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The General Social Survey: An Overview

The General Social Survey: An Overview

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1. Introduction

Established in 1985, Canada’s General Social Survey (GSS) program was designed as a series of independent, annual, cross-sectional surveys, each covering one topic in-depth. The overall objectives of the program were, and continue to be, to gather data on social trends in order to monitor changes in the living conditions and well being of Canadians, and to provide information on specific social policy issues.

GSS data has served as evidence behind key government programs to improve the well-being of Canadians, informed research about social life, and become a valuable training tool for quantitative methods in post-secondary institutions across the country. It is viewed as an important foundational social survey within Canada’s national statistical system for providing a comprehensive look at a variety of essential topics. Current GSS themes comprise caregiving, families, time use, social identity, volunteering and victimization.

Each of the above six survey themes is repeated in-depth approximately every 5 years. In addition to the core topic, space is reserved in each cycle for new content that addresses emerging, policy-relevant issues. As well, each survey collects comprehensive socio-demographic information such as age, sex, education, religion, ethnicity, income, etc. Regular collection of cross-sectional data allows for trend analysis, and for the testing and development of new concepts.

2. Methodology

Until 1998, the sample size for each GSS survey was approximately 10,000 persons. This was increased in 1999 to a target of 25,000. With this larger sample, basic estimates are available at the national, provincial and some census metropolitan area levels. Depending on the survey topic, the increased sample size may also be sufficient to produce estimates for sub-population groups such as single parent families, visible minorities and seniors.

The GSS program has historically used Random Digit Dialing (RDD) to collect cross-sectional data from a random sample of Canadians aged 15 and overNote 1 living in private households in the 10 provinces.Note 2 The RDD method (which generates phone numbers based on in-use area codes) avoided the problem of not being able to reach new or unlisted phone numbers as is the case when using existing telephone lists.

Along with the use of an RDD frame, collection of data was carried out via Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI), a method that offers lower collection costs than in-person interviews, as well as considerable flexibility with respect to sample design. Telephone interviewing does, however, have some drawbacks: non-coverage of households is concentrated in certain population groups (those who only have cell phones, mostly young, single, urban Canadians, are excluded from RDD samples, as are those without a telephone—often concentrated in groups with lower income and education levels); response rates tend to be lower than for face-to-face interviews; and there are limitations on the amount and type of data which can be collected.

GSS surveys are generally conducted over a 6- to12-month period. The average length of an interview is 40 to 45 minutes.

While the RDD frame and CATI collection have performed well for the first two and a half decades of the GSS program, the social and technological environment in which the surveys had been operating has changed over the years.  The increase in cell-phone-only households, the availability of caller display features, and the population’s resistance to an ever increasing number of surveys have led to declining response rates (to an average of 60% - 65% during recent years. See Appendix B for specific response rates). This, combined with increased respondent burden and rising costs for data collection resulted in an in-depth redesign of the GSS program that began in 2010.

Features of the redesign included replacing the RDD sampling frame, developing an internet questionnaire to supplement the existing telephone mode of collection, and undertaking a full content review.  The new telephone frame was constructed using the address register and other sources of telephone numbers accessible to Statistics Canada.  It is expected that these changes will improve contact with respondents, optimize coverage of the sample, stabilize or increase response rates, allow for more flexibility to accommodate new content, and reduce the length of the survey.  

These modifications are currently taking place in tandem with the ongoing survey program activities and are being phased in with the start of each of the upcoming topics. The GSS is using a new sampling frame and it has fielded its first multi-mode (internet and telephone) collection for its Social Identity cycle in the summer of 2013.

3. Current GSS themes

Caregiving and care receiving

With the aging of the population, women’s increased participation in the labour force and the emergence of smaller, more geographically dispersed families, the importance of caregiving in Canada has been increasingly recognized. The implications of providing care to someone with a long-term health condition extend beyond the direct economic, health and social consequences to the family. Caregiving also impacts other policy areas of importance to governments, including labour productivity, labour force attachment, and institutionalized care expenditures, such as health care costs.

Data on caregiving were first extensively collected through the 1996 GSS and again in 2002 and 2007. The objectives of these surveys were to determine the nature of the help received and provided, to understand the dynamic between an individual’s social network and help they received and provided, and to identify those who needed help but were not receiving any.

Building on previous caregiving cycles, the 2012 GSS collected information on the types of help received and provided for a long-term health condition and problems related to aging. Detailed sections cover the characteristics of family and friend caregivers, as well as those receiving formal and informal care. Links can be drawn to the broader determinants of health (such as income, education and social networks) and caregiving or care receiving status. New to this cycle is a greatly expanded look at the impacts of providing care on the caregiver’s life, including health, social, emotional, employment and financial consequences. Accessible housing is another new topic. It will, for the first time, measure the proportion of Canada’s housing stock that is accessible to individuals using a wheelchair.

The first results from the 2012 GSS were published in September 2013.

For information on data sources, methodology, products and publications, or to access the questionnaires, please consult Caregiving and Care Receiving.  

Families

The central role of the family in one’s life is indisputable. The GSS on families was first conducted in 1990 and has been repeated approximately every five years since then, most recently in 2011. The survey captures information on the structure of families through each of its cycles and uses retrospective questions to follow the historic evolution of families.  

The survey’s ability to monitor the evolution of families has grown through its cycles and its “life course perspective” approach. This approach has been seen as vitally important with the increasing diversity of today's families and their changing conjugal, family, and work trajectories.

The 2011 GSS updates most of the information collected in previous family surveys, including leaving the family home, conjugal history (marriages, common-law unions, separations and divorces), children (birth, adopted or step), maternity and parental leave, intentions to form (or re-form) a union, fertility intentions, custody and financial support agreements and work history. New content looks at organization and decision making within the household, family resiliency, couples living apart, difficulty in conceiving a child, and sterilization (last asked in 2001). Childcare arrangements modules have been remodeled.

The first results from the 2011 GSS were published in July 2012.  

For information on data sources, methodology, products and publications, or to access the questionnaire, please consult Families.

Time use

Time-use surveys collect information on all human activities and can therefore inform a broad range of policies. In particular, three key themes have been identified as necessary for informed policy making, for which no other data sources are adequate: unpaid work and non-market production; well-being; and gender equality.  Other topics covered by time use surveys include leisure time, work-life balance, health, commuting, culture and sports.

Statistics Canada has been conducting time-use surveys since 1986 at approximately five- to seven- year intervals, most recently in 2010. The GSS on time use employs a retrospective 24-hour time diary to collect information on respondents’ participation in, and time spent on, a wide variety of day-to-day activities. In addition, information is collected on the location where these activities occurred (e.g., at home, at work, etc.) and, for non-personal activities, the people who were with the respondent at the time of the activity. In addition, GSS time-use surveys also include questions on household composition, labour force status, life satisfaction, unpaid work, time perceptions and pressures, and participation in sports and cultural activities along with numerous socio economic characteristics.

For the first time in 2010, the GSS on time use included simultaneous activity questions on the Diary. These questions allow for a better understanding of multitasking, particularly in situations where passive childcare is combined with other activities (e.g., a parent cooking dinner while watching over the children).

The first results from the 2010 GSS were published in July 2011.

For information on data sources, methodology, products and publications, or to access the questionnaires, please consult Time Use

Social identity

Past cycles of this survey (social networks in 2008 and social engagement in 2003) collected information on social contacts with family, friends and neighbours; involvement in formal organizations, political activities and volunteer work; values and attitudes; and the level of trust in people and public institutions. The 2008 GSS also looked at how Canadians use their social networks to obtain support during periods of change in their lives.

The 2013 GSS was expanded to cover the broader issues of social identity and, in particular, Canadians' identification with and sense of belonging to national, ethnic, geographic and cultural groups as well as to local, regional and national institutions. Questions on shared values will reveal a portrait of identity as a common body of norms adhered to by most people. Content on engagement and participation will help understand how social integration is being built among people living in a modern, diverse society with multiple ethnicities and backgrounds. Finally, questions on social networks and norms of trust will examine the social patterns that hold society together. Data from this survey will help build national measures and support policies on the inclusion and diversity of people living in Canada.

Work on the 2013 GSS is currently under way. (Please note that the 2013 GSS has two components: Social Identity and Giving, Volunteering and Participating or GVP. For more information on GVP, see the following write-up.)

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Social Identity.

Giving, volunteering and participating

This survey provides a portrait of Canadians’ involvement in their community and their compassion towards others.  It is a key source of information on charitable giving, volunteering and participating used by government and voluntary sector organizations to inform policy and program decisions. While Statistics Canada has conducted a standalone survey on this topic approximately every 3 years since 1997 (the Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating—CSGVP), it has become part of the GSS program as of 2013.

The 2013 GSS collects information about how Canadians volunteer time; donate money and in-kind gifts to charitable and non-profit organizations; and provide direct help to others.  While the 2013 GSS covers most of the material in previous surveys, it includes new questions on topics such as online charitable giving, awareness of organizations that monitor how charities use their donations, and ways in which Canadians use the Internet to participate in groups.

The survey includes a set of modules that rotate in and out, depending on analytic priorities, to track changes over longer intervals.  The 2013 GSS, for example, includes questions last asked in 2004 about participation in groups and organizations.  Rotating modules on employer support of volunteering, skills gained from volunteering, youth experiences and attitudes, and donations for natural disaster relief that were asked in the 2010 CSGVP are not part of the 2013 GSS.  These modules will rotate back in future iterations.

Work on the 2013 GSS is currently under way.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Giving, Volunteering and Participating.

Victimization

The GSS on victimization explores the sensitive subjects of criminal victimization and spousal violence. In particular, victimization cycles ask Canadians about reported and unreported victimization, including: experiences of crime, violence and abuse by current or past spouse or partner, use of services available to help victims of abuse or crime, fear of crime, crime prevention, and social disorder and experiences of discrimination. The survey allows for the measurement of victimization rates over time by age, sex, province and other classification variables, as well as many other indicators related to victimization.

The GSS data are an important complement to administrative data on police-reported crime, as they capture information that does not come to the attention of the police and is therefore not counted in official crime rates. The survey produces estimates of the extent to which persons are the victims of eight types of offences (assault, sexual assault, robbery, theft of personal property, breaking and entering, motor vehicle theft, theft of household property and vandalism).

The 2014 GSS will keep most of the content of previous cycles including internet victimization, cyber bullying, and crime prevention. In addition, it will re-introduce questions on stalking from the 2004 survey, and include new questions on childhood victimization. Work on the 2014 GSS is currently under way.

The GSS on victimization is the only national survey of self-reported victimization which provides data for the provinces and territories. It is also the only GSS survey to conduct interviews in Canada’s north.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Victimization.

4. Discontinued GSS themes

Access to and use of information communication technology

The main theme of the 2000 GSS was access to and use of technology, specifically computers and the Internet. This was the first cycle of the GSS to collect detailed information on individual access to and use of technology. Two previous cycles, the 1989 and 1994 GSS included questions on computer use as part of the work and education focus. Since much of the work and education component was being covered by other surveys (particularly the Workplace and Employee Survey) and there was considerable interest in the social impact of technology, the 2000 GSS included a detailed focus on computer and Internet use. This survey asked Canadians about their use of computers and the Internet, the impact of technology on privacy and access to information, as well as the social cohesion of families and communities.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Access to Information Communications Technology.

Education, work and retirement

Two GSS surveys, in 1989 and 1994, covered core content on education, work and retirement. Focus content for the 1994 GSS covered transition into retirement and post-retirement activities, as well as some questions on computer use. Also included were questions to measure social mobility, a topic covered in 1986. The three main themes underlying the 1989 GSS included work and education in the service economy, new technologies and human resources, and emerging trends in education and work. A short module on knowledge and attitudes to science and technology was also covered.

For further information on data sources, methodology, products and publications or to access current or past questionnaires, please consult Education, Work and Retirement.

5. Data and product availability

GSS and analytical articles published by Statistics Canada are available to all interested parties.

Dissemination activities begin for each survey with a data availability announcement in The Daily. The Daily is Statistics Canada's official release bulletin and its first line of communication with the media and the public. The Daily issues news releases on current social and economic conditions and announces new products. It provides a comprehensive one-stop overview of new information available from Statistics Canada.

Analytical articles announced in The Daily and based on GSS data are made available to the public in various Statistics Canada publications. Past periodicals included Canadian Social Trends (CST), which carried the majority of GSS articles and Perspectives on Labour and Income that featured those with a labour or income theme. In addition, special stand-alone publications have been released to highlight particular themes. (See Appendix C for a list of selected products, and the links at the end of each survey theme for a complete list of products and publications.) Current publications carrying GSS content include Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey; Insights into Canadian Society; and Juristat (for the victimization surveys).

Custom tabulations are available on a cost recovery basis for individuals who require a specific set of data for an article or analysis.  Please contact Client Services and Dissemination at (613) 951-5979, by fax at (613) 951-0387 or by e-mail at sasd-dssea@statcan.gc.ca

Researchers wishing to undertake more in-depth analysis of their own may request a Public Use Microdata File (PUMF). A PUMF, including documentation, is produced for each GSS survey and is available, free of charge. In order to protect the confidentiality of Canadians, an extensive disclosure risk analysis takes place before the release of the PUMF. Variables with extreme values are capped, information for some variables is aggregated into broader classes and, in rare cases, certain variables are modified. CD-ROMs of the data are available in SAS, SPSS or ASCII format.

Analysts whose work necessitates access to the complete file (prior to the disclosure risk analysis performed for the PUMF) need to refer to the Analytical File produced for each GSS survey following the end of collection.  For confidentiality reasons, data from the Analytical File can only be accessed through Statistics Canada’s Research Data Centres (RDCs).  RDCs, located in secure university settings, operate under the provisions of the Statistics Act in accordance with all the confidentiality rules. They are accessible only to researchers with approved projects who have been sworn in under the Statistics Act as “deemed employees.” RDCs are located throughout the country, so researchers do not need to travel to Ottawa. Another way of accessing the Analytical file is by requesting custom tabulations from Client Services and Dissemination at (613) 951-5979, by fax at (613) 951-0387 or by e-mail at sasd-ssea@statcan.gc.ca.

For the most up-to-date information on products and services, please visit Statistics Canada’s website at www.statcan.gc.ca, and click on “browse by key resources/articles and reports.”

Appendix A
GSS topics according to series, year and cycle

Table summary
This table displays the results of topics according to series. The information is grouped by topic (appearing as row headers), 1series, 2series , 3series , 4series , 5series and 6series, calculated using year (cycle) units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Topic 1st series 2nd series 3rd series 4th series 5th series 6th series
year (cycle)
Health 1985 (1) 1991 (6) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Time use 1986 (2) 1992 (7) 1998 (12) 2005 (19) 2010 (24) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Victimization 1988 (3) 1993 (8) 1999 (13) 2004 (18) 2009 (23) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Education, work and retirement 1989 (4) 1994 (9) 2002 (16) 2007 (21) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Family 1990 (5) 1995 (10) 2001 (15) 2006 (20) 2007 (21) 2011 (25)
Social support and aging 1985 (1) 1990 (5) 1996 (11) 2002 (16) 2007 (21) 2012 (26)
Access to and use of ICT 2000 (14) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Social engagement 2003 (17) 2008 (22) 2013 (27) Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
Giving, volunteering, participating 1997Note 1 2000Note 1 2004Note 1 2007Note 1 2010Note 1 2013 (27)

Appendix B
GSS cycle numbers, collection dates and response rates

Table summary
This table displays the results of appendix b: gss cycle numbers. The information is grouped by cycle (appearing as row headers), data collection, core content, new content and response rate (appearing as column headers).
Cycle Date of collection Core content New content Response rate
26 2012 Caregiving and care receiving The consequences of caregiving 65.7
25 2011 Family Family transitions 65.8
24 2010 Time use /stress and well-being Simultaneous activities, work-life balance 55.2
23 2009 Victimization Internet victimization 61.6
22 2008 Social networks Coping with change 57.3
21 2007 Family, social support, retirement Work/family history, retirement experiences and plans 57.7
20 2006 Family history Family transitions 67.4
19 2005 Time use Social networks/trust/transportation 58.6
18 2004 Victimization Use of restraining orders, stalking and social disorder 74.5
17 2003 Social engagement Social/civic participation, trust and values 78.0
16 2002 Social support and aging Retirement planning and experience 74.5
15 2001 Family history Education history, mobility 80.9
14 2000 Technology – computer and internet Use of computers, impact of technology on privacy, access to information 80.8
13 1999 Victimization Spousal, senior abuse/perceptions 81.3
12 1998 Time use Sports participation/culture 77.6
11 1996 Social support Tobacco use 85.3
10 1995 Family Effects of tobacco smoke 81.4
9 1994 Education, work and retirement Transition into retirement 81.2
8 1993 Personal risk Alcohol and drug use 81.6
7 1992 Time use Culture, sport and unpaid work activities 76.8
6 1991 Health Various health topics 80.2
5 1990 Family and friends Relationships and interactions with family and friends 75.8
4 1989 Education and work New technologies and human resources 80.7
3 1988 Personal risk Victim services 82.4
2 1986 Time use, social mobility Language 78.9
1 1985 Health Social support 83.4

Appendix C
Selected publications using GSS data, by survey theme

Caregiving and Care receiving Table summary
This table displays the results of caregiving and care receiving catalogue information (appearing as column headers).
  Catalogue information
2007 Public Use Microdata File, Documentation and User's Guide 12M0021XVB
2007 General Social Survey: Care Tables 89-633-X
Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey 89-652-X
Portrait of Caregivers, 2012 September 2013
Insights on Canadian Society 75-006-X
Family Caregiving: What are the Consequences? January 2010
Canadian Social Trends articles 11-008-X
Caring for a Parent who Lives far Away: The Consequences January 2010
Online Activities of Canadian Boomers and Seniors August 2009
2007 General Social Survey Report: The Retirement Plans and Expectations of Older Workers Autumn 2008
2007 General Social Survey Report: The Retirement Puzzle: Sorting the Pieces Winter 2008
Eldercare: What we Know Today Autumn 2008
What Do Seniors Spend on Housing? Autumn 2005
Preparing for Retirement Autumn 2005
What Makes Retirement Enjoyable? Autumn 2005
The Sandwich Generation Summer 2005
Families Table summary
This table displays the results of families catalogue information (appearing as column headers).
  Catalogue information
2011 Public Use Microdata File, Documentation and User’s Guide 12M0025XCB
2011 General Social Survey:Overview of Families in Canada –Being a parent in a stepfamily: A profile 89-650-X
Family Structure by Region – Tables (Revised) 89-625-X
Navigating Family Transitions: Evidence from the General Social Survey 89-625-X
I Do...Take Two? Changes in Intentions to Remarry Among Divorced Canadians During the Past 20 years. 89-630-X
Do Older Canadians Have More Friends Now Than in 1990? 89-630-X
Insights on Canadian Society 75-006-X
Living apart together March 2013
Canadian Social Trends articles 11-008-X
Making Fathers “Count” June 2010
Staying at Home Longer to Become Homeowners? Winter 2007
Junior Comes Back Home: Trends and Predictors of Returning to the Parental Home Fall 2006
When is Junior Moving Out? Transitions from the Parental Home to Independence Summer 2006
Time Use Table summary
This table displays the results of time use catalogue information (appearing as column headers).
  Catalogue information
2010 Public Use Microdata File, Documentation and User’s Guide 12M0024XCB
General Social Survey - 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians 89-647-X
Canadian Social Trends articles 11-008-X
What’s Stressing the Stressed? Main Sources of Stress Among Workers October 2011
Commuting to Work: Results of the 2010 General Social Survey August 2011
Who Participates in Active Leisure? February 2009
Dependence on Cars in Urban Neighbourhoods January 2008
Kids’ Sports June 2008
Who Gets Any Sleep These Days? Sleep Patterns of Canadians April 2008
Time Escapes Me: Workaholics and Time Perception Spring 2007
Time Spent With Family During A Typical Workday, 1986 to 2005 Spring 2007
Perspectives on Labour and Income articles 75-001-X
Work-life Balance of Shift Workers August 2008
The Busy Lives of Teens May 2007
Converging Gender Roles July 2006
Other publications  
The Time it Takes to Get to Work and Back 89-622-X
The Internet: Is it Changing the Way Canadians Spend their Time? 56F0004MWE
How Do Teenagers Spend their Days? 89-630-X
Are Women Spending More Time on Unpaid Domestic Work than Men in Canada? 89-630-X
Social Identity Table summary
This table displays the results of social identity catalogue information (appearing as column headers).
  Catalogue information
2008 Public Use Microdata File, Documentation and User’s Guide 12M0022X
2008 General Social Survey: Selected Tables on Social Engagement 89-640-X
Canadian Social Trends articles 11-008-X
2008 General Social Survey Report: Social Networks Help Canadians Deal with Major Change June 2009
Canadians and their Non-Voting Political Activity Summer 2007
Keeping Up with the Times: Canadians and Their News Diet Summer 2007
Young Adults who Give and Receive Help Spring 2006
Taking Charge: Perceptions of Control Over Life Chances Summer 2006
Willing to Participate: Political Engagement of Young Adults Winter 2005
Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin articles 21-006-X
The Influence of Education on Civic Engagement: Differences Across Canada’s Rural-Urban Spectrum July 2006
Social Engagement and Civic Participation: Are Rural and Small Town Populations Really at an Advantage? June 2005
Connectedness Series articles  
How Canadians’ Use of the Internet Affects Social Life and Civic Participation 56F0004MWE
Victimization Table summary
This table displays the results of victimization catalogue information (appearing as column headers).
  Catalogue information
2009 Public Use Microdata File, Documentation and User’s Guide 12M0023XCB
Juristat articles 85-002-X
Payment Patterns of Child and Spousal Support, 2009 April 2013
Victimization of Older Canadians, 2009 March 2012
Criminal Victimization in the Territories, 2009 January 2012
Canadians' Perceptions of Personal Safety and Crime, 2009 Decemeber 2011
Self-reported Internet Victimization in Canada, 2009 September 2011
Police-reported Hate crime in Canada, 2009 June 2011
Violent Victimization of Aboriginal Women in the Canadian Provinces, 2009 May 2011
Violent Victimization of Aboriginal people in the Canadian Provinces, 2009 March 2011
Criminal Victimization in Canada, 2009 Summer 2010
Other publications  
Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile, 2009 85-224-X
Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical trends, 2009 85-570-X
Canadian Social Trends articles 11-008-X
Precautions to Take to Avoid Victimization: A Gender Perspective March 2010
Court Referrals for a Group of Youth and Young Adults August 2006
Access to and Use of Information Communication Technology Table summary
This table displays the results of access to and use of information communication technology catalogue information (appearing as column headers).
  Catalogue information
2000 Public Use Microdata File 12M0014XCB
2000 Public Use Microdata File – Documentation and User’s Guide 12M0014GPE
Changing Our Ways: Why and How Canadians Use the Internet 56F0006X
Overview: Access to and Use of Information Communications Technology 56-505-X
Perspectives on Labour and Income articles 75-001-X
Working with Computers May 2001
Evolution of the Canadian Workplace: Work from Home Septemeber 2001
Canadian Social Trends articles 11-008-X
Stress at Work Autumn 2003
I Still Feel Overqualified for my Job Winter 2002
Health Information on the Net Autumn 2002
Vox Populi: Canadians Who Speak Up Autumn 2002
Better Things to Do or Dealt out of the Game? Internet Dropouts and Infrequent Users. Summer 2002
Learning Computer Skills Spring 2002
Kids and Teens on the Net Autumn 2001
Connected to the Internet, Still Connected to Life? Winter 2001
Older Surfers Winter 2001
Wired Young Canadians Winter 2001
Education, Work and Retirement Table summary
This table displays the results of education catalogue information (appearing as column headers).
  Catalogue information
1994 Public Use Microdata File, Documentation and User’s Guide 12M0009XDB
Canada’s Changing Retirement Patterns: Findings from the General Social Survey 89-546-X
Quality of Work in the Service Sector (GSS Analysis Series) 11-612-MPE, no.6
Human Resource Challenges of Education, Computers and Retirement (GSS Analysis Series) 11-612-MPE, no.7
Canadian Social Trends articles 11-008-X
The Impact of Family Structure on High School Completion Spring 1998
“I Feel Overqualified for My Job...” Winter 1997
Everyday Technology: Are Canadians Using It? Autumn 1997
Retirement in the 90s: Going Back to Work Autumn 1996
Retirement in the 90s: Retired Men in Canada Autumn 1996
Preparing for the Information Highway: Information Technology in Canadian Households Autumn 1995

Notes

  1. GSS Cycles 16 and 21 on social support and aging only included respondents aged 45 and over.
  2. In response to requests from territorial justice departments, GSS Cycle 23 on victimization was also carried out in Canada’s territories in 2009 and will be carried out again in 2014.
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