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- Census family
- Census farm
- Class of worker
- Economic family
- Farm operators
- Farm population
- Farm type
- Highest certificate, diploma or degree
- Labour force
- Major source of income
- Mother tongue
- Net farm income
- Net non-farm self-employment income
- Non-farm population
- Rural farm population
- Rural population
- Sources of income
- Total income
- Urban farm population
- Urban population
A Census family refers to a married couple (with or without children of either or both spouses), a couple living common-law (with or without children of either or both partners) or a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one child living in the same dwelling. A couple living common-law may be of opposite or same sex. "Children" in a census family include grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present.
The definition of a census farm has not remained constant over the years. Changes in this definition since 1921 are summarized below. These changes do affect the comparability of the data among censuses.
Since 1996, a census farm has been defined as an agricultural operation that produces at least one of the following products intended for sale: crops (hay, field crops, tree fruits or nuts, berries or grapes, vegetables, seed); livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, game animals, other livestock); poultry (hens, chickens, turkeys, chicks, game birds, other poultry); animal products (milk or cream, eggs, wool, furs, meat); or other agricultural products (Christmas trees, greenhouse or nursery products, mushrooms, sod, honey, maple syrup products).
The 1996 definition of a census farm was expanded from the definition used in 1991 to include commercial poultry hatcheries and operations that produced only Christmas trees. In 1996, this expanded definition resulted in the inclusion of 138 commercial poultry hatcheries and 1,593 operations across Canada that produced only Christmas trees. In all other respects, the 1996 definition was the same as the 1991 definition.
For the 1981 and 1986 Censuses, a census farm was defined as a farm, ranch or other agricultural holding with sales of agricultural products of $250 or more during the previous 12 months. Agricultural holdings that anticipated sales of $250 or more in the census year were also included.
For the 1976 Census, a census farm was defined as a farm, ranch or other agricultural holding of one acre or over with sales of agricultural products of $1,200 or more during 1975. However, the basic unit for which a questionnaire was collected was termed an agricultural holding. This term was defined as a farm, ranch or other agricultural holding of one acre or over with sales of agricultural products of $50 or more during the 12-month period prior to the census. At head office, the questionnaires were divided into census farms and small agricultural holdings. Small agricultural holdings were those remaining after the census farms had been removed. For data comparability purposes, all published 1976 Census data has been tabulated according to the agriculture holding definition (i.e., with sales of agricultural products of $50 or more during the 12 months prior to the census) and not according to the census farm definition.
For the 1961, 1966 and 1971 Censuses, a census farm was defined as a farm, ranch or other agricultural holding of one acre or over with sales of agricultural products of $50 or more during the 12-month period prior to the census.
For the 1951 and 1956 Censuses, a census farm was defined as a holding on which agricultural operations were carried out and that was (a) three acres or more in size, or (b) from one to three acres in size, with agricultural production in the year prior to the census valued at $250 or more.
The 1931 and 1941 Censuses defined a census farm as a holding of one acre or more that produced, in the year prior to the census, agricultural products valued at $50 or more, or that was under crops of any kind or used for pasturing in the census year.
The 1921 Census defined a census farm as a holding of one acre or over that produced, in 1920, crops of any kind valued at $50 or more.
This variable classifies persons who reported a job into the following categories:
- persons who worked mainly for wages, salaries, commissions, tips, piece-rates, or payments 'in kind' (payments in goods or services rather than money);
- persons who worked mainly for themselves, with or without paid help, operating a business, farm or professional practice, alone or in partnership;
- persons who worked without pay in a family business, farm or professional practice owned or operated by a related household member; unpaid family work does not include unpaid housework, unpaid childcare, unpaid care to seniors and volunteer work.
The job reported was the one held in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration (May 15, 2001 and May 16, 2006) if the person was employed, or the job of longest duration since January 1 2000 and January 1, 2005, if the person was not employed during the reference week. Persons with two or more jobs in the reference week were asked to provide information for the job at which they worked the most hours.
Refers to a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law or adoption. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. For 2006, foster children are included.
Prior to the 1991 Census of Agriculture, a farm operator referred to only one person responsible for the day-to-day decisions made in running an agricultural operation. Since 1991 up to three farm operators could be reported per farm.
Prior to 2006 "farm operators" has been defined as those persons responsible for the day-to-day management decisions made in the operation of a census farm or agricultural operation. In 2006 the definition for "farm operators" removed the reference to "day-to-day", asking only for each person responsible for the management decisions made for the operation.
The definition of the farm population has not remained constant over the years. Changes in this definition since 1931 are summarized below. These changes do affect the comparability of the data among censuses.
In 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006, the farm population included all persons living in rural or urban areas who were members of the households of farm operators who had lived on their farms for any length of time during the 12-month period prior to the census. Prior to 1991, only one farm operator was reported per farm. Since 1991, up to three farm operators could be reported per farm. Because of this change, the 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006 farm population counts included all members of the households of second and third operators who had lived on their farms for any length of time during the 12 months prior to the census. It should be noted, however, that most second and third operators of farms (usually a spouse or a child) resided in the same household as the first operator and would most likely have been included in the farm population under the previous method of reporting.
In 1951, 1956, 1961, 1966, 1971 and 1976, the farm population included all persons, regardless of their occupation, living in dwellings situated on farms located in rural or urban areas.
In 1931 and 1941, the farm population included all persons living on farms located in rural or urban areas. The respondent was required to report the total number of persons living on the farm.
Farm typing is a procedure that classifies each census farm according to the predominant type of production. This is done by estimating the potential receipts from the inventories of crops and livestock reported on the questionnaire and determining the product or group of products that make up the majority of the estimated receipts. For example, a census farm with total potential receipts of 60% from hogs, 20% from beef cattle and 20% from wheat, would be classified as a hog farm. Changes in farm type can reflect a shift in farming activity but could also be influenced by changing commodity prices.
The farm type is based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) farm-typing categories. NAICS is revised periodically. The 2001 farm-type data were derived using NAICS 1997 and 2006 farm-type data were derived using NAICS 2002. Both classifications are the same for the Canadian agriculture industry, making the data from the two reference years directly comparable.
NAICS was created against the background of the North American Free Trade Agreement. It is designed to provide common definitions of the industrial structure of the three countries (the United States, Canada and Mexico) and a common statistical framework to facilitate analysis of the three economies.
Information indicating the person's most advanced certificate, diploma or degree.
This is a derived variable obtained from the educational qualifications questions, which asked for all certificates, diplomas and degrees to be reported. There is an implied hierarchy in this variable (secondary school graduation, registered apprenticeship and trades, college, university) which is loosely tied to the 'in-class' duration of the various types of education. However, at the detailed level a registered apprenticeship graduate may not have completed a secondary school certificate or diploma, nor does an individual with a master's degree necessarily have a certificate or diploma above the bachelor's degree level. Therefore, although the sequence is more or less hierarchical, it is a general rather than an absolute gradient measure of academic achievement.
Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. It may consist of a family group (census family) with or without other persons, of two or more families sharing a dwelling, of a group of unrelated persons, or of one person living alone. Household members who are temporarily absent on Census Day (e.g., temporary residents elsewhere) are considered as part of their usual household. For census purposes, every person is a member of one and only one household. Unless otherwise specified, all data in household reports are for private households only.
Households are classified into three groups: private households, collective households and households outside Canada.
In order to be included in the tables in this publication, at least one member of the household must be a farm operator.
Refers to persons who were either employed or unemployed during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001 and May 16, 2006).
Labour force = Employed + Unemployed
Persons who, during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001 and May 16, 2006):
- did any work at all for pay or in self-employment or without pay in a family farm, business or professional practice
- were absent from their job or business, with or without pay, for the entire week because of a vacation, an illness, a labour dispute at their place of work, or any other reasons.
Persons who, during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001 and May 16, 2006), were without paid work or without self-employment work and were available for work and either:
- had actively looked for paid work in the past four weeks; or
- were on temporary lay-off and expected to return to their job; or
- had definite arrangements to start a new job in four weeks or less.
Refers to that income source, or group of sources, that makes up the largest proportion of an individual's total income.
Refers to that component which constitutes the largest proportion of an income recipient's total income. Various combinations of income sources can be used to derive this classification. For example, at the most detailed level, the income sources are combined into five components: wages and salaries, self-employment income (farm and non-farm), government transfer payments, investment income, and other income. The absolute values for these components are compared and the largest one is designated as the major source of income.
Refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual at the time of the census.
Net income earned by working for oneself (self-employment) as an owner/operator of his/her farm.
Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2005 or 2000 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2005 or 2000, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the Net Income Stabilization Account (NISA). The value of income 'in kind', such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.
Net income earned by working for oneself (self-employment) as an owner/operator of his/her non-farm business.
Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2005 or 2000 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.
Refers to all persons not included in the farm population.
Refers to the kind of work a farm operator reports as the main activity of their job in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration (May 15, 2001 and May 16, 2006). The questionnaire provides the following instruction: "If this person held more than one job last week, answer for the job at which he/she worked the most hours". As such, farm operators can only report one occupation, even if they have another job in addition to farming. Therefore, not all operators will report farming as their occupation. Also if operators report being "retired" from non-farming occupations but are still operating a farm an occupation is imputed.
For purposes of the tables in this publication all occupations for farm operators are grouped into three occupational groups: "farmer or farm manager"; "other agricultural occupations" such as farm worker, supervisor, greenhouse worker, etc.; and "non-agricultural occupations" such as truck driver, clerk, public servant, etc.
The 2006 Census occupation data are classified according to the National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 (NOC-S 2006).
Refers to all persons living in rural areas who are members of the households of farm operators living on their census farms for any length of time during the 12-month period prior to the census.
Prior to 1991, only one farm operator was reported per census farm. Since 1991, up to three farm operators could be reported per census farm. Because of this change, the rural farm population count now includes all persons living in rural areas on a census farm and in the households of the first, second and third operators; before 1991, the rural farm population count included all persons living in rural areas on a census farm and in the household of the first operator. It should be noted that most of the second and third operators (usually a spouse or a child) of census farms reside in the same household as the first operator and would most likely have been included in the rural farm population under the previous method of reporting.
Prior to the 1981 Census, the rural farm population was defined as all persons living in rural areas in dwellings situated on census farms.
Rural areas include all territory lying outside urban areas. Taken together, urban and rural areas cover all of Canada.
Rural population includes all population living in the rural fringes of census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and census agglomerations (CAs) , as well as population living in rural areas outside CMAs and CAs.
The rural area of Canada is the area that remains after the delineation of urban areas which have been delineated using current census population data. Taken together, urban and rural areas cover all of Canada.
Within rural areas, population densities and living conditions can vary greatly. Included in rural areas are:
- small towns, villages and other populated places with less than 1,000 population according to the current census
- rural fringes of census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations that may contain estate lots, as well as agricultural, undeveloped and non-developable lands
- agricultural lands
- remote and wilderness areas.
Urban and rural areas may be used as variables to cross-classify census data for standard geographic areas such as census subdivisions, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, or census metropolitan area and census agglomeration influenced zones (MIZ).
In order to facilitate the tabulation of income data by source, the components of income have been grouped into these major sources of income:
- Net farm income - The definition of this term is presented above as a separate entry.
- Wages and salaries - Income earned by working for a wage, a salary, tips and/or commissions.
- Non-farm self-employment income - The definition of this term is presented above as a separate entry under "Net non-farm self-employment income".
- Investment income - This source includes investment income such as dividends, interest and other investment income.
- Zero income or negative income - Zero income or negative income occurs when the operating expenses plus capital allowance for a self-employed business are equal to (zero) or greater than (negative income) the gross receipts of the business.
- Other sources of income - This source includes: government sources such as Canada Child Tax benefits, Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan, benefits from Employment Insurance and other income from government sources; other income such as retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, and other money income.
Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income.
Refers to the total money income received from the following sources during calendar year 2005 or 2000 by persons 15 years of age and over:
- wages and salaries (total)
- net farm income
- net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice
- Child benefits
- Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement
- benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan
- benefits from Employment Insurance
- other income from government sources
- dividends, interest on bonds, deposits and savings certificates, and other investment income
- retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from RRSPs and RRIFs
- other money income.
The total income of a household is the sum of the incomes received during the calendar year 2005 or 2000 by all members of the household. Households included in this product are those in which at least one member was a farm operator. Similarly the census family or economic family total income is the sum of the total incomes for all census family or economic family members.
Refers to all persons living in urban areas who are members of the households of farm operators living on their census farms for any length of time during the 12-month period prior to the census.
Area with a population of at least 1,000 and no fewer than 400 persons per square kilometre.
An urban area has a minimum population concentration of 1,000 persons and a population density of at least 400 persons per square kilometre, based on the current census population count. All territory outside urban areas is classified as rural. Taken together, urban and rural areas cover all of Canada.
Urban population includes all population living in the urban cores, secondary urban cores and urban fringes of census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and census agglomerations (CAs), as well as the population living in urban areas outside CMAs and CAs.
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