Note: This was a bilingual chat session, which means that the participants were able to submit their questions in English or French. Statistics Canada respects the Official Languages Act and is committed to ensuring that information products of equal quality are available in both English and French. For that reason, all the questions and answers have been translated in the other official language.
Nell Hamalainen at 12:35:15
Thank you for your question. We use the all-items Consumer Price Index.
Brian Murphy at 12:37:46
Hello @gilliankerr. There will be further tables published on October 25 and November 29. These will present statistics by various socio-demographic characteristics as supplied by the respondents to the long-form questionnaire.
Tahsin Mehdi at 12:38:43
Hi @seanhorne, thanks for your question. We do not publish tax filing rates for different levels of geography. However, we do have flags indicating the quality of our data by geographic region.
Brian Murphy at 12:39:23
Hi KARINE, thank you for your question.
Due to variations in the methodology of the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), some estimates from the voluntary survey were considered, less directly comparable to estimates from the 2006 Census. For example, as indicated in the 2011 NHS Income Reference Guide, growth in median wages and salaries between 2005 and 2010 was higher than in other sources. As well, low-income rates also showed higher growth than the trends observed in other sources.
For the 2016 Census, it is recommended to contrast, where possible, the income estimates to comparable data from the 2006 Census to avoid potential impacts of the different methodology employed in 2011. For this reason, the focus of historical comparisons on levels and growth in standard tables and day-of-release analysis will be between the 2005 and 2015 income periods.
Nell Hamalainen at 12:42:50
Thank you for your question. Information on industry and occupation will be available with the labour release on November 29, 2017.
Xuelin Zhang at 12:43:23
Hi @Jkolkman, thank you for your question. As in previous censuses, the low-income statistics we used in the 2016 Census exclude reserves and the territories. We are reviewing and studying the relevant issues currently and we will share the findings of our research with the public.
Tahsin Mehdi at 12:43:35
Hi @Barbara McMillan, thank you for your question. Currently, we do not have information on the number of people claiming disability tax credits on the census.
Nell Hamalainen at 12:45:56
Income data by immigration and ethnocultural diversity will be made available with the October 25 release (Immigration and ethnocultural diversity).
Brian Murphy at 12:47:21
Hi mihadinca, thanks for your question.
Mean income and aggregate income are not available with this release for confidentiality purposes. Averages and aggregates will be available on October 25th, when we release income data with the long form data. The data will be available for Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan areas, Census Agglomerations, Census Divisions and Census Sub divisions, as well as census tracts.
Xuelin Zhang at 12:49:46
Hi @sarahhobson, thanks for your question. For the LIM-AT, the median income of households (off-reserve and in provinces only) is used. The low income indicator is defined at the household level and then applied to individuals. All persons in a household are either in or out of low income. It is possible to get customised tables for different household sizes and for different geographies. I think that a table of low income by household size is coming with a future census release, but you can check with firstname.lastname@example.org.
Brian Murphy at 12:50:34
We used the square root of household size as the equivalence scale for calculating the Low-Income Measure after tax on the census.
Tahsin Mehdi at 12:51:43
Hi @Heath Priston, that's a great question. Multiple low-income lines can offer different perspectives. This is why we included the LICO measures in the data profile in addition to the LIM. We currently do not have any plans to update the 1992 expenditure base.
Nell Hamalainen at 12:52:44
Hello, it's a pleasure. It is difficult to get a clear idea of the impact. When someone loses their job, they could have income for only part of the year (which would be lower). These partial years of activity are very difficult to determine without labour market information (to be published on November 29).
Tahsin Mehdi at 12:54:34
Hi @anitakhann, the equivalence scale that was used to calculate the LIM-AT was the square root of the household size.
Xuelin Zhang at 12:54:57
Hi @jwross, thank you for your question. Through the Infographic you can see what the picture looks like. Generally, the low-income rate was high for children, young adults, pre-retirees and older seniors. The exact rate at each year of age was not published, but the data can be provided to you upon request later.
Moderator at 12:55:31
Shpir, thank you for your question. This question is not relevant to the topic of this chat. This information will be realeased on November 29 with the 2016 Census release on Education, Labour, Journey to work, Language of work and Mobility and migration.
Moderator at 12:59:12
@EricMourant, thank you for your question. Unfortunately, this question is not relevant to the topic of this chat.
Xuelin Zhang at 13:00:31
Hi @james.y.lee, thank you for your interest. As in previous census releases, the low-income statistics we used in the 2016 Census exclude reserves and the territories. We are studying the relevant issues currently and we will share the findings of our research with the public.
Brian Murphy at 13:01:51
Hello Stephanie.Quigg, thanks for your question. I am sorry this table does not meet your needs. We do not currently have a simpler table as you have described. Maybe the table below for couples would answer some aspects of your question. Distribution of Income Between Married Spouses or Common-law Partners (47) and Characteristics of Couples (19) for Married Spouses or Common-law Partners in Private Households
Tahsin Mehdi at 13:02:14
Hi @seanhorne, at this time we do not have such data available from the census.
Brian Murphy at 13:03:26
Thanks for your question.
The LIM-AT and LIM-BT thresholds for 2015 can be found at this link. The LIM-AT threshold for 2005 was $19,510 in 2015 dollars. We will have to get back to you with the 2005 LIM-BT threshold. Statistics Canada is constantly evaluating and improving its low income measurement program and we are considering both regional and fixed thresholds.
Moderator at 13:04:29
Thank you for your question. While this important question is related to income, custody is more of a family concept. We invite you to visit our web page on the 2021 Census consultation to discuss this topic.
Xuelin Zhang at 13:04:52
Hi @kathyvandergrift, The new Child Benefit came into effect in mid-2016, while this release refers to income as received in 2015. As such, the information could be used to see the situation before the new policy came in. Or, researchers could use the detailed information from the census to model estimated effects.
Many of the covariates, such as educational attainment, occupation and work status of parents will be coming in future releases. These will be helpful to shape an answer to your question in the future.
Statistics Canada presently produces multiple low-income rates, and these are all used by the government to study child low income. Statistics Canada currently features LIM as its highlight indicator in its communications. This is because it is easy to understand, communicate and is widely accepted in the international community.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:05:39
You are welcome.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:06:03
Hi Heath Priston,
Thank you for your question. We conducted extensive quality checks on the data and feel confident that they can be compared to estimates from 2005 even at lower levels of geography. This would only be a valid comparison when the concepts and geography align with those used in 2016. In the 2005 estimates that we have re-published, we have applied the 2016 geographies to ensure geographic comparability. In 2006 there was some sampling variability because of the long-form sample.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:07:43
More extensive analyses can be done with the data broken down by industry, which will be published on November 29.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:14:02
Hello, thank you for participating. We are pleased to see alternative interpretations of these data and we hope that subsequent releases on the industries will examine certain assumptions. When someone loses their job, it is possible that they receive lower income for only part of the year.
Tahsin Mehdi at 13:14:56
Hi @Barbara McMillan, thank you for your question. Statistics Canada does not measure poverty. However, we do measure low income. In the 2016 Census, income estimates were compared to 2005 estimates where possible. The 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) used different methodologies than the current census, so comparisons of income estimates, including low-income estimates, between the current census and the 2011 NHS should be made with caution.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:15:28
Thank you for your question. Income information is available for economic regions.
Brian Murphy at 13:16:25
Thank you for your question.
The household median income can rise and fall for a number of reasons. The economy and employment are important influences and this can be seen in the low growth or decline in many cities hit hard by manufacturing losses. However, other influences can moderate or exacerbate the employment impacts, including population aging, changing household structure, investment income returns, and changes in government transfers. You are correct in noting that the median is not sensitive to changes at the top end of the distribution.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:17:07
Thank you for your question.
Due to variations in the methodology of the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), some estimates from the voluntary survey were considered less directly comparable to estimates from the 2006 Census. For example, as indicated in the 2011 NHS Income Reference Guide, growth in median wages and salaries between 2005 and 2010 was higher than in other sources. As well, low-income rates also showed higher growth than the trends observed in other sources.
For the 2016 Census, it is recommended to contrast, where possible, the income estimates to comparable data from the 2006 Census to avoid potential impacts of the different methodology employed in 2011. For this reason, the focus of historical comparisons on levels and growth in standard tables and day-of-release analysis was between the 2005 and 2015 income periods.
Xuelin Zhang at 13:17:49
Hi @JKolkman. The T1FF data are based upon postal code geography, and as such it is not possible to exclude particular areas with the same precision as in the census.
Also, T1FF low-income rates are based upon a different methodology. T1FF organizes families by census family - a smaller unit of analysis than the household. Thus, lower income persons who are attached to a household, but not a census family (think about a grandmother living with her children and grandchildren) are treated as a separate unit in T1FF, leading to higher low income. There are other methodological differences as well.
I think that these diffferences are also important in understanding the differences between T1FF and the census.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:23:27
Hi @jwross, please send an email to email@example.com, describing this need. He can send you the table later this afternoon.
Xuelin Zhang at 13:24:16
Hi @iivanova, thanks for your question. To compute the Market Basket Measure of low income (MBM) we need a few of the variables from the census long form. MBM estimates will be available on November 29.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:26:14
Hello @KARINE, I am not sure. We will have to get back to you on this. Please send an email to STATCAN.infostats-infostats.STATCAN@canada.ca to be sure we follow-up.
Xuelin Zhang at 13:28:20
Hello @Heath Priston, thank you for your question. There are methodological differences between the T1FF and the census (and other data sources). For example, the unit at which low income is measured in the two data sources is different. In the T1FF, it is census family (and it is the only family/household unit available), while in the census, the unit is the household. As well, low-income in T1FF includes the territories, while in the 2016 Census, territories were excluded. These and other differences would affect both the low-income thresholds and the low-income statistics. When we applied the same method to estimate the low-income statistics, they lined up much more closely.
Brian Murphy at 13:28:49
Thank you for your question.
There are at least a few factors in play. There are more senior men living alone in their own household (and unattached individuals tend to have lower incomes than couples). There are more senior men working and the incomes of senior men grew faster that that of working age men. However, the incomes of senior women increased more slowly than working age women and, as a group, seniors' incomes did not grow as quickly as the working age population. As the LIM-AT is a relative measure this means seniors have lost ground to the median income. Also while low-income rates rose for senior men, senior women still represent the majority of low-income seniors.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:29:17
There is no 2016 NHS but information from the 2016 long-form census will be released on October 25 and November 29.
Tahsin Mehdi at 13:29:29
Hi @kenw, thank you for your questions. Median total income for economic families can be found in Table 98-400-X2016128, while median total income for census families can be found in Table 98-400-X2016104. The tables will enable you to view data by different geographies. In the tables, income data are available for 2015 and 2005 if available. We do not have 2016 income data on this census, since income data came from administrative sources.
Incomes by occupation will be made available on November 29, 2017. Information on housing will be made available on October 25, 2017.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:31:41
We have not examined that aspect of the data. You could see how many children of each age there are in our age tables. There are multiple possible explanations for this change but the exact impact of a specific one would warrant more study.
Nell Hamalainen at 13:33:31
Possibly the Census Dictionary
Xuelin Zhang at 13:33:50
Hi @Stephanie.Quigg. This is a very good question. I'm pretty sure that the family structure I described above would be a "couple economic family with other relatives only". All persons in the family, including the grandmother, would be included in this structure.