Québec (885 English-language agri-food workers, or 8.6% of the region’s workers in this sector). Moreover, Map 3 illustrates that the agri-food sector and the English-language minority population overlap in only a few of the province’s municipalities.Note 7

Part 1: Portrait of Quebec’s agricultural industry and its English-language workers

Table 1 and Maps 1 and 2 above clearly show that English-language workers in Quebec’s agricultural sector were concentrated in five regions: Estrie, Montérégie, Montréal–Laval, Laurentides, and Outaouais. The portraits below will therefore focus on these regions.

Socioeconomic portrait of English-language workers in Quebec’s agriculture industry

Chart 1 Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agricultural sector, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011

Data table for Chart 1
Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agricultural sector, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agricultural sector Estrie, Montérégie, Montréal - Laval, Laurentides, Outaouais, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Estrie Montérégie Montréal - Laval Laurentides Outaouais
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
15 to 29 years 18.8 28.5 24.7 22.5 37.9 29.0 39.2 23.4 23.9 28.9
30 to 49 years 32.3 31.5 33.2 36.4 29.3 38.8 12.2 37.3 27.4 28.9
50 to 64 years 30.8 29.9 34.2 30.9 27.6 26.4 23.0 31.3 29.9 33.7
65 and over 18.8 10.3 8.1 9.9 5.2 4.3 25.7 8.2 19.7 9.0

Linguistic portrait of English-language workers in Quebec’s agriculture industry

Knowledge of official languages

Chart 2 Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011

Data table for Chart 2
Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over Estrie, Montérégie, Montréal - Laval, Laurentides, Outaouais, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Estrie Montérégie Montréal - Laval Laurentides Outaouais
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
English only 27.8 0.0 27.5 0.0 36.2 0.0 43.2 0.0 68.4 0.0
French only 0.0 71.1 0.0 69.5 0.0 42.2 0.0 68.0 0.0 41.0
Neither 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 5.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
English and French 72.2 28.8 72.5 30.2 64.7 52.3 58.1 32.1 31.6 59.6

Languages spoken at home

Chart 3 Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011

Data table for Chart 3
Language(s) spoken at homeChart 3 Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over Estrie, Montérégie, Montréal - Laval, Laurentides, Outaouais, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Estrie Montérégie Montréal - Laval Laurentides Outaouais
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
English 66.9 0.0 58.6 0.4 40.5 0.0 81.1 0.0 78.6 0.0
French 0.0 93.7 5.8 94.1 0.0 61.5 0.0 93.4 0.0 81.3
Other languages 0.0 1.3 6.1 1.3 43.1 30.5 6.8 1.7 6.8 3.6
English and French 27.8 4.8 29.5 4.1 12.9 7.2 8.1 4.8 12.0 13.9

Languages used at work

Chart 4 Language(s) used at work by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011

Data table for Chart 4
Language(s) used at workChart 4 Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of Language(s) used at work by FOLS of workers in the agricultural sector aged 15 years and over Estrie, Montérégie, Montréal - Laval, Laurentides, Outaouais, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Estrie Montérégie Montréal - Laval Laurentides Outaouais
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
English 49.6 0.9 44.7 0.9 32.8 4.9 51.4 0.9 82.9 7.2
French 6.0 91.3 8.8 86.2 12.1 58.3 8.1 87.4 0.0 68.1
Other languages 0.0 1.1 4.4 2.8 18.1 12.6 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.0
English and French 43.6 6.6 42.0 10.1 37.1 23.0 36.5 10.0 13.7 23.5

Agricultural portrait of five Quebec regions

Unlike the previous sections, this agricultural portrait focuses on the characteristics of farms and farm operators in Quebec’s five agricultural regions.Note 16

Part 2: Socioeconomic and linguistic portraits of workers in Quebec’s agri-food industry

Table 2 and Maps 3 and 4 above clearly illustrate that English-language workers in Quebec’s agri-food sector were concentrated in seven regions: Gaspésie–Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Estrie, Montérégie, Montréal–Laval, Laurentides, Outaouais, and Abitibi-Témiscamingue–Nord-du-Québec. Therefore, the following portraits will focus on these regions.

Socioeconomic portrait of English-language workers in Quebec’s agri-food industry

Chart 5 Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agri-food sector, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011

Data table for Chart 5a and 5b
5a Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agri-food sector, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of 5a Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agri-food sector Gaspésie Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Estrie, Montégérie, Montréal - Laval, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Gaspésie Îles-de-la-Madeleine Estrie Montégérie Montréal - Laval
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
15 to 29 years 33.3 28.0 53.3 52.2 40.2 46.4 42.4 45.2
30 to 49 years 30.7 37.1 29.7 28.0 38.1 31.3 38.7 34.7
50 to 64 years 34.2 32.7 14.3 17.3 18.6 20.1 17.1 17.8
65 and over 0.0 2.3 0.0 2.3 3.0 2.2 1.8 2.2
5b Age group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agricultural sector, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of 5b KAge group by First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) of workers in the agricultural sector, five agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011 Laurentides, Outaouais, Abitibi-Témiscamingue Nord-du-Québec, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Laurentides Outaouais Abitibi-Témiscamingue Nord-du-Québec
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
15 to 29 years 42.6 48.1 54.2 58.3 57.6 49.4
30 to 49 years 41.2 30.0 28.0 24.6 28.2 30.2
50 to 64 years 15.2 19.9 16.5 14.7 13.6 18.9
65 and over 1.2 2.0 1.3 2.1 0.0 1.5

Linguistic portrait of English-language workers in Quebec’s agri-food industry

Knowledge of official languages

Chart 6 Knowledge of official languages by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011

Data table for Chart 6a and 6b
6a Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of 6a Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Gaspésie Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Estrie, Montégérie, Montréal - Laval, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Gaspésie Îles-de-la-Madeleine Estrie Montégérie Montréal - Laval
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
English only 39.5 0.0 17.6 0.0 25.3 0.0 31.1 0.0
French only 0.0 81.4 0.0 58.5 0.0 53.9 0.0 34.9
English and French 60.5 18.6 82.4 41.2 74.6 45.4 68.8 62.7
Neither 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.6 0.1 2.4
6b Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of 6b Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Laurentides, Outaouais, Abitibi-Témiscamingue
Nord-du-Québec, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Laurentides Outaouais Abitibi-Témiscamingue
Nord-du-Québec
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
English only 18.1 0.0 43.5 0.0 69.5 0.0
French only 0.0 53.3 0.0 34.0 0.0 71.1
English and French 82.1 46.5 56.6 65.7 31.1 29.0
Neither 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0

Languages spoken at home

Chart 7 Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011

Data table for Chart 7a and 7b
7a Language(s) spoken at homeNote 1 by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of 7a Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Gaspésie Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Estrie, Montégérie, Montréal - Laval, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Gaspésie Îles-de-la-Madeleine Estrie Montégérie Montréal - Laval
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
English 64.9 0.0 41.2 0.2 44.6 0.4 47.0 1.6
French 5.3 97.1 9.9 92.2 5.4 89.4 3.1 67.9
Other languages 0.0 0.0 11.0 2.1 25.1 3.8 38.0 20.5
English and French 28.1 2.6 37.9 5.5 24.8 6.4 11.8 10.0
7b Language(s) spoken at home7b Language(s) Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of 7b Language(s) spoken at home by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Laurentides, Outaouais, Abitibi-Témiscamingue Nord-du-Québec, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Laurentides Outaouais Abitibi-Témiscamingue Nord-du-Québec
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
English 40.5 0.1 55.5 1.0 30.5 0.4
French 9.8 91.8 4.9 78.9 3.4 94.4
Other languages 14.5 1.5 18.7 3.7 55.9 1.4
English and French 35.2 6.5 21.0 16.5 10.7 3.9

Languages used at work

Chart 8 Language(s) used at work by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011

Data table for Chart 8a and 8b
8a Language(s) used at workNote 1 by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of 8a Language(s) used at work by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Gaspésie
Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Estrie, Montégérie, Montréal - Laval, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Gaspésie
Îles-de-la-Madeleine
Estrie Montégérie Montréal - Laval
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
English 41.2 1.3 22.0 1.6 28.4 2.5 34.2 6.6
French 15.8 83.1 24.7 75.3 15.2 70.2 8.1 46.5
Other languages 4.4 1.2 8.2 1.6 12.0 2.8 14.6 8.8
English and French 40.4 14.4 45.1 21.2 44.4 24.5 43.1 38.1
8b Language(s) used at work8b Language(s) Note 1 by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over, seven agricultural regions of Quebec, 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of 8b Language(s) used at work by FOLS of workers in the agri-food sector aged 15 years and over Laurentides, Outaouais, Abitibi-Témiscamingue
Nord-du-Québec, English-language workers and Other workers, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Laurentides Outaouais Abitibi-Témiscamingue
Nord-du-Québec
English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers English-language workers Other workers
percent
English 17.9 2.1 51.8 5.8 40.1 1.7
French 20.5 70.4 4.6 45.8 4.5 82.5
Other languages 8.3 2.0 8.7 3.7 41.2 1.9
English and French 53.6 25.5 35.1 44.7 14.7 14.0

Appendices

Appendix 1 – Industries in the agricultural sector
Appendix 2 – Agricultural sector and official language minorities in the census subdivisions
Appendix 3Industries in the agri-food sector
Appendix 4 – Agri-food sector and official language minorities in the census subdivisions

Notes


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