Statistics by subject – Immigrant children and youth

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  • Index and guides: 98-200-X2016015
    Description:

    This Census in Brief article focuses on children with an immigrant background, that is, children aged 0 to 14 who were born abroad or who have at least one foreign-born parent. Children with an immigrant background are examined by country of ancestry (country of birth of the foreign-born children or the foreign-born parents) and by selected household and family characteristics.

    Release date: 2017-10-25

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016377
    Description:

    It has been well documented that the children of immigrants in Canada outperform their peers with Canadian-born parents in educational attainment, and that the two groups have similar labour market outcomes. However, large variations by ethnicity or source country exist among the children of immigrants. This study examines the extent to which admission class (e.g., skilled workers, business immigrants, live-in caregivers, the family class and refugees) also matters in the socioeconomic outcomes of childhood immigrants who arrived in Canada before the age of 18.

    Release date: 2016-04-25

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114299
    Description:

    This article provides information about the number and characteristics of international students in Canada, and about their rate of transition into permanent residence. The article also examines the extent to which the transition rate varied across characteristics and cohorts, and whether these variations affected the profile of immigrants who are former international students. It does so by using a new administrative database—the Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD).

    Release date: 2015-12-10

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114247
    Description:

    This article examines regional differences in the math and reading skills of immigrant children aged 15 based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). It also examines regional differences in high-school and university completion rates among young immigrants who came to Canada before the age of 15 using National Household Survey (NHS) data. Throughout the article, comparisons are made with the children of the Canadian-born (third- or higher-generation Canadians).

    Release date: 2015-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012013
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series examines differences in postsecondary-participation rates between students with and without immigrant backgrounds in Switzerland and Canada using a new dataset. It is based on the working paper Immigrant Status, Early Skill Development, and Postsecondary Participation: A Comparison of Canada and Switzerland.

    Release date: 2012-07-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012344
    Description:

    This paper examines differences in postsecondary-participation rates between students with and without immigrant backgrounds in Switzerland and Canada. For both countries, a rich set of longitudinal data, including family background, family aspirations regarding postsecondary education, and students' secondary-school performance as measured by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores, are used to explain these differences. Two groups are analyzed: all 15-year-old students; and all low-performing 15-year-old secondary-school students.

    Release date: 2012-07-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011336
    Description:

    This paper examines the education outcomes (including the chances of being a high school drop-out) of a cohort of immigrants who arrived in Canada as children using the 2006 Census. The research documents the degree to which high school graduation for immigrant children may change discretely after a particular age at arrival in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011331
    Description:

    This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of the labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants in Canada and in the U.S. New research on outcomes in Canada is also presented. In the aggregate, and with no controls, the labour market outcomes of the second generation-the children of immigrants-are equal to, or better than, those of the third-and-higher generations-the children of domestic-born parents. However, the story is somewhat different after one has accounted for the superior educational levels and the residential locations of the second generation. In the U.S, the second generation's advantage in labour market outcomes disappears; in Canada, among second-generation members of a visible-minority group, the advantage turns marginally negative. Ethnic group/source region differences in outcomes loom large in both countries. The important determinants of the earnings gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations include educational attainment, which accounts for about half of the wage gap, residential location, ethnic background, the degree of "ethnic capital," and the educational and earnings mobility between immigrants and their children.

    Release date: 2011-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011332
    Description:

    This paper reviews the recent research on the determinants of the educational attainment among the children of immigrants born in Canada and the United States, also known as the second generation. The focus is on the gap in educational attainment between the second and third-and-higher generations (the children of domestic-born parents), as well as the intergenerational transmission of education between immigrants and their children.

    On average, the children of immigrants have educational levels significantly above those of their counterparts in Canada with Canadian-born parents. In the U.S., educational levels are roughly the same between these two groups. In both countries, conditional on the educational attainment of the parents and location of residence, the children of immigrants attain higher levels of education than the third-and-higher generations. Parental education and residential location are major determinants of the numerically positive gap in educational attainment between the children of immigrants and the children of Canadian-born or American-born parents. However, even after accounting for these and other demographic background variables, much of the positive gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations remains in Canada.

    In Canada, parental education is less important as a determinant of educational attainment for the children in immigrant families than for those with Canadian-born parents. Less educated immigrant parents are more likely to see their children attain higher levels of education than are their Canadian-born counterparts.

    Outcomes vary significantly by ethnic/source region group in both countries. In the U.S., some second-generation ethnic/source region groups, such as those with Mexican, Puerto Rican and other Central/South American backgrounds, have relatively low levels of education (unadjusted data with no controls). However, conditional on background characteristics, these second-generation groups achieve higher levels than their third-and-higher-generation counterparts. In contrast, in Canada, children of the larger and increasingly numerically important immigrant groups (Chinese, South Asians, Africans, etc.) register superior educational attainment levels to those of the third-and-higher generations. This result is partly related to the high levels of parental education and of group-level 'ethnic capital' among these immigrant groups.

    Release date: 2011-02-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011330
    Description:

    Current knowledge about the favourable socioeconomic attainment (in education and earnings) among children of immigrants is based on the experiences of those individuals whose immigrant parents came to Canada before the 1970s. Since then, successive cohorts of adult immigrants have experienced deteriorating entry earnings. This has raised questions about whether the outcomes of their children have changed over time. This study shows that successive cohorts of childhood immigrants who arrived in Canada at age 12 or younger during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s had increasingly higher educational attainment (as measured by the share with university degrees) than their Canadian-born peers by age 25 to 34. Conditional on education and other background characteristics, male childhood immigrants who arrived in the 1960s earned less than the Canadian-born comparison group, but the two subsequent cohorts had similar earnings as the comparison group. Female childhood immigrants earned as much as the Canadian-born comparison group, except for the 1980s cohort, which earned more.

    Release date: 2011-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X200800510799
    Description:

    This article explores the prevalence of, and factors related to, delinquency as reported by a sample of youth in grades 7, 8 and 9 living in Toronto in 2006. Previous work has found that demographic characteristics, school commitment, experiences of victimization and relationships with peers and families are all related to delinquent behaviour among youth. This article investigates these factors in order to determine the extent to which they can help explain the delinquency experiences of immigrant and non-immigrant youth. The analysis is based on data from The International Youth Survey which was conducted by Statistics Canada in 2006 as part of the 2006 International Self-Reported Delinquency Study in which over 30 countries participated.

    Release date: 2009-03-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050038966
    Description:

    Studies of the postsecondary attainment of young adults are informative, but it is also useful to examine the educational aspirations of teenagers. Such studies profile the value placed on different types of formal education by youth as well as perceived opportunities for upward occupational mobility. This article explores the educational aspirations of 15-year-old visible minority immigrant students and compares them with those of Canadian-born youth who are not part of a visible minority group. It then identifies the most important factors that explain the large ethnocultural differences in university aspirations.

    Release date: 2005-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001178
    Description:

    The school performance of the children of immigrants in the Canadian school system is analyzed using data from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). School performance is measured in terms of ability at reading, writing, mathematics and overall aptitude. The parents' and teachers' assessments of the children's performances are used, as are the results of formal testing. On average, children of immigrants generally do at least as well as the children of the Canadian-born along each dimension of school performance. The children of immigrant parents whose first language is either English or French have especially high outcomes. The children of other immigrant parents have lower performance in reading, writing and composition but their performance in mathematics is comparable to that of the children of Canadian-born parents. It is also found that with more years in the Canadian education system, the performance of these children in reading, writing and mathematics improves and is equal to or greater than the performance of the children of Canadian-born parents by age thirteen in virtually all areas of performance.

    Release date: 2001-11-14

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Analysis (15)

Analysis (15) (15 of 15 results)

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-04-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016377
    Description:

    It has been well documented that the children of immigrants in Canada outperform their peers with Canadian-born parents in educational attainment, and that the two groups have similar labour market outcomes. However, large variations by ethnicity or source country exist among the children of immigrants. This study examines the extent to which admission class (e.g., skilled workers, business immigrants, live-in caregivers, the family class and refugees) also matters in the socioeconomic outcomes of childhood immigrants who arrived in Canada before the age of 18.

    Release date: 2016-04-25

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114299
    Description:

    This article provides information about the number and characteristics of international students in Canada, and about their rate of transition into permanent residence. The article also examines the extent to which the transition rate varied across characteristics and cohorts, and whether these variations affected the profile of immigrants who are former international students. It does so by using a new administrative database—the Canadian Employer–Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD).

    Release date: 2015-12-10

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114247
    Description:

    This article examines regional differences in the math and reading skills of immigrant children aged 15 based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). It also examines regional differences in high-school and university completion rates among young immigrants who came to Canada before the age of 15 using National Household Survey (NHS) data. Throughout the article, comparisons are made with the children of the Canadian-born (third- or higher-generation Canadians).

    Release date: 2015-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012013
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series examines differences in postsecondary-participation rates between students with and without immigrant backgrounds in Switzerland and Canada using a new dataset. It is based on the working paper Immigrant Status, Early Skill Development, and Postsecondary Participation: A Comparison of Canada and Switzerland.

    Release date: 2012-07-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2012344
    Description:

    This paper examines differences in postsecondary-participation rates between students with and without immigrant backgrounds in Switzerland and Canada. For both countries, a rich set of longitudinal data, including family background, family aspirations regarding postsecondary education, and students' secondary-school performance as measured by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores, are used to explain these differences. Two groups are analyzed: all 15-year-old students; and all low-performing 15-year-old secondary-school students.

    Release date: 2012-07-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011336
    Description:

    This paper examines the education outcomes (including the chances of being a high school drop-out) of a cohort of immigrants who arrived in Canada as children using the 2006 Census. The research documents the degree to which high school graduation for immigrant children may change discretely after a particular age at arrival in Canada.

    Release date: 2011-10-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011331
    Description:

    This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of the labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants in Canada and in the U.S. New research on outcomes in Canada is also presented. In the aggregate, and with no controls, the labour market outcomes of the second generation-the children of immigrants-are equal to, or better than, those of the third-and-higher generations-the children of domestic-born parents. However, the story is somewhat different after one has accounted for the superior educational levels and the residential locations of the second generation. In the U.S, the second generation's advantage in labour market outcomes disappears; in Canada, among second-generation members of a visible-minority group, the advantage turns marginally negative. Ethnic group/source region differences in outcomes loom large in both countries. The important determinants of the earnings gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations include educational attainment, which accounts for about half of the wage gap, residential location, ethnic background, the degree of "ethnic capital," and the educational and earnings mobility between immigrants and their children.

    Release date: 2011-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011332
    Description:

    This paper reviews the recent research on the determinants of the educational attainment among the children of immigrants born in Canada and the United States, also known as the second generation. The focus is on the gap in educational attainment between the second and third-and-higher generations (the children of domestic-born parents), as well as the intergenerational transmission of education between immigrants and their children.

    On average, the children of immigrants have educational levels significantly above those of their counterparts in Canada with Canadian-born parents. In the U.S., educational levels are roughly the same between these two groups. In both countries, conditional on the educational attainment of the parents and location of residence, the children of immigrants attain higher levels of education than the third-and-higher generations. Parental education and residential location are major determinants of the numerically positive gap in educational attainment between the children of immigrants and the children of Canadian-born or American-born parents. However, even after accounting for these and other demographic background variables, much of the positive gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations remains in Canada.

    In Canada, parental education is less important as a determinant of educational attainment for the children in immigrant families than for those with Canadian-born parents. Less educated immigrant parents are more likely to see their children attain higher levels of education than are their Canadian-born counterparts.

    Outcomes vary significantly by ethnic/source region group in both countries. In the U.S., some second-generation ethnic/source region groups, such as those with Mexican, Puerto Rican and other Central/South American backgrounds, have relatively low levels of education (unadjusted data with no controls). However, conditional on background characteristics, these second-generation groups achieve higher levels than their third-and-higher-generation counterparts. In contrast, in Canada, children of the larger and increasingly numerically important immigrant groups (Chinese, South Asians, Africans, etc.) register superior educational attainment levels to those of the third-and-higher generations. This result is partly related to the high levels of parental education and of group-level 'ethnic capital' among these immigrant groups.

    Release date: 2011-02-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2011330
    Description:

    Current knowledge about the favourable socioeconomic attainment (in education and earnings) among children of immigrants is based on the experiences of those individuals whose immigrant parents came to Canada before the 1970s. Since then, successive cohorts of adult immigrants have experienced deteriorating entry earnings. This has raised questions about whether the outcomes of their children have changed over time. This study shows that successive cohorts of childhood immigrants who arrived in Canada at age 12 or younger during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s had increasingly higher educational attainment (as measured by the share with university degrees) than their Canadian-born peers by age 25 to 34. Conditional on education and other background characteristics, male childhood immigrants who arrived in the 1960s earned less than the Canadian-born comparison group, but the two subsequent cohorts had similar earnings as the comparison group. Female childhood immigrants earned as much as the Canadian-born comparison group, except for the 1980s cohort, which earned more.

    Release date: 2011-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 81-004-X200800510799
    Description:

    This article explores the prevalence of, and factors related to, delinquency as reported by a sample of youth in grades 7, 8 and 9 living in Toronto in 2006. Previous work has found that demographic characteristics, school commitment, experiences of victimization and relationships with peers and families are all related to delinquent behaviour among youth. This article investigates these factors in order to determine the extent to which they can help explain the delinquency experiences of immigrant and non-immigrant youth. The analysis is based on data from The International Youth Survey which was conducted by Statistics Canada in 2006 as part of the 2006 International Self-Reported Delinquency Study in which over 30 countries participated.

    Release date: 2009-03-04

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20050038966
    Description:

    Studies of the postsecondary attainment of young adults are informative, but it is also useful to examine the educational aspirations of teenagers. Such studies profile the value placed on different types of formal education by youth as well as perceived opportunities for upward occupational mobility. This article explores the educational aspirations of 15-year-old visible minority immigrant students and compares them with those of Canadian-born youth who are not part of a visible minority group. It then identifies the most important factors that explain the large ethnocultural differences in university aspirations.

    Release date: 2005-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2001178
    Description:

    The school performance of the children of immigrants in the Canadian school system is analyzed using data from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). School performance is measured in terms of ability at reading, writing, mathematics and overall aptitude. The parents' and teachers' assessments of the children's performances are used, as are the results of formal testing. On average, children of immigrants generally do at least as well as the children of the Canadian-born along each dimension of school performance. The children of immigrant parents whose first language is either English or French have especially high outcomes. The children of other immigrant parents have lower performance in reading, writing and composition but their performance in mathematics is comparable to that of the children of Canadian-born parents. It is also found that with more years in the Canadian education system, the performance of these children in reading, writing and mathematics improves and is equal to or greater than the performance of the children of Canadian-born parents by age thirteen in virtually all areas of performance.

    Release date: 2001-11-14

Reference (1)

Reference (1) (1 result)

  • Index and guides: 98-200-X2016015
    Description:

    This Census in Brief article focuses on children with an immigrant background, that is, children aged 0 to 14 who were born abroad or who have at least one foreign-born parent. Children with an immigrant background are examined by country of ancestry (country of birth of the foreign-born children or the foreign-born parents) and by selected household and family characteristics.

    Release date: 2017-10-25

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