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All (16)

All (16) (16 of 16 results)

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023236
    Description:

    This article examines characteristics associated with the use of bicycles and bicycle helmets by children and adults.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023220
    Description: Objectives

    This article illustrates analytical uses of multiple-cause-of-deathdata, which reflect all causes entered on the death certificate, notonly the single, underlying cause. Heart diseases are used as anexample.

    Data sources

    Complete multiple-cause-of-death data were obtained fromNewfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, NewBrunswick, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Yukon and the NorthwestTerritories; sample data were provided for Quebec and Ontario.The records represent 19% of deaths that occurred in Canadafrom 1990 to 1993.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023242
    Description:

    This article presents divorce statistics from 1970 through 1995 and focuses on divorce rates in the 1990s.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023235
    Description:

    This article illustrates analytical uses of multiple-cause-of-death data, which reflect all causes entered on the death certificate, not only the single, underlying cause. Heart diseases are used as an example.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023237
    Description:

    This article investigates whether, compared with younger women, those aged 30-34 and 35 and older experienced a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal complications, and whether their infants faced an increased risk of perinatal complications and congenital anomalies.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013056
    Description:

    This article examines the characteristics associated with getting or not getting a mammogram, focusing on women aged 50-59.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013058
    Description:

    This article examines the narrowing difference in life expectancy between men and women and among Canadian provincial populations in the context of trends in several major causes and risk factors.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013057
    Description:

    This article updates recently published information on Canadian breast cancer mortality, highlighting a lower rate in 1995, a marked decline in the rate since 1990, and possible factors contributing to this trend.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013055
    Description:

    This aritcle analyzes abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery rates by sex for inpatients of Canadian hospitals. Possible reasons for the observed gender differences in surgery rates are discussed.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013059
    Description:

    Using Canadian mortality data from 1974 to 1995, this article examines seasonal and daily patterns of death by cause.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Public use microdata: 82M0019X
    Description:

    Data are now available for the 1996 Sun Exposure Survey, conducted from September to October 1996. This survey sponsored by the Institute of Health Promotion Research at the University of British-Columbia, was funded by the National Cancer Institute of Canada, the Canadian Dermatology Association and Environment Canada.

    The survey gathered information on the attitudes and behaviours related to the sun exposure among Canadians 15 years and over. Information collected (within households on a proxy basis) is available for children under the age 15. Data are available at the national and regional levels.

    Release date: 1997-05-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997099
    Description:

    Context : Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer deaths in Canadian males for many years, and since 1994, this has been the case for Canadian femalesas well. It is therefore important to evaluate the resources required for its diagnosis and treatment. This article presents an estimate of the direct medical costsassociated with the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer calculated through the use of a micro-simulation model. For disease incidence, 1992 was chosen as thereference year, whereas costs are evaluated according to the rates that prevailed in 1993.Methods : A model for lung cancer has been incorporated into the Population Health Model (POHEM). The parameters of the model were drawn in part fromStatistics Canada's Canadian Cancer Registry (CCR), which provides information on the incidence and histological classification of lung cancer cases in Canada.The distribution of cancer stage at diagnosis was estimated by using information from two provincial cancer registries. A team of oncologists derived "typical" treatment approaches reflective of current practice, and the associated direct costs were calculated for these approaches. Once this information and the appropriatesurvival curves were incorporated into the POHEM model, overall costs of treatment were estimated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation.Results: It is estimated that overall, the direct medical costs of lung cancer diagnosis and treatment were just over $528 million. The cost per year of life gained as aresult of treatment of the disease was approximately $19,450. For the first time in Canada, it was possible to estimate the five year costs following diagnosis, bystage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. It was possible to estimate the cost per year of additional life gained for three alternative treatments of non small-cell lungcancer (NSCLC). Sensitivity analyses showed that these costs varied between $1,870 and $6,860 per year of additional life gained, which compares favourablywith the costs that the treatment of other diseases may involve.Conclusions: Contrary to widespread perceptions, it appears that the treatment of lung cancer is effective from an economic standpoint. In addition, the use of amicro-simulation model such as POHEM not only makes it possible to incorporate information from various sources in a coherent manner but also offers thepossibility of estimating the effect of alternative medical procedures from the standpoint of financial pressures on the health care system.

    Release date: 1997-04-22

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960043024
    Description:

    In 1997, there will be an estimated 130,800 new cases of cancer and 60,700 deaths from the disease, an increase of one third and one quarter, respectively, over 1987. These increases are due mainly to the growth and aging of the population. (All figures exclude non-melanoma skin cancer.) In 1997, three types of cancer will account for at least half of all new cases in men and women: prostate, lung and colorectal cancer for men; breast, lung and colorectal cancer for women. Lung cancer will be the leading cause of cancer death in 1997, resulting in one-third of cancer deaths for men and almost one-quarter of cancer deaths for women. Among women, overall trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality have remained relatively stable since 1985, as large increases in the rate of lung cancer have been offset by declining or stable rates for most other forms. Among men, the overall incidence rate is rising slightly as a result of the sharp increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. The mortality rate for men peaked in 1988 and has since declined, because of decreases in the rates for lung, colorectal and some other cancers. This article presents information on trends since the mid-1980s in cancer incidence and mortality, adapted from Canadian Cancer Statistics 1987.

    Release date: 1997-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960043021
    Description:

    In 1994, an estimated 6% of Canadians aged 18 and over - 1.1 million adults - experienced a Major Depressive Episode (MDE). Although depression is amenable to treatment, fewer than half (43%) the people who met the criteria of having experienced an MDE in the past year (approximately 487,000) reported talking to a health professional about their emotional or mental health. Furthermore, only 26% of those who had an MDE reported four or more such consultations. As expected, depression that was not chronic was more likely to be untreated. In addition, MDE sufferers whose physical health was good and those who had not recently experienced a negative life event were less likely to be treated. However, after controlling for these factors, a multivariate model suggests that lower educational attainment and inadequate income acted as barriers to treatment. Relatively few contacts with a general practitioner substantially reduced the odds of being treated. Also, men and married people who were depressed were less likely to receive treatment. With data from Statistics Canada's 1994-95 National Population Health Survey (NPHS), this article examines the characteristics of people who met the criteria for having had an MDE, but who discontinued or did not receive treatment. The selection of explanatory variables was informed by an established theoretical framework of individual determinants of health service utilization, proposed by Andersen and Newman. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of not being treated among people who experienced an MDE.

    Release date: 1997-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960043022
    Description:

    Meeting the need for physician care outside of urban centres has long been a health policy concern. The challenges of providing such services in these areas stem from relatively fewer physicians and greater travel distances. In 1993, nearly all (99%) residents of large urban centres (with one million or more people) were less than 5 km from the nearest doctor. But outside of urban centres, only 56% of residents were situated that close to a physician. As well, proximity to physicians varied with income in less urbanized and rural areas, but not in more urbanized areas. And while Canadians in the southernmost parts of the country enjoyed very short distances to a physician, in northern latitudes, physicians tended to be much farther away. For instance, in 1993, at 65-69o north latitude, with 3,974 people for every physician, nearly two-thirds of the population (64%) was 100 km or more from the nearest doctor. By contrast, below 45o north latitude, which includes Halifax, Toronto and all of southwestern Ontario, the population to physician ratio was 476, and 91% of the population was within 5 km of a physician. Using the Canadian Medical Association's 1993 address registry of physicians, this article analyses the distance to the nearest physician (57,291 physicians) from a representative point within each of Canada's 45,995 census Enumeration Areas. Distance to the nearest physician by their specialty is also considered.

    Release date: 1997-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960043023
    Description:

    The period between fiscal years 1986/87 and 1994/95 has seen a reduction in the number of hospitals in Canada and fundamental changes in the way they deliver their services. During this time, the number of public hospitals fell by 14%, and the number of approved beds in these hospitals declined by 11%. As a result, the number of staffed beds per 1,000 population dropped from 6.6 to 4.1. Much of the decrease in approved beds in public hospitals can be attributed to the reduction in the hospital extended care sector. In fact, some hospitals with long-term care units have been re-designated residential care facilities. As well, a common trend emerged in all categories of public hospitals: the number of outpatient visits increased, while inpatient-days decreased. Between 1986/87 and 1991/92, public hospitals' average annual increase in operating expenses (in current dollars) was 8%. However, from 1991/92 to 1994/95, public hospitals posted negative average annual growth in their expenditures (-2.4%), which reflects efforts made by various provinces to control hospital costs. This article presents data from reports compiled by Statistics Canada: Annual Return of Health Care Facilities - Hospitals, 1986/87 to 1993/94 and Preliminary Annual Report of Hospitals, 1994/95.

    Release date: 1997-04-21

Data (1)

Data (1) (1 result)

  • Public use microdata: 82M0019X
    Description:

    Data are now available for the 1996 Sun Exposure Survey, conducted from September to October 1996. This survey sponsored by the Institute of Health Promotion Research at the University of British-Columbia, was funded by the National Cancer Institute of Canada, the Canadian Dermatology Association and Environment Canada.

    The survey gathered information on the attitudes and behaviours related to the sun exposure among Canadians 15 years and over. Information collected (within households on a proxy basis) is available for children under the age 15. Data are available at the national and regional levels.

    Release date: 1997-05-01

Analysis (15)

Analysis (15) (15 of 15 results)

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023236
    Description:

    This article examines characteristics associated with the use of bicycles and bicycle helmets by children and adults.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023220
    Description: Objectives

    This article illustrates analytical uses of multiple-cause-of-deathdata, which reflect all causes entered on the death certificate, notonly the single, underlying cause. Heart diseases are used as anexample.

    Data sources

    Complete multiple-cause-of-death data were obtained fromNewfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, NewBrunswick, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Yukon and the NorthwestTerritories; sample data were provided for Quebec and Ontario.The records represent 19% of deaths that occurred in Canadafrom 1990 to 1993.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023242
    Description:

    This article presents divorce statistics from 1970 through 1995 and focuses on divorce rates in the 1990s.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023235
    Description:

    This article illustrates analytical uses of multiple-cause-of-death data, which reflect all causes entered on the death certificate, not only the single, underlying cause. Heart diseases are used as an example.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970023237
    Description:

    This article investigates whether, compared with younger women, those aged 30-34 and 35 and older experienced a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal complications, and whether their infants faced an increased risk of perinatal complications and congenital anomalies.

    Release date: 1997-10-07

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013056
    Description:

    This article examines the characteristics associated with getting or not getting a mammogram, focusing on women aged 50-59.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013058
    Description:

    This article examines the narrowing difference in life expectancy between men and women and among Canadian provincial populations in the context of trends in several major causes and risk factors.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013057
    Description:

    This article updates recently published information on Canadian breast cancer mortality, highlighting a lower rate in 1995, a marked decline in the rate since 1990, and possible factors contributing to this trend.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013055
    Description:

    This aritcle analyzes abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery rates by sex for inpatients of Canadian hospitals. Possible reasons for the observed gender differences in surgery rates are discussed.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19970013059
    Description:

    Using Canadian mortality data from 1974 to 1995, this article examines seasonal and daily patterns of death by cause.

    Release date: 1997-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1997099
    Description:

    Context : Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer deaths in Canadian males for many years, and since 1994, this has been the case for Canadian femalesas well. It is therefore important to evaluate the resources required for its diagnosis and treatment. This article presents an estimate of the direct medical costsassociated with the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer calculated through the use of a micro-simulation model. For disease incidence, 1992 was chosen as thereference year, whereas costs are evaluated according to the rates that prevailed in 1993.Methods : A model for lung cancer has been incorporated into the Population Health Model (POHEM). The parameters of the model were drawn in part fromStatistics Canada's Canadian Cancer Registry (CCR), which provides information on the incidence and histological classification of lung cancer cases in Canada.The distribution of cancer stage at diagnosis was estimated by using information from two provincial cancer registries. A team of oncologists derived "typical" treatment approaches reflective of current practice, and the associated direct costs were calculated for these approaches. Once this information and the appropriatesurvival curves were incorporated into the POHEM model, overall costs of treatment were estimated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation.Results: It is estimated that overall, the direct medical costs of lung cancer diagnosis and treatment were just over $528 million. The cost per year of life gained as aresult of treatment of the disease was approximately $19,450. For the first time in Canada, it was possible to estimate the five year costs following diagnosis, bystage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. It was possible to estimate the cost per year of additional life gained for three alternative treatments of non small-cell lungcancer (NSCLC). Sensitivity analyses showed that these costs varied between $1,870 and $6,860 per year of additional life gained, which compares favourablywith the costs that the treatment of other diseases may involve.Conclusions: Contrary to widespread perceptions, it appears that the treatment of lung cancer is effective from an economic standpoint. In addition, the use of amicro-simulation model such as POHEM not only makes it possible to incorporate information from various sources in a coherent manner but also offers thepossibility of estimating the effect of alternative medical procedures from the standpoint of financial pressures on the health care system.

    Release date: 1997-04-22

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960043024
    Description:

    In 1997, there will be an estimated 130,800 new cases of cancer and 60,700 deaths from the disease, an increase of one third and one quarter, respectively, over 1987. These increases are due mainly to the growth and aging of the population. (All figures exclude non-melanoma skin cancer.) In 1997, three types of cancer will account for at least half of all new cases in men and women: prostate, lung and colorectal cancer for men; breast, lung and colorectal cancer for women. Lung cancer will be the leading cause of cancer death in 1997, resulting in one-third of cancer deaths for men and almost one-quarter of cancer deaths for women. Among women, overall trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality have remained relatively stable since 1985, as large increases in the rate of lung cancer have been offset by declining or stable rates for most other forms. Among men, the overall incidence rate is rising slightly as a result of the sharp increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. The mortality rate for men peaked in 1988 and has since declined, because of decreases in the rates for lung, colorectal and some other cancers. This article presents information on trends since the mid-1980s in cancer incidence and mortality, adapted from Canadian Cancer Statistics 1987.

    Release date: 1997-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960043021
    Description:

    In 1994, an estimated 6% of Canadians aged 18 and over - 1.1 million adults - experienced a Major Depressive Episode (MDE). Although depression is amenable to treatment, fewer than half (43%) the people who met the criteria of having experienced an MDE in the past year (approximately 487,000) reported talking to a health professional about their emotional or mental health. Furthermore, only 26% of those who had an MDE reported four or more such consultations. As expected, depression that was not chronic was more likely to be untreated. In addition, MDE sufferers whose physical health was good and those who had not recently experienced a negative life event were less likely to be treated. However, after controlling for these factors, a multivariate model suggests that lower educational attainment and inadequate income acted as barriers to treatment. Relatively few contacts with a general practitioner substantially reduced the odds of being treated. Also, men and married people who were depressed were less likely to receive treatment. With data from Statistics Canada's 1994-95 National Population Health Survey (NPHS), this article examines the characteristics of people who met the criteria for having had an MDE, but who discontinued or did not receive treatment. The selection of explanatory variables was informed by an established theoretical framework of individual determinants of health service utilization, proposed by Andersen and Newman. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of not being treated among people who experienced an MDE.

    Release date: 1997-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960043022
    Description:

    Meeting the need for physician care outside of urban centres has long been a health policy concern. The challenges of providing such services in these areas stem from relatively fewer physicians and greater travel distances. In 1993, nearly all (99%) residents of large urban centres (with one million or more people) were less than 5 km from the nearest doctor. But outside of urban centres, only 56% of residents were situated that close to a physician. As well, proximity to physicians varied with income in less urbanized and rural areas, but not in more urbanized areas. And while Canadians in the southernmost parts of the country enjoyed very short distances to a physician, in northern latitudes, physicians tended to be much farther away. For instance, in 1993, at 65-69o north latitude, with 3,974 people for every physician, nearly two-thirds of the population (64%) was 100 km or more from the nearest doctor. By contrast, below 45o north latitude, which includes Halifax, Toronto and all of southwestern Ontario, the population to physician ratio was 476, and 91% of the population was within 5 km of a physician. Using the Canadian Medical Association's 1993 address registry of physicians, this article analyses the distance to the nearest physician (57,291 physicians) from a representative point within each of Canada's 45,995 census Enumeration Areas. Distance to the nearest physician by their specialty is also considered.

    Release date: 1997-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19960043023
    Description:

    The period between fiscal years 1986/87 and 1994/95 has seen a reduction in the number of hospitals in Canada and fundamental changes in the way they deliver their services. During this time, the number of public hospitals fell by 14%, and the number of approved beds in these hospitals declined by 11%. As a result, the number of staffed beds per 1,000 population dropped from 6.6 to 4.1. Much of the decrease in approved beds in public hospitals can be attributed to the reduction in the hospital extended care sector. In fact, some hospitals with long-term care units have been re-designated residential care facilities. As well, a common trend emerged in all categories of public hospitals: the number of outpatient visits increased, while inpatient-days decreased. Between 1986/87 and 1991/92, public hospitals' average annual increase in operating expenses (in current dollars) was 8%. However, from 1991/92 to 1994/95, public hospitals posted negative average annual growth in their expenditures (-2.4%), which reflects efforts made by various provinces to control hospital costs. This article presents data from reports compiled by Statistics Canada: Annual Return of Health Care Facilities - Hospitals, 1986/87 to 1993/94 and Preliminary Annual Report of Hospitals, 1994/95.

    Release date: 1997-04-21

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