Transcript of the chat session on 2016 Census: Aboriginal peoples and housing data, which occurred on Monday, October 30, 2017 from 12:30 p.m. to 1:30 p.m. EST

Note: This was a bilingual chat session, which means that the participants were able to submit their questions in English or French. Statistics Canada respects the Official Languages Act and is committed to ensuring that information products of equal quality are available in both English and French. For that reason, all the questions and answers have been translated in the other official language.

 Moderator at 12:30:00
Welcome everyone! This is a bilingual chat session, which means that you can submit your questions in English or French. Our experts will respond in a timely manner and in the official language in which the question was asked.

 PaulCheck at 12:32:36
Hello, in The Daily that accompanied the release, it was noted that there is are Indigenous people who are "newly self-identifying". How do we know they are self-identifying for the first time?

 Susan Wallace at 12:35:54
That is a great question, thank you! We are able to compare responses over time by linking the current census to previous census cycles. That way, we can see how individuals have responded in different years.

 Peter A. Miller at 12:31:59
Is there data available re indigenous housing such as # people per house; waiting time for a house?

 Thomas Anderson at 12:37:30
Hi Peter A. Miller,
Thanks for your question. We have a number of products that looked at the housing of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. For starters, we wrote a short article on the subject, which covers household crowding and the number of people living in a dwelling that needs major repairs.
Waiting time for a house is not something that was asked in the 2016 Census. On the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, we did ask about wait times for subsidized housing. The data from that will be released next year.

 PaulCheck at 12:34:05
How are children in care (child intervention/child welfare) accounted for on the Census? How could this impact the Census, if at all.

 Eric Olson at 12:40:07
Hello PaulCheck. Thanks for the question.
Children in care should be accounted for in their place of usual residence. This could be a collective dwelling or a private dwelling. Depending on their status, they would often be identiifed as foster children when in a private dwelling.
This should not impact the census in terms of population counts.

 Peter A. Miller at 12:35:31
Is there data available by age ranges for Indigenous males and females by communities re unemployment, self employment and types of employment?

 Susan Wallace at 12:42:33
Hi Peter A. Miller,
Data on employment will be released on November 29th. At that time, it will be possible to obtain data on Labour and Education for First Nations people, Métis and Inuit by sex, for different age groups, for a number of different of geographies.

 EmmaC at 12:35:48
Hi there, I know that in the past on-reserve data has been minimal. Is this data more representative of on-reserve populations since the APS focuses on off-reserve peoples? Thanks!

 Thomas Anderson at 12:42:36
Hi EmmaC,
For the 2016 Census, we enumerated the population living both on and off reserve. Data were collected for the vast majority of First Nations people living on reserve.
There were a small number (14) of First Nations who did not participate in the Census. This number was down from previous cycles. You can find the list here.

 jennalynnsimpson at 12:41:29
Hi there, Susan in your response to PaulCheck below, you say you can compare current census to previous census years. Does this mean you can do individual longitudinal analysis as to how people respond to questions on the Census?

 Susan Wallace at 12:46:18
Hi jennalynnsimpson,
Yes, we can compare responses over time on the census, provided that we are able to link between the respondents.

 kathyvandergrift at 12:40:06
The data on indigenous children 0 - 4 is helpful. Do you have data on children above age 4, including numbers living away from birth parents. For children in alternative care, do your statistics including only private foster homes or do you also have data for other forms of alternative care, such as group residences, etc.

 Thomas Anderson at 12:46:33
Hi kathyvandergrift,
Thanks for your question! I am glad that you find the information on Indigenous children 0-4 helpful. You can find a data table that includes children above the age of 4 here.
These statistics include only children living in private households.

 HilaryMartin at 12:36:46
Good afternoon. I am wondering if you have any crosstabs, or have otherwise analyzed the housing condition by age group - children in particular.

 Jeff Randle at 12:47:20
Hi @HilaryMartin,
Thanks for your question. One of the housing data tables made available October 25 cross-tabulates dwelling condition and household type including family structure: 98-400-X2016225.
Household type including family structure would allow you to isolate for households which have children present. You can also download the table in Beyond 20/20 or other formats should you wish to manipulate the data further.
If this table doesn't meet your needs, you can request custom tabulations using the Contact Us page.

 PaulCheck at 12:42:30
Were there any changes in data collection methodology on reserve for this Census as compared to the 2006 Census?

 Susan Wallace at 12:49:27
Hi PaulCheck,
The methodology on reserve was comparable between 2006 and 2016. For more information on comparability, please see the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

 anik.sauve at 12:43:10
Hello! Will you be publishing demographic portraits of the English Aboriginal and Métis communities in Quebec and the francophone Aboriginal and Métis communities in the other provinces and territories?

 Susan Wallace at 12:54:39
Hello anik.sauve,
The data you are looking for are not available in standard products. However, you can contact to request a custom tabulation.

 Peter A. Miller at 12:50:24
Hi Susan Is there any data on Indigenous self-employment, male and female and youth?

 Susan Wallace at 12:55:43
Data on employment will be available on November 29th. There will be standard data tables available at that time. If you cannot find the data you require, you can contact Statistics Canada to obtain a custom tabulation.

 jennalynnsimpson at 12:48:35
Why are reserves excluded from the low income prevalence analysis? Are there any other metrics of poverty that could be used for the on-reserve population and comparison to non-Aboriginal populations?

 Eric Olson at 12:56:58
The population on reserves, in the North and living on farms has traditionally been excluded from the low-income analysis. I've included an excerpt from the Census Dictionary below.
Related to some of the other dimensions of poverty, there are some data on housing suitability according to the National Occupancy Standard (defined by CMHC) or a persons-per-room metric and on dwelling conditions (as reported in the Census in Brief article The housing conditions of Aboriginal people in Canada) that are also available for the on-reserve population.
Low-income concepts do not apply to the full population. For example, persons living in collective households are excluded from the concepts because their living arrangements and expenditure patterns can be quite different from those of persons living in private households.
The low-income concepts are also not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

 Natali Zuniga at 12:49:27
Hi, What are the most endangered Indigenous languages? Are Indigenous languages in better or worse condition that in the previous census?

 Thomas Anderson at 12:58:43
Thanks for your question. It is a difficult one to answer simply using census data. We disseminated data for languages if the count of speakers was 45 or over. We don't disseminate for those languages with fewer than 45 speakers.
We can say that there were 36 Aboriginal languages that had at least 500 speakers. Here's a table that gives you detailed information on Aboriginal languages.
Overall, the number of Aboriginal people who were able to speak an Aboriginal language went up by 3.1% from 2006 to 2016.

 HilaryMartin at 12:49:43
I noticed that StatsCan data shows an increase in the number of Indigenous individuals across age categories up to 64 from the 2006 Census to now. I took this to mean that more people are identifying as Indigenous, as noted in The Daily release that accompanied the data. I'm wondering A) how you then go about factoring increases in self-identification into the population growth predictions, and B) if you have any insight from data collected in between 2006 to 2016 that might help to explain the higher self-identification numbers.

 Thomas Anderson at 13:01:08
Hi HilaryMartin,
Thank you for your question.
The impact of increases in self-identification is factored into the population growth projections. The most recent projections are here. Search for the term "ethnic mobility" in the projection report and you will find an excellent explanation regarding how increases in self-identification are taken into consideration in different projection scenarios.
Using census data from 2006 and 2016 and the National Household Survey data from 2011, we can see where high growth occurred. We can also see which regions and population groups (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) have experienced the most growth. This provides us with some insight into the higher self-identification numbers.

 leonardt at 12:50:48
Is the concept of housing suitability replacing the concept of crowding (greater than one person per room)?

 Christine Laporte at 13:01:13
Thanks @leonardt for your question!
Housing suitability and persons per room are two indicators of crowding.
More information about housing suitability and persons per room can be found in the Census Dictionary.

 leonardt at 12:52:50
Do you have an exact number of indigenous languages?

 Thomas Anderson at 13:06:30
Hi leonardt,
In 2016, there were more than 70 Aboriginal languages reported on the census. However, we don't disseminate information for all of these. If the number of speakers for a given language falls below 45, we do not publish this information. We have made improvements to our online questionnaire that allow us to capture language responses with greater specificity than in the past. For example, if a respondent filled in "Cree", he or she would have then provided a more specific name upon prompting, such as "Woods Cree".
Here is a table with the detailed list of Aboriginal languages.

 jennalynnsimpson at 13:02:06
In demographic tables, the 2016 Census releases use average age, while previous releases use median age. What prompted this change, and how can we address questions of comparability?

 Susan Wallace at 13:10:22
Thanks for your question. A similar question was posed in an earlier chat session, with the following reply:
In the past, Statistics Canada used median age as an indicator summarizing population age structure. However, we have decided to move to average age in 2016. Among others, a reason for the change is the fact that median age will not adjust as well when all baby boomers have moved to older ages. Median age does not account for shifts in the age structure at older ages, as it only divides the population in two groups of equal size. Mean age will adjust better for the changes in the age distribution at older ages, for example when boomers reach age 85 and above. Thus, as population aging has recently accelerated in Canada, we believe mean age will be more consistent with the other key messages than median age.As the population ages, average age is a better tool to measure the age of the population.
In terms of comparability, while the publically available tables contain average age, median age could be obtained through a custom table request. Please contact Statistics Canada for more information.

 SG_2017 at 13:07:31
What is your definition of Métis? Our family does have some aboriginal ancestries so we consider ourselves Métis and not First Nation. Is this correct?

 Thomas Anderson at 13:13:36
Hi SG_2017,
Thanks for your question. The Aboriginal identification question is a self-identification question, and no definition of Métis was included on the Census questionnaire or guide. On the census we asked "Is this person an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit)?"

 gladman at 13:12:59
Is there a link to data collection of missing persons or murders by day (date) or at least by month — to ascertain a trend or cycles of these incidents by time of year — for people in Canada? IF you will only assist based upon Aboriginal population THEN I'll settle for that. However, I'd prefer stats on all people groups. Thank you.

 Moderator at 13:17:33
Thank you for your question. Unfortunately, this question is out of scope for this chat session. We suggest you contact the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS).

 leonardt at 13:01:45
How much of all types of income (total, employment, gvt transfers etc.) on reserve are imputed?

 Eric Olson at 13:17:39
Thank you for the question leonardt.
There is a description in the Income Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016 of our linkage methodology and the rates we have achieved for different population groups.
In particular, Table 10 provides rates for different population groups.
The breakdown for the on-reserve population is provided in the text: 63.9% of the respondents aged 15 years and older were linked to a tax return (full information) and another 18.3% were linked to any information slips (such as T4) that would have been supplied by the financial institutions or employers.
So, on reserve, roughly 79% of the total dollar amount came from administrative sources and 21% was imputed. Income Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016 Income Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016

 MarshallEtSimon at 13:07:49
How do you ensure the accuracy of the number of Aboriginal languages spoken by the Aboriginal people, considering the population that lives in the most remote areas of the country?

 Susan Wallace at 13:18:54
Hello MarshallEtSimon,
In the country's most remote areas, such as the Northern Reserves and the Inuit regions, we use a 100% sample. In the other regions, we use a 25% sample. With this methodology, we can product reliable statistics for all the regions.

 jennalynnsimpson at 13:09:30
Do you plan to update previously released tables cross-tabulating Aboriginal identity, more than what is presently available?

 Susan Wallace at 13:19:24
As part of the Education and Labour release on November 29th, there will be new data tables with Aboriginal identity, Education and Labour variables. At a later date (in 2018), there will be an additional release of data tables.

 jennalynnsimpson at 13:13:43
Any idea when the CMHC will release Core Housing Need data? (I know this isn't your area, but I wondered if you had heard!)

 Jeff Randle at 13:19:54
Hi @jennalynnsimpson,
Thank you for writing in. While Statistics Canada and the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CHMC) work in tandem to deliver housing data and products to Canadians, for CMHC data products and release dates you would need to contact CMHC directly.

 Peter A. Miller at 13:14:07
How does the census differentiate Indigenous and Aboriginal?

 Thomas Anderson at 13:20:58
Thanks for your question.
While the term "Indigenous" is becoming more commonly used, for the 2016 Census release, Statistics Canada used the term Aboriginal. This corresponds to the terminology that was used with respondents when they answered the questionnaire. The 2016 Census question referred to Aboriginal people (i.e., Is this person an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations, Métis or Inuk?).
Statistics Canada is in the process of a review and testing strategy that will examine terminology of the 2021 Census questions, as well as future surveys at Statistics Canada. Regional discussions are taking place with First Nations, Inuit and Métis people, organizations, data users, and other stakeholders across Canada.

 Moderator at 13:21:15
Time for one last question, or two! Keep them coming!

 Moderator at 12:46:37
Thank you for participating. Keep your questions coming!

 jennalynnsimpson at 13:26:44
Thank you all so much for the opportunity - you folks are awesome!

 Moderator at 13:28:12
Thank you for participating! :)

 Jbryant at 13:28:50
Yes, thank you for answering our questions!

 Moderator at 13:30:27
It was nice of you to join us!

 Moderator at 13:30:24
The chat session is now over. Thank you for your questions and comments! If our experts did not have a chance to respond to your question, we will follow-up with you by email in the next few business days. The full transcript of this chat session will be made available on our website shortly. Have comments or feedback about our Chat with an Expert events? Email us at Have a great day!

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