Transcript of the chat session on 2016 Census: Income data, which occurred on Friday, September 15, 2017 from 12:30 p.m. to 1:30 p.m. EST

Note: This was a bilingual chat session, which means that the participants were able to submit their questions in English or French. Statistics Canada respects the Official Languages Act and is committed to ensuring that information products of equal quality are available in both English and French. For that reason, all the questions and answers have been translated in the other official language.

 Moderator at 12:27:31
Welcome everyone! This is a bilingual chat session, which means that you can submit your questions in English or French. Our experts will respond in a timely manner and in the official language in which the question was asked.

 bdavies01 at 12:31:15
What inflation rate does Statistics Canada use when comparing 2015 income data to 2005 income data?

 Nell Hamalainen at 12:35:15
Hi bdavies01,
Thank you for your question. We use the all-items Consumer Price Index.

 gilliankerr at 12:31:51
Hello, thanks for this session. Do you provide median income for various demographic groups and if so, which demographics and at what geographical level?

 Brian Murphy at 12:37:46
Hello @gilliankerr. There will be further tables published on October 25 and November 29. These will present statistics by various socio-demographic characteristics as supplied by the respondents to the long-form questionnaire.

 seanhorne at 12:31:22
We know what the linkage rates are from the documentation supplied at the lock up, but do we know what tax filing rates are for various communities/CSD's etc?

 Tahsin Mehdi at 12:38:43
Hi @seanhorne, thanks for your question. We do not publish tax filing rates for different levels of geography. However, we do have flags indicating the quality of our data by geographic region.

 KARINE at 12:32:00
Hi, Just wondering how comparable is the 2016 income data with the previous NHS data? Especially for smaller geographies (for example at the CSD level)? We are looking at it for specifically low-income areas.

 Brian Murphy at 12:39:23
Hi KARINE, thank you for your question.
Due to variations in the methodology of the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), some estimates from the voluntary survey were considered, less directly comparable to estimates from the 2006 Census. For example, as indicated in the 2011 NHS Income Reference Guide, growth in median wages and salaries between 2005 and 2010 was higher than in other sources. As well, low-income rates also showed higher growth than the trends observed in other sources.
For the 2016 Census, it is recommended to contrast, where possible, the income estimates to comparable data from the 2006 Census to avoid potential impacts of the different methodology employed in 2011. For this reason, the focus of historical comparisons on levels and growth in standard tables and day-of-release analysis will be between the 2005 and 2015 income periods.

 ChrisFerris at 12:36:46
Can the relevant NAIC code numbers and/or NOC code numbers be included in the csv files when you download the entire data file?

 Nell Hamalainen at 12:42:50
Hi ChrisFerris,
Thank you for your question. Information on industry and occupation will be available with the labour release on November 29, 2017.

 JKolkman at 12:32:08
If the rationale for excluding on-reserve First Nations people is used to exclude them for the low income concepts, why are they included in all the other income concepts?

 Xuelin Zhang at 12:43:23
Hi @Jkolkman, thank you for your question. As in previous censuses, the low-income statistics we used in the 2016 Census exclude reserves and the territories. We are reviewing and studying the relevant issues currently and we will share the findings of our research with the public.

 Barbara McMillan at 12:32:19
Is it possible to obtain figures for the number of people claiming disability tax credits in a census subdivision, eg. West Vancouver, also Burnaby?

 Tahsin Mehdi at 12:43:35
Hi @Barbara McMillan, thank you for your question. Currently, we do not have information on the number of people claiming disability tax credits on the census.

 andreapino at 12:39:34
Would it be possible to cross the income data with the Immigration and ethnocultural diversity that comes out next month?

 Nell Hamalainen at 12:45:56
Hi andreapino,
Income data by immigration and ethnocultural diversity will be made available with the October 25 release (Immigration and ethnocultural diversity).

 mihadinca at 12:35:36
Thanks for this session! Do you provide mean income - when and what levels of geographies. Will it be t publicly available?

 Brian Murphy at 12:47:21
Hi mihadinca, thanks for your question.
Mean income and aggregate income are not available with this release for confidentiality purposes. Averages and aggregates will be available on October 25th, when we release income data with the long form data. The data will be available for Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan areas, Census Agglomerations, Census Divisions and Census Sub divisions, as well as census tracts.

 sarahhobson at 12:32:56
Good Afternoon! How are low-income Canadians determined? For instance, given LIM-AT, which median income was used to determine low income Canadians? Did you identify low-income households or low-income Canadians first? Is it possible to have customized tables of number/distribution of low income household for different family sizes, various geography classifications (FP, CD and CSD) categorized by both LIM and LICO? Thanks!

 Xuelin Zhang at 12:49:46
Hi @sarahhobson, thanks for your question. For the LIM-AT, the median income of households (off-reserve and in provinces only) is used. The low income indicator is defined at the household level and then applied to individuals. All persons in a household are either in or out of low income. It is possible to get customised tables for different household sizes and for different geographies. I think that a table of low income by household size is coming with a future census release, but you can check with infostats@canada.ca.

 anitakhann at 12:36:24
Hello - what equivalence scale was used to calculate the LIM AT for the census data?

 Brian Murphy at 12:50:34
Hi anitakhan,
We used the square root of household size as the equivalence scale for calculating the Low-Income Measure after tax on the census.

 Heath Priston at 12:34:17
One last question from me: Can you shed some light on the decision to include LICO-AT data in the profile? Are there any plans to update the 1992 expenditure base? (In the past I have found that the LIM and LICO, despite their very different methods, have by and large produced similar results in the NHS and recent Census data for Toronto, but this was not the case with this Census.) Thanks!

 Tahsin Mehdi at 12:51:43
Hi @Heath Priston, that's a great question. Multiple low-income lines can offer different perspectives. This is why we included the LICO measures in the data profile in addition to the LIM. We currently do not have any plans to update the 1992 expenditure base.

 oussama at 12:34:09
Hello, thank you for the chat. For Quebec, how does employment share in the manufacturing sector affect median income? Since jobs in the manufacturing sector pay less, a greater increase in median income was expected, which was not the case!Many thanks,

 Nell Hamalainen at 12:52:44
Hello, it's a pleasure. It is difficult to get a clear idea of the impact. When someone loses their job, they could have income for only part of the year (which would be lower). These partial years of activity are very difficult to determine without labour market information (to be published on November 29).

 anitakhann at 12:34:54
Hello - thanks for the invitation and for hosting. What equivalence scale was used to calculate the LIM-AT for the census data release on income?

 Tahsin Mehdi at 12:54:34
Hi @anitakhann, the equivalence scale that was used to calculate the LIM-AT was the square root of the household size.

 jwross at 12:33:12
Can you tell me or provide the proportion of population in low-income households by year of age? (% low-income by year of age). reference: proportion of population in low-income households infographic. thank you kindly

 Xuelin Zhang at 12:54:57
Hi @jwross, thank you for your question. Through the Infographic you can see what the picture looks like. Generally, the low-income rate was high for children, young adults, pre-retirees and older seniors. The exact rate at each year of age was not published, but the data can be provided to you upon request later.

 Moderator at 12:52:18
Our experts are working hard to answer your questions. Thank you for your patience!

 Shpir at 12:42:14
Hello, I understand that income statistics have been released for levels of geography and demographic groups. If one is interested in a custom table that includes individual income statistics by level of education, is that currently available?

 Moderator at 12:55:31
Shpir, thank you for your question. This question is not relevant to the topic of this chat. This information will be realeased on November 29 with the 2016 Census release on Education, Labour, Journey to work, Language of work and Mobility and migration.

 Eric Mourant at 12:31:12
I would like to know the residence locations of people working in Moncton, Riverview and Dieppe, New Brunswick. Thank you. Eric

 Moderator at 12:59:12
@EricMourant, thank you for your question. Unfortunately, this question is not relevant to the topic of this chat.

 james.y.lee@ont... at 12:44:52
Hello, thank you first of all for holding this session. We were wondering if there is any further/more detailed information as to why First Nations low income number/data (LIM-AT) is not available. We recognize the caveat that you included on the webpage, but we were just looking for any additional information/rationale on why there is no LIM-AT data for First Nations. Also, since this data is not available for First Nations, do you have any similar low-income measure for First Nations as we are looking for similar data for CSDs and First Nations. Thank you.

 Xuelin Zhang at 13:00:31
Hi @james.y.lee, thank you for your interest. As in previous census releases, the low-income statistics we used in the 2016 Census exclude reserves and the territories. We are studying the relevant issues currently and we will share the findings of our research with the public.

 Stephanie.Quigg at 12:43:50
I am looking for Median income of seniors by couples and singles by province. I have tried to use Source: Statistics Canada - 2016 Census. Catalogue Number 98-400-X2016129. Economic Family After-tax Income Groups (21) in Constant (2015) Dollars, Economic Family Structure (9), Family Size of Economic Family (5), Ages of Economic Family Members (18), Number of Earners in the Economic Family (6) and Year (2) for the Economic Families in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data and 2016 Census - 100% Data I find this data table confusing with the Economic families by number of persons aged 0 to 5, 0 to 17 and 65 and over dropdown. Is there a data table that can provide income data for seniors by province and family structure in a simple roll-up?

 Brian Murphy at 13:01:51
Hello Stephanie.Quigg, thanks for your question. I am sorry this table does not meet your needs. We do not currently have a simpler table as you have described. Maybe the table below for couples would answer some aspects of your question. Distribution of Income Between Married Spouses or Common-law Partners (47) and Characteristics of Couples (19) for Married Spouses or Common-law Partners in Private Households

 seanhorne at 12:42:38
Is there any data for future custom tabulations- beyond what was in the income release- on specific tax credits? (e.g., home repairs, home purchase, etc.)

 Tahsin Mehdi at 13:02:14
Hi @seanhorne, at this time we do not have such data available from the census.

 iivanova at 12:43:27
Thanks for hosting this chat session! I have a couple of questions about measuring low income. 1. What are the thresholds for the LIM-AT and LIM-BT in the 2015 Census dataset? What about 2005? 2. Have you thought about calculating provincial LIMs? The costs of living -- in particular housing -- vary dramatically across the county and using a national LIM threshold tells us very little about the purchasing power of families across the country. For example, a renter with income at the national LIM in Montreal can afford much higher quality of life than in Vancouver CMA. Easily available regional LIMs would be much more useful For the purposes of developing and evaluation social policy in Canada. Thank you.

 Brian Murphy at 13:03:26
Hi iivanova,
Thanks for your question.
The LIM-AT and LIM-BT thresholds for 2015 can be found at this link. The LIM-AT threshold for 2005 was $19,510 in 2015 dollars. We will have to get back to you with the 2005 LIM-BT threshold. Statistics Canada is constantly evaluating and improving its low income measurement program and we are considering both regional and fixed thresholds.

 Shared Custody at 12:30:51
Why has the relevance of shared custody not been captured by Statistics Canada [and its applicability to stepfamilies]? It is an important statistic, as it has financial/income implications for a payor custodial parent, especially when the recipient parent has repartnered. In the 2011 StatCan Census Data [Publication 89-650-X]: General Social Survey – "Overview of Families in Canada", Statistics Canada looked at the relevance of "Being a parent in a stepfamily". This data revealed that 12.6% of all Canadian families were stepfamilies, and that the division of "simple" stepfamilies vs. "complex" step-families were relatively comparable [49% vs 51%]. In the 2016 Census data, "simple" step-families grew by over 45,000 families and "complex" step-families only grew by over 8,000. The reason this becomes statistically relevant is the sharing of household expenses, and how that could/should assist in determining child support outcomes in shared custody dynamics. The 2011 publication revealed that step-family parents slightly outnumbered the number of lone-parents, and the 2016 data showed that there has been a tremendous increase in lone parent males [of a shared/joint custody dynamic] vs lone-parent females; and 96% of child support recipients are female. Here is where it becomes more important. Statistics Canada reported in 2011 that stepfamily parents and intact-family parents have similar income, with 41% reporting incomes of $100,000 or more. 81% of all stepfamilies surveyed, reported they were the recipients of support, including child support from their ex-spouses; keeping in mind that 96% of all child support recipients are female. However, child support is typically not captured as additional income. In 2007, the Federal Govt., via the Canada Revenue Agency, introduced ss. 118(5.1) of the Income Tax Act, a particular provision for shared custody where one of either party could make eligible dependant claims against their child; unless the payor of child support [using the "set-off" method], was using a statutory scheme – Federal or Provincial Child Support Guidelines]. Thereby really only allowing the recipient parent to make that claim; with one exception, a new partner or spouse of the recipient parent could also make that claim as they would also not be considered responsible for child support of the same child [especially if they had the higher household income]. Supreme Court of Canada "Shared Custody" case law [Contino v. Leonelli-Contino, [2005] 3 SCR 217, 2005 SCC 63 (CanLII)], mandated an entirely different approach to shared custody child support using three particular factors [with equal weight], which Canadian Family Legal Experts suggest is not being done anywhere in Canada, despite imperative language in the Guidelines [since 1997] that imply courts have no alternative but to use this methodology. The reason being, is that shared custody child support is intended to reflect similar standards of living as a child transfers from one household to the other [Contino, at paras 33, 51 and 68]; yet a new partner and/or spouse's income and/or contribution to off-setting household costs is never considered in a child support outcome of a shared custody dynamic. In 2011, the Dept. of Justice reported that Shared Custody represents [at the very least], 13% of all families in Canada; however 2016 Stats Can Census data would suggest it is rapidly growing, as is the Common Law family – which has different implications – Provincial legislation vs Federal. Knowing all the information above, does Stats Can see this as relevant statistics to capture, as the implications on Canadian payor parents of a shared custody dynamic could be tremendous. If so, what recommendations would you suggest you would be willing to make, and when?

 Moderator at 13:04:29
Thank you for your question. While this important question is related to income, custody is more of a family concept. We invite you to visit our web page on the 2021 Census consultation to discuss this topic.

 kathyvandergrift at 12:33:49
With regard to child poverty, can you answer the following: 1. Evidence to show the impact of the Canada Children's Benefit to reduce child poverty. Government websites said it would reduce child poverty by 40%, but this survey seems to indicate otherwise. 2. Can you explain why child poverty rate is higher than rate for whole population? (low income rate) 3. Is LIM now going to be used to measure child poverty by government, e.g. used in this report.?

 Xuelin Zhang at 13:04:52
Hi @kathyvandergrift, The new Child Benefit came into effect in mid-2016, while this release refers to income as received in 2015. As such, the information could be used to see the situation before the new policy came in. Or, researchers could use the detailed information from the census to model estimated effects.
Many of the covariates, such as educational attainment, occupation and work status of parents will be coming in future releases. These will be helpful to shape an answer to your question in the future.
Statistics Canada presently produces multiple low-income rates, and these are all used by the government to study child low income. Statistics Canada currently features LIM as its highlight indicator in its communications. This is because it is easy to understand, communicate and is widely accepted in the international community.

 ChrisFerris at 12:43:13
thank you Nell.

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:05:39
You are welcome.

 Heath Priston at 12:30:50
Hi! Thanks for hosting this event. I was interested to see that StatCan released data comparing incomes and persons in low income between the 2005 and 2015 census years, but only at high levels of geography. Given the differing collection methods between the two censuses (20% sample large self reported vs. 100% administrative), what would would your advice be about how well this comparison might hold up for smaller geographies -- CD/CSDs and Census tracts in particular?

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:06:03
Hi Heath Priston,
Thank you for your question. We conducted extensive quality checks on the data and feel confident that they can be compared to estimates from 2005 even at lower levels of geography. This would only be a valid comparison when the concepts and geography align with those used in 2016. In the 2005 estimates that we have re-published, we have applied the 2016 geographies to ensure geographic comparability. In 2006 there was some sampling variability because of the long-form sample.

 Stephanie.Quigg at 12:45:41
The term 'Census family composition' is discontinued for the 2016 Census. Can you explain this?

 lassad.damak@me... at 12:38:51
Did you compare income between the service sector and the goods sector? Knowing that jobs in manufacturing are being lost and jobs in services are being gained, what will be the impact on median income?

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:07:43
More extensive analyses can be done with the data broken down by industry, which will be published on November 29.

 ChrisFerris at 12:35:33
Is the income data organized at a CMA level as well as at a Provincial and National level?

 Brian Murphy at 13:13:03
Yes, we have highlight tables and various other data tables that present the data for CMAs.

 lassad.damak@me... at 12:31:59
Hello Question: Link between income and industrial structure you say: "Median income growth was slowest in Ontario and Quebec, the two provinces with the largest populations and significant manufacturing activity." When jobs are lost in manufacturing, you have to expect incomes to increase because manufacturing incomes are not high!

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:14:02
Hello, thank you for participating. We are pleased to see alternative interpretations of these data and we hope that subsequent releases on the industries will examine certain assumptions. When someone loses their job, it is possible that they receive lower income for only part of the year.

 Barbara McMillan at 12:53:08
If I wanted to compare change over time in the poverty rate in a census subdivision, in the interests of accuracy, should I be comparing the new figures to 2005 or 2010?

 Tahsin Mehdi at 13:14:56
Hi @Barbara McMillan, thank you for your question. Statistics Canada does not measure poverty. However, we do measure low income. In the 2016 Census, income estimates were compared to 2005 estimates where possible. The 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) used different methodologies than the current census, so comparisons of income estimates, including low-income estimates, between the current census and the 2011 NHS should be made with caution.

 Andrew Taylor at 12:36:01
Hello: Thanks for the session! I see the information is available at the town level (5,000+) - is it available at the Economic Development region for each of the Provinces?

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:15:28
Hi Taylor,
Thank you for your question. Income information is available for economic regions.

 oussama at 12:48:17
hi, thanks for the event. i Wonder how the loss of jobs in the manifactory industry affect the median income, like in Québec and Ontario. Also, we expect higher variation of the median income due to loosing low income jobs in the manifactory industry, but it wasn't the case!! How we can explain that.! Is it due to the less variabilty of the median and its less sensibilty to the extremes values? Thanks

 Brian Murphy at 13:16:25
Hi oussama,
Thank you for your question.
The household median income can rise and fall for a number of reasons. The economy and employment are important influences and this can be seen in the low growth or decline in many cities hit hard by manufacturing losses. However, other influences can moderate or exacerbate the employment impacts, including population aging, changing household structure, investment income returns, and changes in government transfers. You are correct in noting that the median is not sensitive to changes at the top end of the distribution.

 Stephanie.Quigg at 13:11:40
Income data is provided for 2005 and 2015 in many of the data sets – why is data not provided for the last census (2010 income data)?

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:17:07
Hi @Stephanie.Quigg,
Thank you for your question.
Due to variations in the methodology of the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), some estimates from the voluntary survey were considered less directly comparable to estimates from the 2006 Census. For example, as indicated in the 2011 NHS Income Reference Guide, growth in median wages and salaries between 2005 and 2010 was higher than in other sources. As well, low-income rates also showed higher growth than the trends observed in other sources.
For the 2016 Census, it is recommended to contrast, where possible, the income estimates to comparable data from the 2006 Census to avoid potential impacts of the different methodology employed in 2011. For this reason, the focus of historical comparisons on levels and growth in standard tables and day-of-release analysis was between the 2005 and 2015 income periods.

 JKolkman at 12:46:40
A follow up question. Then why are on-reserve First Nations people included in the T1FF low income data? In provinces with large on-reserve populations the exclusion from the Census data is significant. For example in Saskatchewan for 2015, census data says there are 41,010 low income children (0 to 17 years) whereas the T1FF data for the same year says there are 64,290 low income children.

 Xuelin Zhang at 13:17:49
Hi @JKolkman. The T1FF data are based upon postal code geography, and as such it is not possible to exclude particular areas with the same precision as in the census.
Also, T1FF low-income rates are based upon a different methodology. T1FF organizes families by census family - a smaller unit of analysis than the household. Thus, lower income persons who are attached to a household, but not a census family (think about a grandmother living with her children and grandchildren) are treated as a separate unit in T1FF, leading to higher low income. There are other methodological differences as well.
I think that these diffferences are also important in understanding the differences between T1FF and the census.

 jwross at 13:00:28
Xuelin Zhang thank you for your reply to my question "Can you tell me or provide the proportion of population in low-income households by year of age? (% low-income by year of age)" What should I do so you can provide me the data later? email perhaps? Basically, I'd like the percentage for each of the bars corresponding to age that show up on the infograph so I can answer..."x% of y year olds are low-income" thank you kindly

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:23:27
Hi @jwross, please send an email to eric.olson@canada.ca, describing this need. He can send you the table later this afternoon.

 iivanova at 13:02:40
The MBM is the other low-income line commonly used by Statistics Canada in addition to LIM and LICO, but it's not applied to the Census data. Why is that?

 Xuelin Zhang at 13:24:16
Hi @iivanova, thanks for your question. To compute the Market Basket Measure of low income (MBM) we need a few of the variables from the census long form. MBM estimates will be available on November 29.

 KARINE at 13:21:48
When do you anticipate income information (or any other census 2016 information) available at the health region level?

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:26:14
Hello @KARINE, I am not sure. We will have to get back to you on this. Please send an email to STATCAN.infostats-infostats.STATCAN@canada.ca to be sure we follow-up.

 PeterMarriott at 12:41:27
Hi there, we're wondering about the differences between the census income release and the T1 Family File. In particular, there is a large difference in the rate of persons 65+ below LIM-AT, with the rates being much higher in the census release. We realize there are different calculation for households versus families, and imputation for people in the census database but not in the T1FF database, but there is not such a large difference for other age groups. Is there any documentation or other explanation of why there might be a particular discrepancy for seniors?

 Heath Priston at 12:33:25
Hi another question: Looking at the comparison of prevalence of low-income (using LIM-AT) in the Census data as compared to the T1 Family File data, I was surprised to see a significant variation in the rates between the two products for seniors in our community. For the 2015 data, Toronto Census Division, using LIM-AT, T1FF had 42,900/405,010 people aged 65+ in low income for a 9.5% rate, whle the Census data reported 69,935/402,045 for a 17.4% rate. Is this a pattern that is consistent across Canadian communities? Do you have any insights as to why there is such a significant difference between the two rates?

 Xuelin Zhang at 13:28:20
Hello @Heath Priston, thank you for your question. There are methodological differences between the T1FF and the census (and other data sources). For example, the unit at which low income is measured in the two data sources is different. In the T1FF, it is census family (and it is the only family/household unit available), while in the census, the unit is the household. As well, low-income in T1FF includes the territories, while in the 2016 Census, territories were excluded. These and other differences would affect both the low-income thresholds and the low-income statistics. When we applied the same method to estimate the low-income statistics, they lined up much more closely.

 Norrdou at 13:06:18
Any ideas of the reasons for the increase in low income among seniors?

 Brian Murphy at 13:28:49
Hi Norrdou,
Thank you for your question.
There are at least a few factors in play. There are more senior men living alone in their own household (and unattached individuals tend to have lower incomes than couples). There are more senior men working and the incomes of senior men grew faster that that of working age men. However, the incomes of senior women increased more slowly than working age women and, as a group, seniors' incomes did not grow as quickly as the working age population. As the LIM-AT is a relative measure this means seniors have lost ground to the median income. Also while low-income rates rose for senior men, senior women still represent the majority of low-income seniors.

 peggy.syljuberg... at 13:25:17
Will there be a 2016 NHS published?

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:29:17
Hi @peggy.slyjuberget,
There is no 2016 NHS but information from the 2016 long-form census will be released on October 25 and November 29.

 kenw at 12:52:09
I have a number of questions: - I'm looking for median total income by family type by large Canadian cities as well as by province and is there any data for 2016? - Do you have median incomes in Canada by profession ie. clergy? - I'm also looking for housing costs in large Canadian cities.

 Tahsin Mehdi at 13:29:29
Hi @kenw, thank you for your questions. Median total income for economic families can be found in Table 98-400-X2016128, while median total income for census families can be found in Table 98-400-X2016104. The tables will enable you to view data by different geographies. In the tables, income data are available for 2015 and 2005 if available. We do not have 2016 income data on this census, since income data came from administrative sources.
Incomes by occupation will be made available on November 29, 2017. Information on housing will be made available on October 25, 2017.

 peggy.syljuberg at 13:30:21
What will the 2016 long form census information due to be release on October 25 and November 29 be titled?

 Heath Priston at 13:31:12
Thanks to you all for your time and your answers. It's much appreciated!

 KARINE at 13:28:20
Thanks Neil.

 sharmap at 13:20:48
What was the difference in birth rates for children aged 5 or younger from 2005 to 2015? Would this account for any difference in fewer children living in low income households in 2015?

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:31:41
We have not examined that aspect of the data. You could see how many children of each age there are in our age tables. There are multiple possible explanations for this change but the exact impact of a specific one would warrant more study.

 Stephanie.Quigg at 13:28:19
My last question got sent off before completing. Is there a document that provides more detail on economic family structures and census family structures? I want to understand seniors within these structures and when they would be included in the different categories Such as senior living with child who is a single parent, a senior couple living with a child who is married or common law, a senior living with a sister who is also a senior, and other variations. Thank you

 Nell Hamalainen at 13:33:31
Possibly the Census Dictionary

 Stephanie.Quigg at 13:24:39
A follow up question to the response gave to Xuelin Zhang at 13:17:49: "Also, T1FF low-income rates are based upon a different methodology. T1FF organizes families by census family - a smaller unit of analysis than the household. Thus, lower income persons who are attached to a household, but not a census family (think about a grandmother living with her children and grandchildren) are treated as a separate unit in T1FF, leading to higher low income. There are other methodological differences as well. I think that these differences are also important in understanding the differences between T1FF and the census." For the example of the grandmother living with her children and grandchildren.... What category in the economic family structure would the grandmother be included in? Economic Family structure with one or more persons 65+ Couple economic families Couple economic families without children or other relatives Couple economic families with children Couple economic families with other relatives only Lone parent economic families Other economic families What category in the economic family structure would the grandmother be included in? What category in the census family would the grandmother be included in?

 Xuelin Zhang at 13:33:50
Hi @Stephanie.Quigg. This is a very good question. I'm pretty sure that the family structure I described above would be a "couple economic family with other relatives only". All persons in the family, including the grandmother, would be included in this structure.

 Moderator at 13:29:12
The chat session is now over. Thank you for your questions and comments! If our experts did not have a chance to respond to your question, we will follow-up with you by email in the next few business days. The full transcript of this chat session will be made available on our website shortly. Have a great day!