Statistics by subject – Business performance and ownership

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All (17) (17 of 17 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000123
    Description:

    Recent studies have demonstrated the quantitative importance of entry, exit, growth and decline in the industrial population. It is this turnover that rewards innovative activity and contributes to productivity growth.

    While the size of the entry population is impressive - especially when cumulated over time - the importance of entry is ultimately due to its impact on innovation in the economy. Experimentation is important in a dynamic, market-based economy. A key part of the experimentation comes from entrants. New entrepreneurs constantly offer consumers new products both in terms of the basic good and the level of service that accompanies it.

    This experimentation is associated with significant costs since many entrants fail. Young firms are most at risk of failure; data drawn from a longitudinal file of Canadian entrants in both the goods and service sectors show that over half the new firms that fail do so in the first two years of life. Life is short for the majority of entrants. Only 1 in 5 new firms survive to their tenth birthday.

    Since so many entrants fall by the wayside, it is of inherent interest to understand the conditions that are associated with success, the conditions that allow the potential in new entrepreneurs to come to fruition. The success of an entrant is due to its choosing the correct combination of strategies and activities. To understand how these capabilities contribute to growth, it is necessary to study how the performance of entrants relates to differences in strategies and pursued activities.

    This paper describes the environment and the characteristics of entrants that manage to survive and grow. In doing so, it focuses on two issues. The first is the innovativeness of entrants and the extent to which their growth depends on their innovativeness. The second is to outline how the stress on worker skills, which is partially related to training, complements innovation and contributes to growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035372
    Description:

    Some taxes may be higher, some lower than in other developed nations, but overall Canada's effective tax rate is middle-of-the-road. Using OECD data, this study compares several tax-t0-GDP ratios of the G-7 and the 29 OECD countires.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000151
    Description:

    This paper examines whether new views of the multinational that see these firms as decentralizing research and development (R&D) activities abroad to exploit local competencies accord with the activities of multinationals in Canada. The paper describes the innovation regime of multinational firms in Canada by examining the differences between foreign- and domestically owned firms. It focuses on the extent to which R&D is used; the type of R&D activity; the importance of R&D relative to other sources of innovative ideas; whether the use of these other ideas indicates that multinationals are closely tied into local innovation networks; the intensity of innovation; and the use that is made of intellectual property rights to protect innovations from being copied by others.

    We find that, far from being passively dependent on R&D from their parents, foreign-owned firms in Canada are more active in R&D than the population of Canadian-owned firms. They are also more often involved in R&D collaboration projects both abroad and in Canada. As expected, foreign subsidiaries enjoy the advantage of accessing technology from their parent and sister companies. While multinationals are more closely tied into a network of related firms for innovative ideas than are domestically owned firms, their local R&D unit is a more important source of information for innovation than are these inter-firm links. Surprisingly, foreign subsidiaries also more frequently report that they are using technology from unrelated firms. Moreover, the multinational is just as likely to develop links into a local university and other local innovation consortia as are domestically owned firms. This evidence indicates that multinationals in Canada are not, on the whole, operating subsidiaries whose scientific development capabilities are truncated - at least not in comparison to domestically owned firms.

    A comparison of the extent and impact of innovation activity of domestically and foreign-owned firms shows that foreign-owned firms innovate in all sectors more frequently than Canadian-owned companies in almost all size categories. They are also more likely to introduce world-first rather than more imitative innovations. Their superiority is most pronounced in the consumer goods sector. Finally, foreign-owned firms are more likely to protect their innovations with patent protection.

    The paper also compares foreign subsidiaries to Canadian corporations that have an international orientation. These additional comparisons show that the two groups of multinationals are quite similar, both with regards to the likelihood that they conduct some form of R&D and that they introduce innovations. These results indicate that it is as much the degree of globalization that the nationality of ownership that affects the degree of innovativeness.

    Overall, the survey results suggest that foreign-owned firms make a significant contribution to technological progress and innovation in Canadian industry.

    Release date: 2000-06-27

  • Journals and periodicals: 61F0019X
    Description:

    This on-line product Insights on... is a newsletter from Statistics Canada highlighting trends in business and trade statistics. Using information from the latest Statistics Canada surveys, Insights on... provides factual analysis of emerging trends in Canadian industry, documents what's new in Canadian business, and shows how businesses are responding to the challenges and opportunities posed by new types of business practices - globalization, new technologies, increasingly competitive markets, uncompromising standards of product quality, etc.

    Each edition of Insights on... will deal with one or two topics. Non-technical analysis and user-friendly graphs will provide a complete and balanced interpretation of the facts - quickly, clearly and concisely.

    Release date: 2000-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 61F0019X20000015561
    Description:

    This report contains some basic answers to recurring questions that Statistics Canada receives on small business. It is also a reference to other Statistics Canada data sources and analytical products where more detailed information can be found.

    Release date: 2000-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000118
    Description:

    This study uses data to study differences in labour productivity gains across domestic and foreign-controlled establishments in the manufacturing sector for the period 1973 to 1993. In doing so, it also examines the extent to which labour productivity differences exist between small and large establishments and across industry sectors and how they have been changing over time.

    The analysis consists of three parts. In the first section, the connection between labour usage and output is examined. This analysis investigates differences in marginal labour propensities for the different subgroups in the short and long-run. Here volatility is seen to be lower for foreign-controlled establishments. The second section examines the difference between the growth in average labour productivity for the same groups. Here foreign-controlled establishments are seen to have the highest growth rates. The third section investigates whether any trend can be found in the rates of growth for large and small, domestic and foreign establishments and finds that these differences have been increasing over time.

    Release date: 2000-03-01

  • Journals and periodicals: 61-526-X
    Description:

    This study investigates the determinants of failure for new Canadian firms. It explores the role that certain factors play in conditioning the likelihood of survival - factors related to industry structure, firm demographics and macroeconomic cycles. It asks whether the determinants of failure are different for new start-ups than for firms that have reached adolescence, and if the magnitude of these differences is economically significant. It examines whether, after controlling for certain influences, failure rates differ across industries and provinces.

    Two themes figure prominently in this analysis. The first is the impact that certain industry characteristics - such as average firm size and concentration - have on the entry/exit process, either through their influence on failure costs or on the intensity of competition. The second centres on how the dimensions of failure evolve over time as new firms gain market experience.

    Release date: 2000-02-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000143
    Description:

    This paper explores differences between innovative and non-innovative establishments in business service industries. It focuses on small establishments that supply core technical inputs to other firms: establishments in computer and related services, engineering, and other scientific and technical services.

    The analysis begins by examining the incidence of innovation within the small firm population. Forty percent of small businesses report introducing new or improved products, processes or organizational forms. Among these businesses, product innovation dominates over process or organizational change. A majority of these establishments reveal an ongoing commitment to innovation programs by introducing innovations on a regular basis. By contrast, businesses that do not introduce new or improved products, processes or organizational methods reveal little supporting evidence of innovation activity.

    The paper then investigates differences in strategic intensity between innovative and non-innovative businesses. Innovators attach greater importance to financial management and capital acquisition. Innovators also place more emphasis on recruiting skilled labour and on promoting incentive compensation. These distinctions are sensible - among small firms in R&D-intensive industries, financing and human resource competencies play a critical role in the innovation process.

    A final section examines whether the obstacles to innovation differ between innovators and non-innovators. Innovators are more likely to report difficulties related to market success, imitation, and skill restrictions. Evidence of learning-by-doing is more apparent within a multivariate framework. The probability of encountering risk-related obstacles and input restrictions is higher among establishments that engage in R&D and use intellectual property rights, both key elements of the innovation process. Many obstacles to innovation are also more apparent for businesses that stress financing, marketing, production or human resource strategies.

    Release date: 2000-01-25

  • Technical products: 21-601-M1998037
    Description:

    This paper looks at the number of business establishment starts in smaller and larger communities in Canada from 1993 to 1996.

    Release date: 2000-01-18

Data (8)

Data (8) (8 of 8 results)

Analysis (8)

Analysis (8) (8 of 8 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000123
    Description:

    Recent studies have demonstrated the quantitative importance of entry, exit, growth and decline in the industrial population. It is this turnover that rewards innovative activity and contributes to productivity growth.

    While the size of the entry population is impressive - especially when cumulated over time - the importance of entry is ultimately due to its impact on innovation in the economy. Experimentation is important in a dynamic, market-based economy. A key part of the experimentation comes from entrants. New entrepreneurs constantly offer consumers new products both in terms of the basic good and the level of service that accompanies it.

    This experimentation is associated with significant costs since many entrants fail. Young firms are most at risk of failure; data drawn from a longitudinal file of Canadian entrants in both the goods and service sectors show that over half the new firms that fail do so in the first two years of life. Life is short for the majority of entrants. Only 1 in 5 new firms survive to their tenth birthday.

    Since so many entrants fall by the wayside, it is of inherent interest to understand the conditions that are associated with success, the conditions that allow the potential in new entrepreneurs to come to fruition. The success of an entrant is due to its choosing the correct combination of strategies and activities. To understand how these capabilities contribute to growth, it is necessary to study how the performance of entrants relates to differences in strategies and pursued activities.

    This paper describes the environment and the characteristics of entrants that manage to survive and grow. In doing so, it focuses on two issues. The first is the innovativeness of entrants and the extent to which their growth depends on their innovativeness. The second is to outline how the stress on worker skills, which is partially related to training, complements innovation and contributes to growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035372
    Description:

    Some taxes may be higher, some lower than in other developed nations, but overall Canada's effective tax rate is middle-of-the-road. Using OECD data, this study compares several tax-t0-GDP ratios of the G-7 and the 29 OECD countires.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000151
    Description:

    This paper examines whether new views of the multinational that see these firms as decentralizing research and development (R&D) activities abroad to exploit local competencies accord with the activities of multinationals in Canada. The paper describes the innovation regime of multinational firms in Canada by examining the differences between foreign- and domestically owned firms. It focuses on the extent to which R&D is used; the type of R&D activity; the importance of R&D relative to other sources of innovative ideas; whether the use of these other ideas indicates that multinationals are closely tied into local innovation networks; the intensity of innovation; and the use that is made of intellectual property rights to protect innovations from being copied by others.

    We find that, far from being passively dependent on R&D from their parents, foreign-owned firms in Canada are more active in R&D than the population of Canadian-owned firms. They are also more often involved in R&D collaboration projects both abroad and in Canada. As expected, foreign subsidiaries enjoy the advantage of accessing technology from their parent and sister companies. While multinationals are more closely tied into a network of related firms for innovative ideas than are domestically owned firms, their local R&D unit is a more important source of information for innovation than are these inter-firm links. Surprisingly, foreign subsidiaries also more frequently report that they are using technology from unrelated firms. Moreover, the multinational is just as likely to develop links into a local university and other local innovation consortia as are domestically owned firms. This evidence indicates that multinationals in Canada are not, on the whole, operating subsidiaries whose scientific development capabilities are truncated - at least not in comparison to domestically owned firms.

    A comparison of the extent and impact of innovation activity of domestically and foreign-owned firms shows that foreign-owned firms innovate in all sectors more frequently than Canadian-owned companies in almost all size categories. They are also more likely to introduce world-first rather than more imitative innovations. Their superiority is most pronounced in the consumer goods sector. Finally, foreign-owned firms are more likely to protect their innovations with patent protection.

    The paper also compares foreign subsidiaries to Canadian corporations that have an international orientation. These additional comparisons show that the two groups of multinationals are quite similar, both with regards to the likelihood that they conduct some form of R&D and that they introduce innovations. These results indicate that it is as much the degree of globalization that the nationality of ownership that affects the degree of innovativeness.

    Overall, the survey results suggest that foreign-owned firms make a significant contribution to technological progress and innovation in Canadian industry.

    Release date: 2000-06-27

  • Journals and periodicals: 61F0019X
    Description:

    This on-line product Insights on... is a newsletter from Statistics Canada highlighting trends in business and trade statistics. Using information from the latest Statistics Canada surveys, Insights on... provides factual analysis of emerging trends in Canadian industry, documents what's new in Canadian business, and shows how businesses are responding to the challenges and opportunities posed by new types of business practices - globalization, new technologies, increasingly competitive markets, uncompromising standards of product quality, etc.

    Each edition of Insights on... will deal with one or two topics. Non-technical analysis and user-friendly graphs will provide a complete and balanced interpretation of the facts - quickly, clearly and concisely.

    Release date: 2000-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 61F0019X20000015561
    Description:

    This report contains some basic answers to recurring questions that Statistics Canada receives on small business. It is also a reference to other Statistics Canada data sources and analytical products where more detailed information can be found.

    Release date: 2000-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000118
    Description:

    This study uses data to study differences in labour productivity gains across domestic and foreign-controlled establishments in the manufacturing sector for the period 1973 to 1993. In doing so, it also examines the extent to which labour productivity differences exist between small and large establishments and across industry sectors and how they have been changing over time.

    The analysis consists of three parts. In the first section, the connection between labour usage and output is examined. This analysis investigates differences in marginal labour propensities for the different subgroups in the short and long-run. Here volatility is seen to be lower for foreign-controlled establishments. The second section examines the difference between the growth in average labour productivity for the same groups. Here foreign-controlled establishments are seen to have the highest growth rates. The third section investigates whether any trend can be found in the rates of growth for large and small, domestic and foreign establishments and finds that these differences have been increasing over time.

    Release date: 2000-03-01

  • Journals and periodicals: 61-526-X
    Description:

    This study investigates the determinants of failure for new Canadian firms. It explores the role that certain factors play in conditioning the likelihood of survival - factors related to industry structure, firm demographics and macroeconomic cycles. It asks whether the determinants of failure are different for new start-ups than for firms that have reached adolescence, and if the magnitude of these differences is economically significant. It examines whether, after controlling for certain influences, failure rates differ across industries and provinces.

    Two themes figure prominently in this analysis. The first is the impact that certain industry characteristics - such as average firm size and concentration - have on the entry/exit process, either through their influence on failure costs or on the intensity of competition. The second centres on how the dimensions of failure evolve over time as new firms gain market experience.

    Release date: 2000-02-16

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000143
    Description:

    This paper explores differences between innovative and non-innovative establishments in business service industries. It focuses on small establishments that supply core technical inputs to other firms: establishments in computer and related services, engineering, and other scientific and technical services.

    The analysis begins by examining the incidence of innovation within the small firm population. Forty percent of small businesses report introducing new or improved products, processes or organizational forms. Among these businesses, product innovation dominates over process or organizational change. A majority of these establishments reveal an ongoing commitment to innovation programs by introducing innovations on a regular basis. By contrast, businesses that do not introduce new or improved products, processes or organizational methods reveal little supporting evidence of innovation activity.

    The paper then investigates differences in strategic intensity between innovative and non-innovative businesses. Innovators attach greater importance to financial management and capital acquisition. Innovators also place more emphasis on recruiting skilled labour and on promoting incentive compensation. These distinctions are sensible - among small firms in R&D-intensive industries, financing and human resource competencies play a critical role in the innovation process.

    A final section examines whether the obstacles to innovation differ between innovators and non-innovators. Innovators are more likely to report difficulties related to market success, imitation, and skill restrictions. Evidence of learning-by-doing is more apparent within a multivariate framework. The probability of encountering risk-related obstacles and input restrictions is higher among establishments that engage in R&D and use intellectual property rights, both key elements of the innovation process. Many obstacles to innovation are also more apparent for businesses that stress financing, marketing, production or human resource strategies.

    Release date: 2000-01-25

Reference (1)

Reference (1) (1 result)

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